387 relations: Absolute monarchy, Adour, Afrancesado, Age of Enlightenment, Alba de Tormes, Alcántara, Alcázar of Seville, Alexander I of Russia, Amaiur-Maya, Amoz, Ancien Régime, Andújar, André Masséna, Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, Anglo-Portuguese Army, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Asturias, Auguste de Marmont, Austrian Empire, Édouard Mortier, Duke of Trévise, Barcelona, Basque Country (greater region), Battle of Alba de Tormes, Battle of Albuera, Battle of Alcañiz, Battle of Almonacid, Battle of Arzobispo, Battle of Évora (1808), Battle of Bailén, Battle of Barrosa, Battle of Bayonne, Battle of Belchite (1809), Battle of Benavente, Battle of Braga (1809), Battle of Burgos, Battle of Bussaco, Battle of Cacabelos, Battle of Cardedeu, Battle of Carpio, Battle of Castalla, Battle of Cervera (1811), Battle of Ciudad Real, Battle of Corunna, Battle of Dresden, Battle of El Pla, Battle of Espinosa de los Monteros, Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro, Battle of Garris, Battle of Gerona 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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Adour (Aturri, Ador) is a river in southwestern France.
Afrancesado ("Francophiles" or "turned-French", lit. "Frenchified" or "French-alike") were the Spanish and Portuguese partisans of Enlightenment ideas, Liberalism, or the French Revolution, who were supporters of the French occupation of Iberia (Portugal and Spain) and of the First French Empire.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alba de Tormes is a municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Alcántara is a municipality in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain, on the Tagus, near Portugal.
The Alcázar of Seville (Reales Alcázares de Sevilla or "Royal Alcazars of Seville") is a royal palace in Seville, Spain, built for the Christian king Peter of Castile.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Amaiur-Maya (Basque: Amaiur; Spanish: Maya de Baztán; officially: Amaiur-Maya) is a Basque village in the municipality of Baztan in the autonomous region of Navarre in Spain.
Amoz, also known as Amotz, was the father of the prophet Isaiah, mentioned in Isaiah 1:1; 2:1 and 13:1, and in II Kings 19:2, 20; 20:1.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Andújar is a Spanish municipality of 38,539 people (2005) in the province of Jaén, in Andalusia.
André Masséna, 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling (born Andrea Massena; 16 May 1758 – 4 April 1817) was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.
The Anglo-Portuguese Army was the combined British and Portuguese army that participated in the Peninsular War, under the command of Arthur Wellesley.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont (20 July 1774 – 22 March 1852) was a French general and nobleman who rose to the rank of Marshal of France and was awarded the title (duc de Raguse).
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Adolphe Édouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, 1st Duc de Trévise (13 February 1768 – 28 July 1835) was a French general and Marshal of France under Napoleon I. He was one of 18 people killed in 1835 during Giuseppe Marco Fieschi's assassination attempt on King Louis Philippe I.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays basque; Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.
In the Battle of Alba de Tormes on 26 November 1809, an Imperial French corps commanded by François Étienne de Kellermann attacked a Spanish army led by Diego de Cañas y Portocarrero, Duke del Parque.
The Battle of Albuera (16 May 1811) was a battle during the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Alcañiz resulted in the defeat of Major-General Louis Gabriel Suchet's French army on 23 May 1809 by a Spanish force under General Joaquín Blake y Joyes.
The Battle of Almonacid was fought on 11 August 1809 during the Peninsular War between Sébastiani's IV Corps of the French Peninsular Army, which had withdrawn from the Battle of Talavera to defend Madrid, and the Spanish Army of La Mancha under General Venegas.
The Battle of Arzobispo on 8 August 1809 saw two Imperial French corps commanded by Marshal Nicolas Soult launch an assault crossing of the Tagus River against a Spanish force under José María de la Cueva, 14th Duke of Alburquerque.
The Battle of Évora (29 July 1808) saw an Imperial French division under Louis Henri Loison attack a combined Portuguese-Spanish force led by Francisco de Paula Leite de Sousa.
The Battle of Bailén was fought in 1808 by the Spanish Army of Andalusia, led by Generals Francisco Castaños and Theodor von Reding, and the Imperial French Army's II corps d'observation de la Gironde under General Pierre Dupont de l'Étang.
The Battle of Barrosa (Chiclana, 5 March 1811) was part of an unsuccessful manoeuvre to break the siege of Cádiz in Spain during the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Bayonne of 14 April 1814 was a sortie by General Thouvenot's French garrison of Bayonne during the siege of that city conducted by Allied forces under Lieutenant General John Hope.
The Battle of Belchite on 18 June 1809 saw a Franco-Polish corps led by Louis Gabriel Suchet fight a small Spanish army under Joaquín Blake y Joyes.
The Battle of Benavente (29 December 1808) was a cavalry clash in which the British cavalry of Lord Paget defeated the elite Chasseurs à cheval of the French Imperial Guard during the Corunna Campaign of the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Braga or Battle of Póvoa de Lanhoso or Battle of Carvalho d'Este (20 March 1809) saw an Imperial French corps led by Marshal Nicolas Soult attack a Portuguese army commanded by Baron Christian Adolph Friedrich von Eben.
