181 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Abdominal internal oblique muscle, Abdominal wall, Acetabulum, Adhesion (medicine), Amphiarthrosis, Anococcygeal body, Anterior longitudinal ligament, Anterior sacrococcygeal ligament, Anterior sacroiliac ligament, Anterior superior iliac spine, Appendicular skeleton, Arcuate line of ilium, Biceps femoris muscle, Bipedalism, Body cavity, Bulbospongiosus muscle, Caesarean section, Cattle, Childbirth, Chordate, Coccygeal plexus, Coccygeus muscle, Coccyx, Corpus cavernosum of clitoris, Corpus cavernosum penis, Corpus spongiosum penis, Endometriosis, Erector spinae muscles, External anal sphincter, External obturator muscle, Female body shape, Femoral head, Fetus, Fibrocartilage, Fibula, Foramen, Genitourinary system, Gluteal tuberosity, Gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius, Gluteus minimus, Gracilis muscle, Greater sciatic foramen, Greater sciatic notch, Greater trochanter, Hip, Hip bone, Hip dysplasia, ..., Hip fracture, Human body, Human brain, Human variability, Hyaline cartilage, Icosahedron, Iliac crest, Iliac fossa, Iliacus muscle, Iliocostalis, Iliofemoral ligament, Iliolumbar ligament, Iliopectineal arch, Iliopsoas, Iliopubic eminence, Iliotibial tract, Ilium (bone), Inclinometer, Inferior gemellus muscle, Inferior pubic ramus, Inguinal ligament, Internal obturator muscle, Interosseous sacroiliac ligament, Interspinales muscles, Interspinous ligament, Interstitial cystitis, Intertransversarii, Intertrochanteric crest, Intervertebral disc, Irritable bowel syndrome, Ischial spine, Ischial tuberosity, Ischiocavernosus muscle, Ischiofemoral ligament, Ischium, Lacunar ligament, Latissimus dorsi muscle, Lesser sciatic foramen, Lesser sciatic notch, Lesser trochanter, Levator ani, Ligament of head of femur, Ligamenta flava, Linea alba (abdomen), Linea terminalis, Longissimus, Lumbar vertebrae, Lumbosacral joint, Malnutrition, Multifidus muscle, Natural selection, Obstetric ultrasonography, Obstetrical dilemma, Obturator foramen, Obturator membrane, Offspring, Osteoporosis, Palpation, Patella, Pectineal line (pubis), Pelvic brim, Pelvic cavity, Pelvic floor, Pelvic fracture, Pelvic inlet, Pelvic outlet, Pelvic pain, Pelvimetry, Pelvis, Pelvis justo major, Perineum, Periosteum, Piriformis muscle, Posterior longitudinal ligament, Posterior sacrococcygeal ligament, Posterior sacroiliac ligament, Pregnancy, Psoas major muscle, Psoas minor muscle, Pubic arch, Pubic crest, Pubic symphysis, Pubis (bone), Pubofemoral ligament, Pyramidalis muscle, Quadratus femoris muscle, Quadratus lumborum muscle, Quadriceps femoris muscle, Raymond Jack Last, Rectum, Rectus abdominis muscle, Rectus femoris muscle, Rectus sheath, Rickets, Sacral spinal nerve 5, Sacrococcygeal symphysis, Sacroiliac joint, Sacrospinous ligament, Sacrotuberous ligament, Sacrum, Sartorius muscle, Semimembranosus muscle, Semispinalis muscles, Semitendinosus muscle, Sex organ, Spinalis, Sternum, Superior gemellus muscle, Supine position, Supraspinous ligament, Symphysis, Symphysis pubis dysfunction, Tensegrity, Tensor fasciae latae muscle, Thieme Medical Publishers, Thigh, Third World, Thoracolumbar fascia, Tibia, Torso, Transverse abdominal muscle, Transverse perineal muscles, Triradiate cartilage, Trochanteric fossa, Urethral sphincters, Urogenital diaphragm, Vagina, Vertebra, Vertebrate, X-ray, Zona orbicularis. Expand index (131 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The external oblique muscle (of the abdomen) (also external abdominal oblique muscle) is the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen.
