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Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
The Amethyst Incident, also known as the Yangtze Incident, was a historic event which involved the Royal Navy ship HMS ''Amethyst'' on the Yangtze River for three months during the Chinese Civil War in the summer of 1949.
Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are space weapons designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
An army aviation unit is an aviation-related unit of a nation's army, sometimes described as an air corps.
Group armies or army groups or combined corps are corps-level military formations of the People's Liberation Army Ground Force of China.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.
An auxiliary force is an organized group supplementing but not directly incorporated in a regular military or police entity.
The Baren Township riot was an uprising and armed conflict that took place between Uyghur militants and Chinese government forces in April 1990.
The Battle of the Paracel Islands was a military engagement between the naval forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and South Vietnam in the Paracel Islands on January 19, 1974.
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is a Chinese satellite navigation system.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A blue-water navy is a maritime force capable of operating globally, essentially across the deep waters of open oceans.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
CEFC China Energy is a private Chinese conglomerate.
The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) is the highest internal control institution of the Communist Party of China (CPC), tasked with enforcing internal rules and regulations and combating corruption and malfeasance in the Party.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a political body that comprises the top leaders of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.
Central Theater Command is one of the five war zones of People's Liberation Army of China, and was founded in February 1, 2016.
The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the Central Military Commission, serving as the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army.
Channel NewsAsia (abbreviated CNA) is a 24-hour television news channel and news agency based in Singapore, broadcasting free-to-air domestically and by cable television and satellite television to 28 territories in Asia, the Middle East and Australia.
Chen Xilian (pronounced; 4 January 1915 – 10 June 1999) was a general of People's Liberation Army of China and a member of the Central Committee Politburo.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
The Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group or Chengdu Aerospace Corporation, a subsidiary of AVIC, is a Chinese aerospace conglomerate that designs and manufactures combat aircraft and is also a manufacturer of aircraft parts.
The Chengdu J-10 (simplified Chinese: 歼-10; traditional Chinese: 殲-10; NATO reporting name: Firebird is a lightweight multirole fighter aircraft capable of all-weather operation, configured with a delta wing and canard design, with fly-by-wire flight controls, and produced by the People's Republic of China's Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) for the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
The Chengdu J-20 is a single-seat, twinjet, all-weather, stealth fifth-generation fighter aircraft developed by China's Chengdu Aerospace Corporation for the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China Coast Guard serves as a coordinating agency for maritime search and rescue and law enforcement in the territorial waters of the People's Republic of China.
The China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC) was established in 2002, as a People's Republic of China's state-owned company.
The China Foreign Affairs University (CFAU) in Beijing, People's Republic of China is a competitive university for diplomats.
China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation (CATIC) is a Chinese state-owned defense company with a core business in aviation defense products.
China Precision Machinery Import-Export Corporation (CPMIEC) is a Chinese defense company that acts as one of a number of authorized defense trading companies.
The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), with historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republic of China era, is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Two existing armies have been known in English as the Chinese Army.
The Chinese Century is a neologism suggesting that the 21st century will be geopolitically dominated by the People's Republic of China, similar to how "the American Century" refers to the 20th century and "Pax Britannica" ("British Peace") refers to the 19th.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
China is alleged to have begun a widespread effort to acquire U.S. military technology and classified information and the trade secrets of U.S. companies.
Chinese Information Operations and Information Warfare are based on concepts and terms similar to those used by the United States, but the Chinese have evolved them to be more suitable and relevant to Chinese culture and to communist doctrine.
The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, renamed Chinese People's Red Army in 1936, commonly known as the Chinese Red Army, or simply the Red Army, was the armed forces of the Communist Party of China from 1928 to 1937.
The space program of the People's Republic of China is directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).
Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers.
The CJ-10 is a second-generationGormley et.
Castillo San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, an example of an Early Modern coastal defense Coastal defence (or defense) and coastal fortification are measures taken to provide protection against military attack at or near a coastline (or other shoreline), for example, fortification and coastal artillery.
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law within the People's Republic of China.
Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Cyber spying, or cyber espionage, is the act or practice of obtaining secrets and information without the permission and knowledge of the holder of the information from individuals, competitors, rivals, groups, governments and enemies for personal, economic, political or military advantage using methods on the Internet, networks or individual computers through the use of proxy servers, cracking techniques and malicious software including Trojan horses and spyware.
Cyberspace is interconnected technology.
Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems and networks.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
In politics and diplomacy, dual-use is technology that can be used for both peaceful and military aims.
The Eastern Theater Command Navy, or East Sea Fleet (ESF), is one of the three fleets of the People's Liberation Army Navy, under the Eastern Theater Command.
Eastern Theater Command, one of the five war zones of People's Liberation Army, was founded on February 1, 2016; its predecessor is the Nanjing Military Region.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
The Eighth Route Army, officially known as the '''18th Army Group''' of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy.
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.
Electronic warfare (EW) is any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack of an enemy, or impede enemy assaults via the spectrum.
Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).
Erenhot (ᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Эрээн хот;, commonly shortened to Ereen or Erlian) is a county-level city of the Xilin Gol League, in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, located in the Gobi Desert along the Sino-Mongolian border, across from the Mongolian town of Zamyn-Üüd.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Colonel Fei Junlong (born 1965) is a Chinese military pilot and an astronaut.
The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954–1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis, the Formosa Crisis, the Offshore Islands Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a brief armed conflict that took place between the governments of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC), which by then had fled and was based in Taiwan.
Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) was an open source intelligence component of the Central Intelligence Agency's Directorate of Science and Technology.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
The Four Modernizations were goals first set forth by Deng Xiaoping to strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology in China.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
A government budget is an annual financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation.
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The Gutian Congress or Gutian Conference was the 9th meeting of the 4th Red Army and the first after the Nanchang Uprising and the subsequent southward flight of the rebel troops.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Hami, also known as Kumul, is a prefecture-level city in eastern Xinjiang, China.
Han Weiguo (born January 1956) is a general (shang jiang) of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA).
Han Xianchu (1913–1986) was a general of the Chinese Communist Party.
Han Youwen (October 1912–February 22, 1998) was an ethnic Salar Muslim General in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, born in Hualong Hui Autonomous County, Qinghai.
He Long (March 22, 1896 – June 9, 1969) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
The history of the Chinese People's Liberation Army began in 1927 with the start of the Chinese Civil War and spans to the present, having developed from a peasant guerrilla force into the largest armed force in the world.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.
Human intelligence (frequently abbreviated HUMINT and sometimes pronounced as hyoo-mint) is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).
Imagery intelligence (IMINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography.
The incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China (called 'Chinese invasion of Tibet' by Tibetan Government in Exile; called 'peaceful liberation of Tibet' in China) was the process by which the People's Republic of China (PRC) gained control of Tibet.
The incorporation of Xinjiang into the People's Republic of China in 1949, also known in Chinese historiography as the Peaceful Liberation of Xinjiang, refers to the takeover of Xinjiang by the Chinese Communists and the People's Liberation Army, largely through political means, in the waning days of the Chinese Civil War.
Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information.
In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby usually gains possession of the ball for their team.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the first half of 2014, and its universally-condemned executions, reported human rights abuses and the fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil War, many states began to intervene against it in both the Syrian Civil War and the Iraqi Civil War (2014–present).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.
Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.
The Jinan Military Region was a PLA Military Region located in the east of the People's Republic of China, covering the Shandong and Henan Provinces, which also form military districts.
Jing Haipeng (born October 24, 1966) is a Chinese pilot and astronaut selected as part of the Shenzhou program.
Jixi is a city in southeastern Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.
The Johnson South Reef Skirmish was an altercation that took place on 14 March 1988 between Chinese and Vietnamese forces over who would annex the Johnson South Reef in the Union Banks region of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea.
The Joint Staff Department of the Central Military Commission is the command organ and the headquarters for the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China, superseding the former PLA General Staff Department.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a naval diesel-electric attack submarine that is made in Russia.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Korla, Kurla, or Kuerle (ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠯ;; كورلا, Корла, lit. Krorain) is a mid-sized city in central Xinjiang, and is, administratively, a county-level city and the seat of the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, which is larger than Great Britain and is the largest Chinese prefecture.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Lake Khanka (о́зеро Ха́нка) or Lake Xingkai, is a freshwater lake on the border between Primorsky Krai, Russia and Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (at).
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Li Zuocheng (born October 1953) is a general (shang jiang) of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China, currently serving as the chief of the Joint Staff Department of the Central Military Commission.
The following is a list of Chinese wars and battles, organized by date.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
The List of nuclear weapons tests is a listing of the Chinese nuclear tests conducted from 1964 through 1996.
This is a list of wars involving the People's Republic of China.