The Battle of Burgos, also known as Battle of Gamonal, was fought on November 10, 1808, during the Peninsular War in the village of Gamonal, near Burgos, Spain.
The Battle of Buçaco or Bussaco, fought on 27 September 1810 during the Peninsular War in the Portuguese mountain range of Serra do Buçaco, resulted in the defeat of French forces by Lord Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese Army.
The Battle of Cacabelos was a minor battle of the Peninsular War that took place on 3 January 1809, at the bridge just outside the village of Cacabelos, Province of León, Spain, as British forces under Sir John Moore's British making its retreat to A Coruña.
The Battle of Cardadeu on 16 December 1808 saw an Imperial French corps led by Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr assault a Spanish force commanded by Juan Miguel de Vives y Feliu and Theodor von Reding.
The Battle of Carpio or Battle of El Carpio took place at El Carpio, near Medina del Campo, Valladolid, on 23 November 1809, between a Spanish force of 19,000 men commanded by the Lieutenant-General Diego de Cañas y Portocarrero, Duke del Parque and a French force of 10,000 regulars and 1,700 cavalry under the General François Étienne de Kellermann during the Peninsular War.
In the Battle of Castalla on 13 April 1813, an Anglo-Spanish-Sicilian force commanded by Lieutenant General Sir John Murray fought Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet's French Army of Valencia and Aragon.
In the Battle of Cervera (4 to 14 October 1811) a Spanish force led by Luis Roberto de Lacy attacked a series of Imperial French garrisons belonging to the VII Corps of Marshal Jacques MacDonald.
The Battle of Ciudad Real was fought on 27 March 1809 and resulted in a French victory under General Sebastiani against the Spanish under General Conde de Cartojal.
The Battle of Corunna (or A Coruña, La Corunna, La Coruña, Elviña or La Corogne) took place on 16 January 1809, when a French corps under Marshal of the Empire Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult attacked a British army under Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore.
The Battle of Dresden (26–27 August 1813) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of El Pla was a battle on 15 January 1811 between an Imperial French column made up of two Italian brigades on one side and a Spanish division under the command of Pedro Sarsfield on the other.
The Battle of Espinosa de los Monteros was a battle of the Napoleonic Wars, fought on 10 and 11 November 1808 at the township of Espinosa de los Monteros in the Cantabrian Mountains.
In the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro (3–5 May 1811), the British-Portuguese Army under Lord Wellington checked an attempt by the French Army of Portugal under Marshal André Masséna to relieve the besieged city of Almeida.
The Battle of Garris (Basque Garrüze) or Battle of Saint-Palais (February 15, 1814) saw an Allied force under the direct command of General Arthur Wellesley, Marquess Wellington attack General of Division Jean Harispe's French division.
The Battle of Gerona on 20 and 21 June 1808 saw an Imperial French division led by Guillaume Philibert Duhesme try to overrun a Spanish garrison commanded by Lieutenant Colonels O'Donovan and O'Daly.
The Battle of Grijó (10–11 May 1809) was a battle that ended in victory for the Anglo-Portuguese Army commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley (the future 1st Duke of Wellington) over the French army commanded by Marshal Nicolas Soult during the second French invasion of Portugal in the Peninsular War.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
In the Battle of Mansilla or Battle of Mansilla de las Mulas on 30 December 1808 an Imperial French corps led by Nicolas Soult caught up with a Spanish corps commanded by Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of la Romana.
The Battle of María (15 June 1809) saw a small Spanish army led by Joaquín Blake y Joyes face an Imperial French corps under Louis Gabriel Suchet.
The Battle of Maya (25 July 1813) saw an Imperial French corps led by Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d'Erlon attack the British 2nd Division under William Stewart at the Maya Pass in the western Pyrenees.
In the Peninsular War, the Battle of Medellín was fought on 28 March 1809 and resulted in a victory of the French under Marshal Victor against the Spanish under General Don Gregorio Garcia de la Cuesta.
The Battle of Medina de Rioseco, also known as the Battle of Moclín, was fought during the Peninsular War on 14 July 1808 when a combined body of Spanish militia and regulars moved to rupture the French line of communications to Madrid.
The Battle of Molins de Rey or Battle of Molins de Rei or Battle of Molins del Rey (21 December 1808) saw an Imperial French corps led by Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr attack a Spanish army led by the Conde de Caldagues and Theodor von Reding.
In the Battle of Montserrat (29 July 1811) a force of Spanish irregulars led by Joaquín Ibáñez, Baron de Eroles defended Montserrat Mountain against two Imperial French divisions under the command of Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet.
The Battle of Nivelle (10 November 1813) took place in front of the River Nivelle near the end of the Peninsular War (1808–1814).
The Battle of Ocaña was fought on 19 November 1809 between French forces under Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, Duke of Dalmatia and King Joseph Bonaparte and the Spanish army under Juan Carlos de Aréizaga, which suffered its greatest single defeat in the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Ordal on 12 and 13 September 1813 saw a First French Empire corps led by Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet make a night assault on a position held by Lieutenant General Lord William Bentinck's smaller Anglo-Allied and Spanish advance guard.
The Battle of Orthez (27 February 1814) saw the Anglo-Portuguese Army under Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington attack an Imperial French army led by Marshal Nicolas Soult in southern France.