The internal oblique muscle is a muscle in the abdominal wall that lies below the external oblique and just above the transverse abdominal muscles.
In anatomy, the abdominal wall represents the boundaries of the abdominal cavity.
The acetabulum (cotyloid cavity) is a concave surface of a pelvis.
Adhesions are fibrous bands that form between tissues and organs, often as a result of injury during surgery.
Amphiarthrosis is a type of continuous, slightly movable joint.
The anococcygeal body (anococcygeal ligament, or anococcygeal raphe) is a fibrous median raphe in the floor of the pelvis, which extends between the coccyx and the margin of the anus.
The anterior longitudinal ligament is a ligament that runs down the anterior surface of the spine.
The anterior sacrococcygeal ligament or ventral sacrococcygeal ligament consists of a few irregular fibers, which descend from the anterior surface of the sacrum to the front of the coccyx, blending with the periosteum.
The anterior sacroiliac ligament consists of numerous thin bands, which connect the anterior surface of the lateral part of the sacrum to the margin of the auricular surface of the ilium and to the preauricular sulcus.
The anterior superior iliac spine (abbreviated: ASIS) is a bony projection of the iliac bone and an important landmark of surface anatomy.
The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the skeleton of vertebrates consisting of the bones that support the appendages.
The arcuate line of the ilium is a smooth rounded border on the internal surface of the ilium.
The biceps femoris is a muscle of the thigh located to the posterior, or back.
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.
A body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism other than those of vessels (such as blood vessels and lymph vessels).
The bulbospongiosus muscle (bulbocavernosus in older texts) is one of the superficial muscles of the perineum.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
The coccygeal plexus is a plexus of nerves near the coccyx bone.
The Coccygeus is a muscle of the pelvic floor, located posterior to levator ani and anterior to the sacrospinous ligament.
The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other mammals such as horses.
The corpus cavernosum of clitoris is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue which contain most of the blood in the clitoris during clitoral erection.
A corpus cavernosum penis (singular) (cavernous body of the penis) is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue, the corpora cavernosa (plural) (cavernous bodies), which contain most of the blood in the penis during an erection.
The corpus spongiosum is the mass of spongy tissue surrounding the male urethra within the penis.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
The erector spinae or spinal erectors is a set of muscles that straighten and rotate the back.
The external anal sphincter (or sphincter ani externus) is a flat plane of muscular fibers, elliptical in shape and intimately adherent to the skin surrounding the margin of the anus.
The external obturator muscle, obturator externus muscle (OE) is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis.
Female body shape or female figure is the cumulative product of a woman's skeletal structure and the quantity and distribution of muscle and fat on the body.
The femoral head (femur head or head of the femur) is the highest part of the thigh bone (femur).
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
White fibrocartilage consists of a mixture of white fibrous tissue and cartilaginous tissue in various proportions.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
In anatomy, a foramen (pl. foramina) is any opening.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
The gluteal tuberosity is the lateral ridge of the linea aspera.
The gluteus maximus (also known collectively with the gluteus medius and minimus, as the gluteal muscles, and sometimes referred to informally as the "glutes") is the main extensor muscle of the hip.
The gluteus medius one of the three gluteal muscles, is a broad, thick, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis.
The gluteus minimus (or glutæus minimus), the smallest of the three gluteal muscles, is situated immediately beneath the gluteus medius.
The gracilis muscle (Latin for "slender") is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the thigh.
The greater sciatic foramen is an opening (foramen) in the posterior human pelvis.
The greater sciatic notch is a notch in the ilium, one of the bones that make up the human pelvis.
The greater trochanter (great trochanter) of the femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a part of the skeletal system.
In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa"Latin coxa was used by Celsus in the sense "hip", but by Pliny the Elder in the sense "hip bone" (Diab, p 77) in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.
The hip bone (os coxa, innominate bone, pelvic bone or coxal bone) is a large flat bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below.
Hip dysplasia is an abnormality of the hip joint where the socket portion does not fully cover the ball portion, resulting in an increased risk for joint dislocation.
