90 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Agency (sociology), Agrarianism, Aloer, Am ha'aretz, Annales school, Anthropology, Bishop, Black Death, Boor, Capitalism, Catholic Church, China, Churl, Collective noun, Copyhold, Cotter (farmer), Daedalus (journal), Daniel Thorner, Enclosure, Eric Wolf, Eugen Weber, Factory, Family economy, Farmer, Fee simple, Fei Xiaotong, Fellah, Fernand Braudel, Feudalism, Florian Znaniecki, Folklore, Frederick W. Mote, Free tenant, French Third Republic, Golem, Gopnik, Hakham, Hasidic Judaism, History of capitalism, History of Japan, Honbyakushō, Industrial Revolution, Italian language, James C. Scott, Japanese people, Karl Marx, Kulak, Land tenure, Leasehold estate, ..., List of peasant revolts, Literacy, Lord of the manor, Low German, Maimonides, Manor, Mao Zedong, Market economy, Marxism, Middle Ages, Ming dynasty, Mishnah, Modernization theory, Neologism, Open-field system, Peasant economics, Peasant movement, Peasants' Party, Peasants' Revolt, Peon, Petty nobility, Pirkei Avot, Popular revolts in late-medieval Europe, Pre-industrial society, Qing dynasty, Quit-rent, R. W. Southern, Remensa, Robert Redfield, Serfdom, Serfdom in Russia, Sharecropping, Slavery, Smallholding, Smerd, Socage, Tenant farmer, The Journal of Peasant Studies, Third World, Western world. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
In social science, agency is the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices.
Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.
Aloers (the word is originally Catalan) were independent peasant proprietors of alous in what is now Catalonia, especially during the years between the Carolingian reconquest of the Hispanic Marches from the Moors in the late 9th century and the consolidation of feudalism in that region in the 11th century.
Am ha'aretz (עם הארץ) or the people of the Land is a term found in the Tanakh.
The Annales school is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Boor may refer to.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A churl (etymologically the same name as Charles / Carl and Old High German karal), in its earliest Old English (Anglo-Saxon) meaning, was simply "a man", and more particularly a "husband", but the word soon came to mean "a non-servile peasant", still spelled ċeorl(e), and denoting the lowest rank of freemen.
In linguistics, a collective noun refers to a collection of things taken as a whole.
Copyhold tenure was a form of customary tenure of land common in England from the Middle Ages.
Cotter, cottier, cottar, Kosatter or Kötter is the German or Scots term for a peasant farmer (formerly in the Scottish highlands for example).
Dædalus is a peer-reviewed academic journal founded in 1955 as a replacement for the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the volume and numbering system of which it continues.
Daniel Thorner (1915–1974) was an American-born economist known for his work on agricultural economics and Indian economic history.
Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms.
Eric Robert Wolf (February 1, 1923 – March 6, 1999) was an anthropologist, best known for his studies of peasants, Latin America, and his advocacy of Marxist perspectives within anthropology.
Eugen Joseph Weber (April 24, 1925 in Bucharest, Romania – May 17, 2007 in Brentwood, Los Angeles, California) was a Romanian-born American historian with a special focus on Western Civilization.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
The term Family Economy can be used to describe the family as an economic unit.
A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials.
In English law, a fee simple or fee simple absolute is an estate in land, a form of freehold ownership.
Fei Xiaotong or Fei Hsiao-Tung (November 2, 1910 – April 24, 2005) was a pioneering Chinese researcher and professor of sociology and anthropology; he was also noted for his studies in the study of China's ethnic groups as well as a social activist.
Fellah (فلاح, fallāḥ; plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa.
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Florian Witold Znaniecki (15 January 1882 – 23 March 1958) was a Polish philosopher and sociologist who taught and wrote in Poland and in the United States.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Frederick Wade "Fritz" Mote (June 2, 1922 – February 10, 2005), was an American Sinologist and a professor of History at Princeton University for nearly 50 years.
Free tenants, also known as free peasants, were peasants in medieval England who occupied a unique place in the medieval hierarchy.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
In Jewish folklore, a golem (גולם) is an animated anthropomorphic being that is magically created entirely from inanimate matter (specifically clay or mud).
Gopnik (p) is a pejorative stereotype describing a particular subculture in Russia, Ukraine, and other former Soviet republics to refer to young men or women of sometimes lower-class suburban areas (usually under 25 years of age) coming from families of poor education and (sometimes) income.
Hakham (or chakam(i), haham(i), hacham(i); חכם, "wise") is a term in Judaism, meaning a wise or skillful man; it often refers to someone who is a great Torah scholar.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
The history of capitalism has diverse and much debated roots, but fully-fledged capitalism is generally thought to have emerged in north-west Europe, especially in the Low Countries (mainly present-day Flanders and Netherlands) and Britain, in the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries.
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.
Honbyakushō (本百姓) were a type of peasant (hyakushō; 百姓) in pre-modern Japan.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
James C. Scott (born December 2, 1936) is a political scientist and anthropologist.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.
In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land.
A leasehold estate is an ownership of a temporary right to hold land or property in which a lessee or a tenant holds rights of real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord.
This is a chronological list of conflicts in which peasants played a significant role.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
In British or Irish history, the lordship of a manor is a lordship emanating from the feudal system of manorialism.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
A manor in English law is an estate in land to which is incident the right to hold a court termed court baron, that is to say a manorial court.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The open-field system was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe during the Middle Ages and lasted into the 20th century in parts of western Europe, Russia, Iran and Turkey.
Peasant economics is an area of economics in which a wide variety of economic approaches ranging from the neoclassical to the marxist are used to examine the political economy of the peasantry.
Peasant movement is a social movement involved with the agricultural policy.
Peasants' Party or Peasant Party may refer to one of the following political parties.
The Peasants' Revolt, also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381.
Peon (English, from the Spanish peón) usually refers to a person subject to peonage: any form of unfree labour or wage labor in which a laborer (peon) has little control over employment conditions.
Petty nobility refers to lower nobility classes.
Pirkei Avot (פרקי אבות) (also spelled as Pirkei Avoth or Pirkei Avos or Pirke Aboth), which translates to English as Chapters of the Fathers, is a compilation of the ethical teachings and maxims passed down to the Rabbis, beginning with Moses and onwards.
Popular revolts in late medieval Europe were uprisings and rebellions by (typically) peasants in the countryside, or the bourgeois in towns, against nobles, abbots and kings during the upheavals of the 14th through early 16th centuries, part of a larger "Crisis of the Late Middle Ages".
Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quit rent, quit-rent, or quitrent, is a tax or land tax imposed on occupants of freehold or leased land in lieu of services to a higher landowning authority, usually a government or its assigns.
Sir Richard William Southern, FBA (8 February 1912 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne – 6 February 2001 in Oxford), who published under the name R. W. Southern, was a noted English medieval historian, based at the University of Oxford.
Remensa (Catalan: Remença) was a Catalan mode of serfdom.
Robert Redfield (December 4, 1897 – October 16, 1958) was an American anthropologist and ethnolinguist, whose ethnographic work in Tepoztlán, Mexico is considered a landmark Latin American ethnography.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The term serf, in the sense of an unfree peasant of the Russian Empire, is the usual translation of krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин).
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
A smallholding is a small farm.
A smerd (смердъ) is a free and later feudal-dependent peasant in the medieval Slavic states of East Europe.
Socage was one of the feudal duties and hence land tenure forms in the feudal system.
A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord.
The Journal of Peasant Studies, subtitled Critical Perspectives on Rural Politics and Development, is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research into the social structures, institutions, actors, and processes of change in the rural areas of the developing world.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.