The Battle of Puente Sanpayo or Battle of San Payo (Galician: Ponte Sampaio) took place at Ponte Sampaio, Pontevedra, between 7–9 June 1809 during the Peninsular War.
In the Battle of Roliça (17 August 1808) an Anglo-Portuguese army under Sir Arthur Wellesley defeated an outnumbered French army under General Henri Delaborde, near the village of Roliça in Portugal.
The Battle of Roncesvalles (Roncevaux) (25 July 1813) was a battle between French and Anglo-Portuguese forces during the Peninsular War (1808–1814).
The Battle of Saguntum (25 October 1811) saw the Imperial French Army of Aragon under Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet fighting a Spanish army led by Captain General Joaquín Blake.
The Battle of Sahagún (21 December 1808) was a cavalry clash at Sahagún, Spain, in which the British 15th Light Dragoons (Hussars) defeated two regiments of French cavalry during the Corunna Campaign of the Peninsular War.
In Battle of Salamanca (in French and Spanish known as "Battle of Arapiles") an Anglo-Portuguese army under the Duke of Wellington defeated Marshal Auguste Marmont's French forces among the hills around Arapiles, south of Salamanca, Spain on 22July 1812 during the Peninsular War.
The Battle of San Marcial was a battle fought during the Peninsular War on 31 August 1813.
The Battle of Somosierra took place on November 30, 1808, during the Peninsular War, when a French army under Napoleon I forced a passage through the Sierra de Guadarrama shielding Madrid.
The Battle of Sorauren was part of a series of engagements in late July 1813 called the Battle of the Pyrenees in which a combined British and Portuguese force under Sir Arthur Wellesley held off Marshal Soult's French forces attempting to relieve Pamplona.
The Battle of Talavera (27–28 July 1809) was fought just outside the town of Talavera de la Reina, Spain some southwest of Madrid, during the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Tamames was a sharp reversal suffered by part of Marshal Michel Ney's French army under Major-General Jean Marchand in the Peninsular War.
In the Battle of the Bidasoa (or the Battle of Larrun) on 7 October 1813 the Allied army of Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington wrested a foothold on French soil from Nicolas Soult's French army.
The Battles of the Nive (9–13 December 1813) were fought towards the end of the Peninsular War.
The Battle of the Pyrenees was a large-scale offensive launched on 25 July 1813 by Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult from the Pyrénées region on Emperor Napoleon’s order, in the hope of relieving French garrisons under siege at Pamplona and San Sebastián.
The Battle of Toulouse (10 April 1814) was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, four days after Napoleon's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The Battle of Tudela (23 November 1808) saw an Imperial French army led by Marshal Jean Lannes attack a Spanish army under General Castaños.
The Battle of Uclés (13 January 1809) saw an Imperial French corps led by Marshal Claude Perrin Victor attack a Spanish force under Francisco Javier Venegas.
The First Battle of Valencia was an attack on the Spanish city of Valencia on 26 June 1808, early in the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Valls was fought on 25 February 1809, during the Peninsular War, between a French force under General Gouvion Saint-Cyr and a Spanish force under General Reding.
In the Battle of Vimeiro (21 August 1808) the British under General Arthur Wellesley (later known as the Duke of Wellington) defeated the French under Major-General Jean-Andoche Junot near the village of Vimeiro, near Lisbon, Portugal during the Peninsular War.
At the Battle of Vitoria (21 June 1813) a British, Portuguese and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan near Vitoria in Spain, eventually leading to victory in the Peninsular War.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Bernardim Freire de Andrade (Lisbon, 18 February 1759 – Braga, 17 March 1809), was a Portuguese Army general officer who was assigned to command the forces of the Porto Junta in 1808 during the Peninsular War.
The Bidasoa (Bidassoa) is a river in the Basque Country of northern Spain and southern France that runs largely south to north.
Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
In the Blockade of Almeida (14 April – 10 May 1811) a French garrison under Antoine François Brenier de Montmorand was surrounded by approximately 13,000 Anglo-Allied soldiers led by Generals Sir Alexander Campbell, 1st Baronet and Sir William Erskine, 2nd Baronet.
In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions.
The Bolivian war of independence began in 1809 with the establishment of government juntas in Sucre and La Paz, after the Chuquisaca Revolution and La Paz revolution.
Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey (or Jannot de Moncey), 1st Duke of Conegliano, 1st Baron of Conegliano, Peer of France (31 July 1754 – 20 April 1842), Marshal of France, was a prominent soldier in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The British Army during the Napoleonic Wars experienced a time of rapid change.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
"Brown Bess" is a nickname of uncertain origin for the British Army's muzzle-loading smoothbore Land Pattern Musket and its derivatives.
Cambo-les-Bains (Basque Kanbo) is a town in the traditional Basque province of Labourd, now in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France on the south-western bank of the river Nive.
The 1814 campaign in north-east France was Napoleon's final campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Capture of the Rosily Squadron took place on 14 June 1808, in Cadiz, Spain, nearly three years after the Battle of Trafalgar, during the uprising against the French invaders.
The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century.
Carrión de los Condes is a municipality in the province of Palencia, part of the Autonomous Community of Castile and León, Spain.
Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.
Cary Grant (born Archibald Alec Leach; January 18, 1904November 29, 1986) was an English-American actor, known as one of classic Hollywood's definitive leading men.