A hip fracture is a break that occurs in the upper part of the femur (thigh bone).
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human variability, or human variation, is the range of possible values for any characteristic, physical or mental, of human beings.
Hyaline cartilage is glass-like (hyaline) but translucent cartilage.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
The crest of the ilium (or iliac crest) is the superior border of the wing of ilium and the superolateral margin of the greater pelvis.
The iliac fossa is a large, smooth, concave surface on the internal surface of the ilium (part of the 3 fused bones making the hip bone).
The iliacus is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa.
The iliocostalis is the muscle immediately lateral to the longissimus that is the nearest to the furrow that separates the epaxial muscles from the hypaxial.
The iliofemoral ligament is a ligament of the hip joint which extends from the ilium to the femur in front of the joint.
The iliolumbar ligament is a strong ligament passing from the tip of the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra to the posterior part of the inner lip of the iliac crest (upper margin of ilium).
The Iliopectineal arch is a thickened band of fused iliac fascia and psoas fascia passing from the posterior aspect of the inguinal ligament anteriorly across the front of the femoral nerve to attach to the iliopubic eminence of the hip bone posteriorly.
The iliopsoas refers to the joined psoas and the iliacus muscles.
Medial to the anterior inferior iliac spine is a broad, shallow groove, over which the iliacus and psoas major muscles pass.
The iliotibial tract or iliotibial band (also known as Maissiat's band or IT Band) is a longitudinal fibrous reinforcement of the fascia lata.
The ilium (plural ilia) is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.
An inclinometer or clinometer is an instrument used for measuring angles of slope (or tilt), elevation, or depression of an object with respect to gravity.
The inferior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body.
The inferior pubic ramus is a part of the pelvis and is thin and flat.
The inguinal ligament (Poupart's ligament or groin ligament) is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine.
The internal obturator muscle or obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, and the rim of the pubis.
The interosseous sacroiliac ligament is a ligament of the sacroiliac joint that lies deep to the posterior ligament, and consists of a series of short, strong fibers connecting the tuberosities of the sacrum and ilium.
The interspinales are short muscular fasciculi, placed in pairs between the spinous processes of the contiguous vertebrae, one on either side of the interspinal ligament.
The interspinous ligaments (interspinal ligaments) are thin and membranous ligaments, that connect adjoining spinous processes of the vertebra in the spine.
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a type of chronic pain that affects the bladder.
The intertransversarii are small muscles placed between the transverse processes of the vertebrae.
The intertrochanteric crest is a bony ridge located on the posterior side of the head of the femur, stretching obliquely downward and medially from the summit of the greater trochanter to the lesser trochanter.
An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
From the posterior border of the body of the Ischium there extends backward a thin and pointed triangular eminence, the ischial spine, more or less elongated in different subjects.
The ischial tuberosity (or tuberosity of the ischium, tuber ischiadicum), also known informally as the sit bones, or as a pair the sitting bones is a large swelling posteriorly on the superior ramus of the ischium.
The ischiocavernosus muscle is a muscle just below the surface of the perineum, present in both men and women.
The ischiocapsular ligament (ischiofemoral ligament, ischiocapsular band; ligament of Bertin) consists of a triangular band of strong fibers on the posterior side of the hip joint.
The ischium forms the lower and back part of the hip bone (os coxae).
The lacunar ligament (also named Gimbernat’s ligament) is a ligament in the inguinal region that connects the inguinal ligament to the pectineal ligament near the point where they both insert on the pubic tubercle.
The latissimus dorsi is a large, flat muscle on the back that stretches to the sides, behind the arm, and is partly covered by the trapezius on the back near the midline.
The lesser sciatic foramen is an opening (foramen) between the pelvis and the back of the thigh.
Below the ischial spine is a small notch, the lesser sciatic notch; it is smooth, coated in the recent state with cartilage, the surface of which presents two or three ridges corresponding to the subdivisions of the tendon of the Obturator internus, which winds over it.
The lesser trochanter (small trochanter) of the femur is a conical eminence, which varies in size in different subjects.
