99 relations: Abram Ioffe, Adiabatic invariant, Adriaan Fokker, Akademisches Gymnasium (Vienna), Albert Einstein, Amsterdam, Arend Joan Rutgers, Arnold Sommerfeld, Atheism, Austria-Hungary, Bohr model, Bohr–Einstein debates, Chemistry, Classical mechanics, David M. Dennison, Dirk Coster, Dirk Jan Struik, Down syndrome, Duino, Edmund Blair Bolles, Ehrenfest equations, Ehrenfest model, Ehrenfest paradox, Ehrenfest theorem, Ehrenfest–Tolman effect, Enrico Fermi, Expectation value (quantum mechanics), Felix Klein, Göttingen, George Uhlenbeck, Gerard Kuiper, Gerhard Heinrich Dieke, German language, Gregory Breit, Gunnar Nordström, Hans Kramers, Hebrew language, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Heinrich Hertz, Hendrik Casimir, Hendrik Lorentz, Igor Tamm, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jan Burgers, Jan Tinbergen, Jewish history, Jews, Kiev, Kiev Governorate, Kinetic theory of gases, ..., Leiden, Leiden University, Leipzig, Library of Living Philosophers, Loštice, Ludwig Boltzmann, Mark Kac, Martin J. Klein, Mathematics, Max Planck, Mood disorder, Moravia, Munich, Niels Bohr, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nonradiation condition, Oskar Klein, Paul Dirac, Paul Sophus Epstein, Phase transition, Physicist, Prague, Quantum mechanics, Ralph Kronig, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Russian Empire, Saint Petersburg, Samuel Goudsmit, Solvay Conference, Spacetime, Spin quantum number, Spinor, Statistical mechanics, Tatyana Afanasyeva, Tatyana Pavlovna Ehrenfest, Theoretical physics, Theory of relativity, Thermodynamics, Trieste, TU Wien, Ultraviolet catastrophe, University of Göttingen, University of Vienna, Vienna, Viktor Trkal, Walter M. Elsasser, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, Zürich. Expand index (49 more) » « Shrink index
Abram Fedorovich Ioffe (p; – 14 October 1960) was a prominent Russian/Soviet physicist.
A property of a physical system, such as the entropy of a gas, that stays approximately constant when changes occur slowly is called an adiabatic invariant.
Adriaan Daniël Fokker (17 August 1887 – 24 September 1972) was a Dutch physicist and musician.
Founded in 1553, the Akademisches Gymnasium is the oldest secondary school in Vienna.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Arend Joan Rutgers (October 20, 1903 in Almelo, Netherlands – September 2, 1998 in Almen) was a Dutch/Belgian physical chemist.
Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
David Mathias Dennison (April 26, 1900 in Oberlin, Ohio – April 3, 1976) was an American physicist who made contributions to quantum mechanics, spectroscopy, and the physics of molecular structure.
Dirk Coster (October 5, 1889 – February 12, 1950), was a Dutch physicist.
Dirk Jan Struik (September 30, 1894 – October 21, 2000) was a Dutch mathematician, historian of mathematics and Marxian theoretician who spent most of his life in the United States.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
Duino (Devin, archaic Tybein) is a seaside resort on the northern Adriatic coast.
Edmund Blair Bolles (born 1942) is an American humanist and author.
Ehrenfest equations (named after Paul Ehrenfest) are equations which describe changes in specific heat capacity and derivatives of specific volume in second-order phase transitions.
The Ehrenfest model (or dog-flea model) of diffusion was proposed by Tatiana and Paul Ehrenfest to explain the second law of thermodynamics.
The Ehrenfest paradox concerns the rotation of a "rigid" disc in the theory of relativity.
The Ehrenfest theorem, named after Paul Ehrenfest, an Austrian theoretical physicist at Leiden University, relates the time derivative of the expectation values of the position and momentum operators x and p to the expectation value of the force F.
The Ehrenfest–Tolman effect (also known as the Tolman–Ehrenfest effect), created by Richard C. Tolman and Paul Ehrenfest, argues that temperature is not constant in space at thermal equilibrium, but varies with the spacetime curvature.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
In quantum mechanics, the expectation value is the probabilistic expected value of the result (measurement) of an experiment.
Christian Felix Klein (25 April 1849 – 22 June 1925) was a German mathematician and mathematics educator, known for his work with group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the associations between geometry and group theory.
Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.
George Eugene Uhlenbeck (December 6, 1900 – October 31, 1988) was a Dutch-American theoretical physicist.
Gerard Peter Kuiper (born Gerrit Pieter Kuiper; December 7, 1905 – December 23, 1973) was a Dutch–American astronomer, planetary scientist, selenographer, author and professor.