The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Charles Louis (Carlo Ludovico; 22 December 1799 – 16 April 1883) was King of Etruria (1803–1807; reigned as Louis II), Duke of Lucca (1824–1847; reigned as Charles I), and Duke of Parma (1847–1849; reigned as Charles II).
Charles IV (Spanish: Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
Charles, comte Lefebvre-Desnouettes or Lefèbvre-Desnoëttes (14 September 1773, Paris – 22 May 1822) became a French officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and a general during the Napoleonic Wars.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman, KBE, FBA (12 January 1860 – 23 June 1946) was a British military historian.
The Chasseurs Britanniques was a battalion-sized corps of foreign volunteers, who fought for Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars.
Chaves is a city and a municipality in the north of Portugal.
Château d'Urdain is located on the Bayonne–Ustaritz road close to the west bank of the river Nive.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
Claude Victor-Perrin, First Duc de Belluno (7 December 1764 – 1 March 1841) was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
The two Battles of the Bruch (Catalan: El Bruc) were engagements fought successively between a French columns commanded by Brigadier General François de Schwarz and General of Division Joseph Chabran, and a body of Catalan volunteers and mercenaries led by General Antoni Franch i Estalella and Joan de la Creu Baiget, during the Peninsular War.
The Combat of the Côa (July 24, 1810) was a skirmish that occurred during the Peninsular War period of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Convention of Cintra was an agreement signed on 30 August 1808, during the Peninsular War.
Corps (plural corps; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Cádiz Cortes was the first national assembly to claim sovereignty in Spain.
Dénia (Denia) is a city in the province of Alicante, Spain, on the Costa Blanca halfway between Alicante and Valencia, the judicial seat of the ''comarca'' of Marina Alta.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dios, rey y patria was a motto of Carlism.
The Division of the North (División del Norte) was a 19th-century Spanish infantry division.
Divisional general is a rank of general in command of a division.
The Dos de Mayo of 1808, was a rebellion by the people of Madrid against the occupation of the city by French troops, provoking the repression by the French Imperial forces and triggering the Peninsular War.
The Duchy of Nassau (German: Herzogtum Nassau), or simply Nassau, was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Ecuadorian War of Independence was fought from 1820 to 1822 between several South American armies and Spain over control of the lands of the Royal Audience of Quito, a Spanish colonial administrative jurisdiction from which would eventually emerge the modern Republic of Ecuador.
The Honourable Sir Edward Michael Pakenham GCB (pro. pack-en-um) (19 March 1778 – 8 January 1815), was an Anglo-Irish army officer and politician.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Enlightened absolutism refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment.
The Evacuation of La Romana's division in August 1808 was a military operation in which a division of troops belonging to the Kingdom of Spain and commanded by Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of la Romana defected from the armies of the First French Empire.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Falmouth (Aberfala) is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
Ferrol (In the neighbourhood of Strabo's Cape Nerium, modern day Cape Prior), is a city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia, on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain.
Figueres (Catalan for fig trees) is the capital of the comarca of Alt Empordà, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
In the First Battle of Porto (28 March 1809) the French under Marshal Soult defeated the Portuguese, under General Parreiras, outside the city of Porto during the Peninsular War.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First siege of Badajoz was a siege carried out during the Peninsular War on the Spanish town of Badajoz, by the French general Soult.
The First Siege of Zaragoza (also called Saragossa) was a bloody struggle in the Peninsular War (1807–1814).
Flag semaphore (from the Greek σῆμα, sema, meaning sign and φέρω, phero, meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer) is the telegraphy system conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands.
François Étienne de Kellermann, 2nd Duc de Valmy (4 August 1770 – 2 June 1835) was a French cavalry general noted for his daring and skillful exploits during the Napoleonic Wars.
François Xavier de Schwarz or François-Xavier-Nicolas Schwartz (8 January 1762 – 9 October 1826) was born in Baden but joined the French army in 1776.
The franc (₣) is the name of several currency units.
Francisco Ballesteros (1770 in Zaragoza – June 29, 1832 in Paris) emerged as a career Spanish General during the Peninsular War.
Francisco da Silveira Pinto da Fonseca Teixeira (1 September 1763 – 27 May 1821), was the 1st Count of Amarante, who joined the Portuguese army and fought in the War of Oranges and other campaigns of the Peninsular War, as an offshoot of the Napoleonic Wars.
Francisco Espoz Ilundáin (17 June 1781 – 24 December 1836), being better known as Francisco Espoz y Mina, was a Spanish guerrilla leader and general.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, 1st Duke of Bailén (es: Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, primer Duque de Bailén.; 22 April 1758 – 24 September 1852), was a Spanish general during the Peninsular War.
A Francophile (Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people.
Francis Albert Sinatra (December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century.
Sir Frederick Philipse Robinson, GCB (September 1763 – 1 January 1852) was a soldier, born in the Highlands, near New York, in September 1763, who fought for Britain during the American War of Independence.
The French Imperial Eagle (Aigle de drapeau, lit. "flag eagle") refers to the figure of an eagle on a staff carried into battle as a standard by the Grande Armée of Napoléon I during the Napoleonic Wars.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
The Gave d'Oloron is a river of south-western France near the border with Spain.