The levator ani is a broad, thin muscle, situated on either side of the pelvis.
In human anatomy, the ligament of the head of the femur (round ligament of the femur, ligamentum teres femoris, or the foveal ligament) is a ligament located in the hip.
The ligamenta flava (singular, ligamentum flavum, Latin for yellow ligament) are ligaments of the spine.
The white line (linea alba) is a fibrous structure that runs down the midline of the abdomen in humans and other vertebrates.
The linea terminalis or innominate line consists of the pectineal line (pecten pubis), the arcuate line, the pubic crest, the sacral ala, and the sacral promontory.
The longissimus (Latin for 'the longest one') is the muscle lateral to the semispinalis.
The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis.
The lumbosacral joint is a joint of the body, between the last lumbar vertebra and the first sacral segment of the vertebral column.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
The Multifidus (multifidus spinae: pl. Multifidi) muscle consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Obstetric ultrasonography is the use of medical ultrasonography in pregnancy, in which sound waves are used to create real-time visual images of the developing embryo or fetus in its mother's uterus (womb).
The obstetrical dilemma is a hypothesis to explain why humans often require assistance from other humans during childbirth to avoid complications, whereas most non-human primates give birth alone with relatively little difficulty.
The obturator foramen (Latin foramen obturatum) is the large opening created by the ischium and pubis bones of the pelvis through which nerves and blood vessels pass.
The obturator membrane is a thin fibrous sheet, which almost completely closes the obturator foramen.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Palpation is the process of using one's hands to check the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.
The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a thick, circular-triangular bone which articulates with the femur (thigh bone) and covers and protects the anterior articular surface of the knee joint.
The pectineal line of the pubis (also pecten pubis) is a ridge on the superior ramus of the pubic bone.
The pelvic brim is the edge of the pelvic inlet.
The pelvic cavity is a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis.
The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is composed of muscle fibers of the levator ani, the coccygeus muscle, and associated connective tissue which span the area underneath the pelvis.
A pelvic fracture is a break of the bony structure of the pelvis.
The pelvic inlet or superior aperture of the pelvis is a planar surface which defines the boundary between the pelvic cavity and the abdominal cavity (or, according to some authors, between two parts of the pelvic cavity, called lesser pelvis and greater pelvis).
The lower circumference of the lesser pelvis is very irregular; the space enclosed by it is named the inferior aperture or pelvic outlet.
Pelvic pain is pain in the area of the pelvis.
Pelvimetry is the measurement of the female pelvis.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Pelvis justo major (also called "Giant Pelvis") is a rare condition of the adult female pelvis where the pelvis is 1.5 or more times larger than an average pelvis in every direction and is at least 42 cm (16.5 inches) biiliac width.
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
The periosteum is a membrane that covers the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones.
The piriformis is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limb.
The posterior longitudinal ligament is situated within the vertebral canal, and extends along the posterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae, from the body of the axis, where it is continuous with the tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint, to the sacrum.
The posterior sacrococcygeal ligament or dorsal sacrococcygeal ligamentOMD: Definition is a ligament which stretches from the sacrum to the coccyx and thus dorsally across the sacrococcygeal symphysis shared by these two bones.
The posterior sacroiliac ligament is situated in a deep depression between the sacrum and ilium behind; it is strong and forms the chief bond of union between the bones.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
The psoas major (from Greek: ψόας - psóās: 'of the loins', genitive singular form of ψόα - psóa 'the loins') is a long fusiform muscle located on the side of the lumbar region of the vertebral column and brim of the lesser pelvis.
The psoas minor is a long, slender skeletal muscle which, when present, is located anterior to the psoas major muscle.
The pubic arch, also referred to as the ischiopubic arch, is part of the pelvis.
Medial to the pubic tubercle is the pubic crest, which extends from this process to the medial end of the pubic bone.
The pubic symphysis (or symphysis pubis) a cartilaginous joint that sits between and joins left and right the superior rami of the pubic bones.
In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.
The pubofemoral ligament (pubocapsular ligament) is a ligament on the inferior side of the hip joint.