Gerhard Heinrich Dieke (Rheda, Germany, 1901– Aberdeen, Scotland, August 26, 1965) was a German/U.S. physicist.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gregory Breit (Григорий Альфредович Брейт-Шнайдер, Grigory Alfredovich Breit-Shneider; July 14, 1899, Mykolaiv, Kherson Governorate – September 13, 1981, Salem, Oregon) was a Russian-born American physicist and professor at NYU (1929–1934), U. of Wisconsin–Madison (1934–1947), Yale (1947–1968), and Buffalo (1968–1973).
Gunnar Nordström (12 March 1881 – 24 December 1923) was a Finnish theoretical physicist best remembered for his theory of gravitation, which was an early competitor of general relativity.
Hendrik Anthony "Hans" Kramers (2 February 1894 – 24 April 1952) was a Dutch physicist who worked with Niels Bohr to understand how electromagnetic waves interact with matter.
Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes FRSFor HFRSE FCS (21 September 1853 – 21 February 1926) was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
Hendrik Brugt Gerhard Casimir ForMemRS (July 15, 1909 – May 4, 2000) was a Dutch physicist best known for his research on the two-fluid model of superconductors (together with C. J. Gorter) in 1934 and the Casimir effect (together with D. Polder) in 1948.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (a; 8 July 1895 – 12 April 1971) was a Soviet physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Johannes (Jan) Martinus Burgers (January 13, 1895 – June 7, 1981) was a Dutch physicist and the brother of the physicist W. G. Burgers.
Jan Tinbergen (April 12, 1903June 9, 1994) was an important Dutch economist.
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kiev Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire and Ukraine in 1796 until the Soviet administrative reform of the 1920s.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
The Library of Living Philosophers is a series of books conceived of and started by Paul Arthur Schilpp in 1939; Schilpp remained editor until 1981.
Loštice (Loschitz) is a town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).
Mark Kac (Polish: Marek Kac; August 3, 1914 – October 26, 1984) was a Polish American mathematician.
Martin Jesse Klein (June 25, 1924 – March 28, 2009), usually cited as M. J. Klein, was a science historian of 19th and 20th century physics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
Classical nonradiation conditions define the conditions according to classical electromagnetism under which a distribution of accelerating charges will not emit electromagnetic radiation.
Oskar Benjamin Klein (15 September 1894 – 5 February 1977) was a Swedish theoretical physicist.
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.
Paul Sophus Epstein (Warsaw, then part of Imperial Russia, now Poland, March 20, 1883 – Pasadena, February 8, 1966) was a Russian-American mathematical physicist.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Ralph Kronig (March 10, 1904 – November 16, 1995) was a German American physicist.
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (July 11, 1902 – December 4, 1978) was a Dutch-American physicist famous for jointly proposing the concept of electron spin with George Eugene Uhlenbeck in 1925.
The International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, located in Brussels, were founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay in 1912, following the historic invitation-only 1911 Conseil Solvay, considered a turning point in the world of physics.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In atomic physics, the spin quantum number is a quantum number that parameterizes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of a given particle.
In geometry and physics, spinors are elements of a (complex) vector space that can be associated with Euclidean space.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
Tatyana Alexeyevna Afanasyeva (Татья́на Алексе́евна Афана́сьева) (Kiev, 19 November 1876 – Leiden, 14 April 1964) (also known as Tatiana Ehrenfest-Afanaseva or spelled Afanassjewa) was a Russian/Dutch mathematician and physicist who made contributions to the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics.
Tatyana Pavlovna Ehrenfest, later van Aardenne-Ehrenfest, (Vienna, October 28, 1905 – Dordrecht, November 29, 1984) was a Dutch mathematician.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
TU Wien (Technische Universität Wien; formerly: k.k. Polytechnisches Institut, Imperial and Royal Polytechnic Institute from 1815–1872; Technische Hochschule (TH Wien), College of Technology from 1872–1975; Vienna University of Technology from 1975–2014) is one of the major universities in Vienna, the capital of Austria.
The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, was the prediction of late 19th century/early 20th century classical physics that an ideal black body at thermal equilibrium will emit radiation in all frequency ranges, emitting more energy as the frequency increases.
The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.
The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Viktor Trkal (14 August 1888, Ostřetín, Pardubice – 3 September 1956, Prague) was an eminent Czech physicist and mathematician who specialized in theoretical quantum physics.
Walter Maurice Elsasser (March 20, 1904 – October 14, 1991) was a German-born American physicist considered a "father" of the presently accepted dynamo theory as an explanation of the Earth's magnetism.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.