Géraud Christophe Michel Duroc, 1st Duc de Frioul (October 25, 1772 – May 23, 1813) was a French general noted for his association with Napoleon.
Sir George Bell KCB (17 March 1794 – 10 July 1877) was an officer in the British Army.
Girona (Gerona; Gérone) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 99,013 as of January 2017.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
The Government of Spain (Gobierno de España) is the central government which leads the executive branch and the General State Administration of Spain.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
Gregorio García de la Cuesta y Fernández de Celis (9 May 1741 – 1811) was a prominent Spanish general of the Peninsular War.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guillaume Philibert, 1st Count Duhesme (7 July 1766 in Mercurey (formerly Bourgneuf), Burgundy – 20 June 1815 near Waterloo) was a French general during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Henri-François Delaborde (21 December 17643 February 1833) was a French general in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Clinton (9 March 1771 – 11 December 1829) was a British Army officer and a general officer during the Napoleonic Wars.
Field Marshal Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey, (17 May 1768 – 29 April 1854), styled Lord Paget between 1784 and 1812 and known as the Earl of Uxbridge between 1812 and 1815, was a British Army officer and politician.
The Hers-Mort (the "Dead Hers", as opposed to the faster-flowing Hers-Vif, or "Live Hers") is a long river in southern France, a right-bank tributary of the Garonne.
General Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple, 1st Baronet (3 December 1750 – 9 April 1830) was a British Army general and Governor of Gibraltar.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.
Proserpine was a 38-gun ''Hébé''-class frigate of the French Navy launched in 1785 that captured on 13 June 1796.
Five ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Champion.
Hondarribia (Hondarribia; Fuenterrabía; Fontarrabie) is a town situated on the west shore of Bidasoa river's mouth, in Gipuzkoa, in Basque Country, Spain.
Horace François Bastien Sébastiani de La Porta (Oraziu Francescu Bastianu Sebastiani De A Porta; 11 November 1771 – 20 July 1851) was a French soldier, diplomat, and politician, who served as Naval Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of State under the July Monarchy.
Hors de combat, literally meaning "outside the fight", is a French term used in diplomacy and international law to refer to persons who are incapable of performing their ability to wage war.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The I Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit that existed during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The II Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit that existed during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Imperial Guard (French: Garde Impériale) was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time.
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
The title of intendant (intendant, Portuguese and intendente) has been used in several countries through history.
The Invasion of Portugal (19–30 November 1807) saw an Imperial French corps under Jean-Andoche Junot invade the Kingdom of Portugal, which was headed by its Prince Regent John of Braganza.
Irun (Irún, Irun) is a town of the Bidasoaldea region in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
The IV Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit during the Napoleonic Wars.
Jean Gabriel Marchand, 1st Count Marchand (10 December 1765 – 12 November 1851) went from being an attorney to a company commander in the army of the First French Republic in 1791.
Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, 1st Prince de Siewierz (10 April 1769 – 31 May 1809), was a Marshal of the Empire.
Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantès (24 September 1771 – 29 July 1813) was a French general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Jean-Baptiste Bessières, 1st Duc d' Istria (6 August 17681 May 1813) was a Marshal of France of the Napoleonic Era.
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, 1st Comte Jourdan (29 April 1762 – 23 November 1833), enlisted as a private in the French royal army and rose to command armies during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 1st Duke of Dalmatia, (29 March 1769 – 26 November 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of the Empire in 1804 and often called Marshal Soult.
Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.
Joaquín Blake y Joyes (Vélez-Málaga, 19 August 1759 – 27 April 1827, Valladolid) was a Spanish military officer who served with distinction in the French Revolutionary and Peninsular wars.
Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore,, (13 November 1761 – 16 January 1809) was a British soldier and General, also known as Moore of Corunna.
John VI (Portuguese: João VI; –), nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825.
José Revolledo de Palafox y Melzi, 1st Duke of Saragossa (es: José Revolledo de Palafox y Melci, duque de Zaragoza; 1776 – 15 February 1847) was a Spanish general who fought in the Peninsular War.
José de Urbina y Urbina, 3rd conde de Cartaojal (April 21, 1761 – March 22, 1833) was a Spanish soldier, general, and intendant during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
General José María de la Cueva, 14th Duke of Alburquerque (1775–1811) was a senior Spanish officer in the Peninsular War.
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808, as Giuseppe I), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
Juan Carlos de Aréizaga (died 1816) was a Spanish general, who fought in the Peninsular War.
Juan Martín Díez, nicknamed El Empecinado (the Undaunted), (5 September 1775 – 20 August 1825) was a Spanish military leader and guerrilla fighter, famous for his contributions to the Peninsular War.
Juan Miguel de Vives y Feliu or Joan Miquel Vives i Feliu (died 24 April 1809) was a Spanish general who commanded a division during the French Revolutionary Wars and briefly led an army in the Napoleonic Wars.
In the Napoleonic era, junta was the name chosen by several local administrations formed in Spain during the Peninsular War as a patriotic alternative to the official administration toppled by the French invaders.