The pyramidalis is a small triangular muscle, anterior to the rectus abdominis muscle, and contained in the rectus sheath.
The quadratus femoris is a flat, quadrilateral skeletal muscle.
The quadratus lumborum is a muscle of the posterior abdominal wall.
The quadriceps femoris (also called the quadriceps extensor, quadriceps or quads), is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh.
Raymond Jack Last (26 May 1903, Adelaide – 1 January 1993, Malta), comparative anatomist, was Anatomical Curator Royal College of Surgeons 1946-50, Professor of Applied Anatomy 1950-70, Warden of Nuffield College of Surgical Sciences 1949-70, and Visiting Professor UCLA 1970-88.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
The rectus abdominis muscle, also known as the "abdominal muscles" or "abs", is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen, as well as that of some other mammals.
The rectus femoris muscle is one of the four quadriceps muscles of the human body.
The rectus sheath is formed by the aponeuroses of the transverse abdominal and the external and internal oblique muscles.
Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.
The sacral spinal nerve 5 (S5) is a spinal nerve of the sacral segment.
The sacrococcygeal symphysis (sacrococcygeal articulation, articulation of the sacrum and coccyx) is an amphiarthrodial joint, formed between the oval surface at the apex of the sacrum, and the base of the coccyx.
The sacroiliac joint or SI joint (SIJ) is the joint between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, which are connected by strong ligaments.
The sacrospinous ligament (small or anterior sacrosciatic ligament) is a thin, triangular ligament in the human pelvis.
The sacrotuberous ligament (great or posterior sacrosciatic ligament) is situated at the lower and back part of the pelvis.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body.
The semimembranosus is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles.
The semispinalis muscles are a group of three muscles belonging to the transversospinales.
The semitendinosus is a long superficial muscle in the back of the thigh.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
The spinalis is a portion of the erector spinae, a bundle of muscles and tendons, located nearest to the spine.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
The superior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body.
The supine position means lying horizontally with the face and torso facing up, as opposed to the prone position, which is face down.
The supraspinous ligament, also known as the supraspinal ligament, is a ligament found along the vertebral column.
A symphysis is a fibrocartilaginous fusion between two bones.
Symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) is a condition that causes excessive movement of the pubic symphysis, either anterior or lateral, as well as associated pain, possibly because of a misalignment of the pelvis.
Tensegrity, tensional integrity or floating compression is a structural principle based on the use of isolated components in compression inside a net of continuous tension, in such a way that the compressed members (usually bars or struts) do not touch each other and the prestressed tensioned members (usually cables or tendons) delineate the system spatially.
The tensor fasciae latae (or tensor fasciæ latæ) is a muscle of the thigh.
Thieme Medical Publishers is a German medical and science publisher in the Thieme Publishing Group.
In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
The thoracolumbar fascia (lumbodorsal fascia or thoracodorsal fascia) is a deep investing membrane throughout most of the posterior thorax and abdomen although it is a thin fibrous lamina in the thoracic region.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
The transverse abdominal muscle (TVA), also known as the transverse abdominis, transversalis muscle and transversus abdominis muscle, is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral (front and side) abdominal wall which is deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle.
The transverse perineal muscles (transversus perinei) are the superficial and the deep transverse perineal muscles.
The triradiate cartilage (in Latin cartilago ypsiloformis) is the 'Y'-shaped epiphyseal plate between the ilium, ischium and pubis to form the acetabulum of the os coxae.
In mammals including humans, the medial surface of the greater trochanter has at its base a deep depression bounded posteriorly by the intertrochanteric crest, called the trochanteric fossa.
The urethral sphincters are two muscles used to control the exit of urine in the urinary bladder through the urethra.
Older texts have asserted the existence of a urogenital diaphragm, also called the triangular ligament, which was described as a layer of the pelvis that separates the deep perineal sac from the upper pelvis, lying between the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm (perineal membrane) and superior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The zona orbicularis or annular ligament is a ligament on the neck of the femur formed by the circular fibers of the articular capsule of the hip joint.
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