The King's German Legion (KGL) was a British Army unit of mostly expatriate German personnel during the period 1803–16.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Northern Lusitania (Portuguese: Reino da Lusitânia Setentrional) was a kingdom proposed by Napoleon in 1807 for the King of Etruria, Charles II, located in the North of Portugal.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Napoleonic Spain was the part of Spain loyal to Joseph I during the Peninsular War (1808–1813) after the country was partially occupied by French forces.
La Mancha is a natural and historical region located on an arid but fertile elevated plateau (610 m or 2000 ft.) of central Spain, south of Madrid, from the mountains of Toledo to the western spurs of the hills of Cuenca, and bordered to the south by the Sierra Morena and to the north by the Alcarria region.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
Larrun (modern French: La Rhune, IPA:, - 'good pasture', possibly a folk etymology, in French until the 20th century: Larhune) is a mountain (905 m) at the western end of the Pyrenees.
Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, 1st Marquis of Gouvion-Saint-Cyr (13 April 1764 – 17 March 1830) was a French commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars who rose to Marshal of France and Marquis.
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain.
The Levante (Catalan: Llevant; "Levant, East") is a name used to refer to the eastern region of the Iberian Peninsula, on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.
Libertadores ("Liberators") refers to the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The Light Division was a light infantry division of the British Army.
The Lines of Torres Vedras were lines of forts built in secrecy to defend Lisbon during the Peninsular War.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
Lieutenant-General Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (14 September 1774 – 17 June 1839), known as Lord William Bentinck, was a British soldier and statesman.
Louis Emmanuel Rey, born 22 September 1768, Grenoble – died 18 June 1846, Paris, joined the French royal army and won rapid promotion to general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis Henri Loison (16 May 1771 – 30 December 1816) briefly joined the French Army in 1787 and after the French Revolution became a junior officer.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Louis-Gabriel Suchet (2 March 1770 – 3 January 1826), Duke of Albufera (Duc d'Albuféra), was a French Marshal of the Empire and one of the most successful commanders of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Lugo is a city in northwestern Spain in the autonomous community of Galicia.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Manuel Freire (Manuel Augusto Coentro de Pinho Freire) is a Portuguese influential left-wing singer and composer, although he also works as a computer technician.
Manuel Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, Prince of the Peace (May 12, 1767October 4, 1851) was Prime Minister of Spain from 1792 to 1797 and from 1801 to 1808.
Manuel Lapeña Rodríguez y Ruiz de Sotillo (''fl.'' 1808–1811), sometimes referred to as Lapeña, was a Spanish military officer who served during the Peninsular War (Guerra de la Independencia Española – the Spanish War of Independence).
Dona Maria I (English: Mary I; 17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) was Queen of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Medina del Campo is a town located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León autonomous region, 45 km from Valladolid.
Marshal of the Empire Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen, 1st Prince of the Moskva (10 January 1769 – 7 December 1815), popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Dom Miguel Pereira Forjaz Coutinho (1 November 1769 – 6 November 1827), 9th Count of Feira, was a Portuguese general and War Secretary in the Peninsular War.
Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel KCB, OCIII, OSH, KOS, MWO (7 July 1770 – 14 July 1843) was a Spanish General and statesman who served as Prime Minister of Spain in 1835.
Miquelets or Micalets (Migueletes) were irregular Catalan and Valencian mountain light troops.
Mount Mondarrain (Arranomendi in Basque) is in the French Basque Country, south of Espelette and south-west of Itxassou in the province of Labourd, peaking at altitude.
Montserrat is a multi-peaked mountain range near Barcelona, in Spain.
Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region).
The Mutiny of Aranjuez (Motín de Aranjuez) was an uprising led against King Charles IV that took place in the town of Aranjuez, Spain on 17–19 March 1808.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
New Castile is a historic region of Spain.
Deo-Gratias-Nicolas Godinot (1 May 1765 – 27 October 1811) was a Général de Division of the First French Empire who saw action during the Peninsular War.
The Nive (Errobi, Niva) is a French river that flows through the French Basque Country.
Nivelle is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The Nivelle (widest accepted Basque forms: Ugarana or Urdazuri) is a long river in the Northern Basque Country (France) flowing largely south-east to north-west, with only 7 km of its length being considered navigable.
Pablo Morillo y Morillo, Count of Cartagena and Marquess of La Puerta, a.k.a. El Pacificador (The Pacifier) (5 May 1775 in Fuentesecas, Zamora, Spain – 27 July 1837 in Barèges, France) was a Spanish general.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pamplona (Pampelune) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
Don Pedro Caro y Sureda, 3rd Marquis of la Romana (2 October 1761 – 23 January 1811) was a Spanish general of the Peninsular War.
Pedro Sarsfield (died 1837) was a Spanish general of Irish descent who commanded an infantry division during the Peninsular War.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
A picket (archaically, picquet) is a soldier, or small unit of soldiers, placed on a line forward of a position to provide warning of an enemy advance.
Pierre-Antoine, comte Dupont de l'Étang (4 July 1765 – 9 March 1840) was a French general of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as a political figure of the Bourbon Restoration.
Pierre-Joseph Habert (22 December 1773 – 19 May 1825) enlisted in the French army at the beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars and led a division during the Napoleonic Wars.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
Pontevedra is a Spanish city in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Legion (French Légion portugaise and Portuguese Legião Portuguesa) was the 9 000 men strong Portuguese military force integrated in the Napoleon's Imperial Armies, mobilized after the occupation of Portugal by the army of General Junot, in 1807.
A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.
A ravelin is a triangular fortification or detached outwork, located in front of the innerworks of a fortress (the curtain walls and bastions).
A redoubt (historically redout) is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick.
Rio Maior is a municipality in the Santarém District in Portugal.
Major-General Robert Craufurd (5 May 1764 – 23 January 1812) was a British soldier.
General Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill, (11 August 1772 – 10 December 1842) was a British Army officer who served in the Napoleonic Wars as a trusted brigade, division and corps commander under the command of the Duke of Wellington.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sagunto (Sagunt, Sagunto) is a town in Eastern Spain, in the modern fertile comarca of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia.
Saint-Jean-de-Luz (Basque: Donibane Lohizune, Spanish: San Juan de Luz) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France.
The Saison or Uhaitz Handia, is a left tributary of the Gave d'Oloron river in the French Basque Country, (Pyrénées-Atlantiques), Southwest of France.
San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
The port city of Santander (Cántabru: Sanander) is the capital of the autonomous community and historical region of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain.
Santarém is a city and municipality located in the district of Santarém in Portugal.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Battle of Porto, also known as the Battle of the Douro, was a battle in which General Arthur Wellesley's Anglo-Portuguese Army defeated Marshal Nicolas Soult's French troops on 12 May 1809 and took back the city of Porto.
The Second Siege of Badajoz (22 April – 12 May and 18 May – 10 June, 1811) saw an Anglo-Portuguese Army, first led by William Carr Beresford and later commanded by Arthur Wellesley,The Viscount Wellington, besiege a French garrison under Armand Philippon at Badajoz, Spain.
The Second Siege of Gerona was the second unsuccessful French attempt to capture the city of Girona (spelled "Gerona" in Castilian) during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Second Siege of Zaragoza was the French capture of the Spanish city of Zaragoza (also known as Saragossa) during the Peninsular War.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Serra do Buçaco (formerly Bussaco) is a mountain range in Portugal, formerly included in the province of Beira Litoral.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.
The Siege of Astorga of 1812 took place between 29 June and 19 August 1812, at Astorga, León, Castile-León, Spain, during the Peninsular War.
In the Siege of Badajoz (16 March – 6 April 1812), also called the Third Siege of Badajoz, an Anglo-Portuguese Army, under General Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington), besieged Badajoz, Spain and forced the surrender of the French garrison.
At the Siege of Burgos, from 19 September to 21 October 1812, the Anglo-Portuguese Army led by General Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington tried to capture the castle of Burgos from its French garrison under the command of General of Brigade Jean-Louis Dubreton.
The Siege of Cádiz was a siege of the large Spanish naval base of Cádiz by a French army from 5 February 1810 to 24 August 1812Fremont-Barnes 2002, p. 12–13.
In the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, the French Marshal Michel Ney took the fortified city from Field Marshal Don Andrés Perez de Herrasti on 10 July 1810 after a siege that began on 26 April.
In the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, (7–20 January 1812) the Viscount Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese Army besieged the city's French garrison under General of Brigade Jean Léonard Barrié.
The Siege of Figueras, which lasted from 10 April to 19 August 1811, saw the Spanish garrison of Sant Ferran Castle (San Fernando Fortress) led by Brigadier General Juan Antonio Martínez defend against an Imperial French force commanded by Marshal Jacques MacDonald and his deputy Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers.
The Siege of Olivenza was a siege carried out between 19 January and 22 January 1811 during the Peninsular War on the Spanish town of Olivenza, by the French general Soult.
In the Siege of Pamplona (26 June – 31 October 1813) a Spanish force led by Captain General Henry (Enrique José) O'Donnell and later Major General Carlos de España blockaded an Imperial French garrison under the command of General of Brigade Louis Pierre Jean Cassan.
The Siege of Roses or Siege of Rosas from 7 November to 5 December 1808 saw an Imperial French corps led by Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr invest a Catalan and Spanish garrison commanded by Peter O'Daly.
In the Siege of San Sebastián (7 July – 8 September 1813) Allied forces under the command of Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington captured the city of San Sebastián in northern Basque Country from its French garrison under Louis Emmanuel Rey.
In the Siege of Tarifa from 19 December 1811 to 5 January 1812, an Imperial French army under Jean François Leval laid siege to an Anglo-Spanish garrison led by Francisco Copons.
In the Siege of Tarragona (3–11 June 1813), an overwhelming Anglo-Allied force commanded by Lieutenant General John Murray, 8th Baronet failed to capture the Spanish port of Tarragona from a small Franco-Italian garrison led by General of Brigade Antoine Marc Augustin Bertoletti.
The Siege of Tortosa (16 December 1810 – 2 January 1811) pitted an Imperial French army under General Louis Gabriel Suchet against the Spanish defenders of Tortosa led by General Lilli, Conde de Alacha.
The Siege of Valencia from 3 November 1811 to 9 January 1812, saw Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet's French Army of Aragon besiege Captain General Joaquín Blake y Joyes' forces in the city of Valencia, Spain during the Peninsular War.
The Sierra de Guadarrama (Guadarrama Mountains) is a mountain range forming the main eastern section of the Sistema Central, the system of mountain ranges along the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.
General Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet GCB (6 December 1757 – 18 August 1829) was a British military leader.
General Sir Harry Burrard, 1st Baronet (1 June 1755 – 17 October 1813) was a British soldier who fought in the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars and in the Peninsular War.
General Sir John Murray, 8th Baronet, (c. 1768 – 15 October 1827) led a brigade under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War.
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Richard Fletcher, 1st Baronet (1768 – 31 August 1813) was an engineer in the British Army known for his work on the Lines of Torres Vedras.
Sobral de Monte Agraço is a municipality in the District of Lisbon in Portugal.
Sofia Villani Scicolone, known as Sophia Loren, Dame of the Grand Cross, O.M.R.I. (born 20 September 1934) is an Italian film actress and singer.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy (Constitución Política de la Monarquía Española), also known as the Constitution of Cádiz (Constitución de Cádiz) and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.
The Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom (also known as Supreme Central Junta, the Supreme Council, and Junta of Seville; Junta Suprema Central) formally was the Spanish organ that accumulated the executive and legislative powers during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain.
Swedish Pomerania (Svenska Pommern; Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland.
The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
Tarbes (Tarba) is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France.
Tarragona (Phoenician: Tarqon; Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea.
The Disasters of War (Spanish: Los desastres de la guerra) is a series of 8280 prints in the first published edition (1863), for which the last two plates were not available.
The Pride and the Passion is a 1957 Napoleonic era war film in Technicolor and VistaVision from United Artists, produced and directed by Stanley Kramer, that stars Cary Grant, Frank Sinatra and Sophia Loren.
The Second of May 1808, also known as The Charge of the Mamelukes (in Spanish: El 2 de mayo de 1808 en Madrid, or La lucha con los mamelucos or La carga de los mamelucos), is a painting by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya.
The Third of May 1808 (also known as El tres de mayo de 1808 en Madrid or Los fusilamientos de la montaña del Príncipe Pío, or Los fusilamientos del tres de mayoThe Museo del Prado entitles the work) is a painting completed in 1814 by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya, now in the Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Theodor von Reding (5 July 1755 – 23 April 1809) was a Spanish general born and raised in Switzerland, where he commenced his military career.
The Third Siege of Girona refers to the French Grande Armée's seven-month siege of Girona, from 6 May to 12 December 1809, a significant event in the Peninsular War.
General Thomas Graham, 1st Baron Lynedoch (19 October 1748 – 18 December 1843) was a Scottish aristocrat, politician and British Army officer.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Tortosa is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in Catalonia, Spain.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement signed on 27 October 1807 in Fontainebleau, France between King Charles IV of Spain and the French Emperor Napoleon.
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, following an armistice signed on 23 April between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies.
The Treaty of Valençay (11 December 1813), after the château of the same name belonging to former French foreign minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, was drafted by Antoine René Mathurin and José Miguel de Carvajal y Manrique on behalf of the French Empire and the Spanish Crown respectively.
United Artists (UA) is an American film and television entertainment studio.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Ustaritz (Uztaritze) is a town in the traditional Basque province of Labourd, now a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
The vanguard (also called the advance guard) is the leading part of an advancing military formation.
The VI Corps of the Grande Armée was the name of a French military unit that existed during the Napoleonic Wars.
Vic-en-Bigorre (Vic de Bigòrra) is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in south-western France.
Vicente María Cañas y Portocarrero (1755 – 12 March 1824), also known in some biographies as Diego de Cañas y Portocarrero, VII Duke del Parque, was a Lieutenant-General and a Spanish military leader during the Peninsular War.
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.
Vigo is a city and municipality in the province of Pontevedra, in Galicia, northwest Spain on the Atlantic Ocean.
The VII Corps of the Grande Armée was the name of a French military unit that existed during the Napoleonic Wars.
Villefranque (Basque Milafranga) is a town in the traditional Basque province of Labourd, now a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France.
Villena is a city in Spain, in the Valencian Community.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The War of the Fifth Coalition was fought in 1809 by a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleon's French Empire and Bavaria.
The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
General William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, 1st Marquis of Campo Maior, (2 October 1768 – 8 January 1854) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician.
Yecla is a town and municipality in eastern Spain, in the extreme north of the autonomous community of Murcia, located 96 km from the capital of the region, Murcia.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
The 34th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1702.
Armée d'Andalousie, Armée d'Arragon, Armée d'Espagne, Armée de Catalogne, Armée du portugal, Corunna Campaign, French Intervention in Portugal, French Invasions, Invasões Francesas, Invasões francesas, Napoleon's invasion of Spain, Peninsula War, Peninsula war, Peninsula wars, Peninsular Wars, Peninsular war, Spanish Campaign, Spanish Independence War, Spanish Revolutionary War, Spanish Revolutionary War, 1808-1814, Spanish Revolutionary War, 1808–1814, Spanish Revolutionary war, 1808-1814, Spanish Revolutionary war, 1808–1814, Spanish Ulcer, Spanish War of Independence, Spanish revolutionary War, 1808-1814, Spanish revolutionary War, 1808–1814, Spanish revolutionary war, 1808-1814, Spanish revolutionary war, 1808–1814, The Spanish Campaign, War of Spanish Independence.