Liu Boming (born September 1966) is a Chinese pilot selected as part of the Shenzhou program.
Liu Lei (born February 1957) is a general of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA).
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Ma Dunjing (1906–1972) was a prominent Muslim Ma Clique General in China during the Republic of China era, and was the son of General Ma Hongbin.
Ma Hongbin (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ بٍ, September 14, 1884 – October 21, 1960), was a prominent Chinese Muslim warlord active mainly during the Republican era, and was part of the Ma clique.
The People's Liberation Army Macao Garrison is the defence force stationed in Macao since December 20, 1999.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370/MAS370) was a scheduled international passenger flight operated by Malaysia Airlines that disappeared on 8 March 2014 while flying from Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia, to its destination, Beijing Capital International Airport in China.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Marines, also known as a marine corps or naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land, as well as the execution of their own operations.
The Matsu Islands (Fuzhou dialect: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤ or less frequently,; Fuzhou dialect: 馬祖島 Mā-cū-dō̤) are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as Lienchiang County (連江縣;; Lièng-gŏng-gâing) under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China (ROC).
Miao Hua (born November 1955) is an Admiral of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
The Military Anthem of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, also known as the March of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, is a patriotic song of the People's Republic of China.
A military attaché is a military expert who is attached to a diplomatic mission (an attaché).
The military budget is the portion of the discretionary United States federal budget allocated to the Department of Defense, or more broadly, the portion of the budget that goes to any military-related expenditures.
Military communications or military signals involve all aspects of communications, or conveyance of information, by armed forces.
Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory.
Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements.
Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Military of China may refer to.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
Military Power of the People's Republic of China is a publication of the United States Department of Defense that provides an estimation of the military power and strategy of the People's Republic of China.
Military recruitment refers to the activity of attracting people to, and selecting them for, military training and employment.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.
Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Militia, Article 22: "The armed forces of the People’s Republic of China are composed of the active and reserve forces of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, the Chinese People's Armed Police Force and the Militia.
In nuclear strategy, minimal deterrence (also called minimum deterrence) is an application of deterrence theory in which a state possesses no more nuclear weapons than is necessary to deter an adversary from attacking.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China (MOFA or MFA) under the State Council of the Government of the People's Republic of China is an executive agency responsible for foreign relations between the People's Republic of China and other countries in the world.
The Ministry of National Defence of the People's Republic of China or for short the "National Defence Ministry" is a ministry under the State Council.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
The military modernization program of the Chinese People's Liberation Army which began in the late 1970s had three major focuses.
Moscow State Institute of International Relations (Московский государственный институт международных отношений (Университет) МИД России, often abbreviated as MGIMO University, MGIMO (МГИМО)) is an academic institution run by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, which is considered the most elite university in Russia.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The Nanchang Uprising was the first major Kuomintang–Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Communists to counter the anti-communist purges by the Nationalist Party of China.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Nanjing Military Region was one of the former seven military command regions for the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
The Nathu La and Cho La clashes were a series of military clashes between India and China alongside the border of the Himalayan Kingdom of Sikkim, then an Indian protectorate.
The National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR) is an American nonprofit, research institution based in Seattle, Washington, with a branch office in Washington, D.C. The organization’s mission is to inform and strengthen Asia-Pacific policy.
The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, the power to oversee the operations of the government, and the power to elect the major officers of state. However, the NPC has been described as a "rubber stamp," having "never rejected a government proposal" in its history. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The NPC's sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups. As the NPC and the CPPCC are the main deliberative bodies of China, they are often referred to as the Lianghui (Two Assemblies). According to the NPC, its annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases.
Network-centric warfare, also called network-centric operations or net-centric warfare, is a military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense in the 1990s.
The New Fourth Army was a unit of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China established in 1937.
Nie Haisheng (born 13 October 1964) is a Chinese military pilot and CNSA astronaut.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
No first use (NFU) refers to a pledge or a policy by a nuclear power not to use nuclear weapons as a means of warfare unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons.
The China Ordnance Industries Group Corporation Limited, also known as China North Industries Group Corporation Limited, officially abbreviated as Norinco, is a Chinese defense corporation that manufactures a diverse range of civil and military products, including light and armored vehicles, tanks, aircraft, UAVs, artillery, fuel air bombs, precision strike systems, missiles, air defence and anti-missile systems, air-launched weapons, amphibious assault weapons and equipment, night vision products, long-range suppression weapon systems, machinery, radar, optical-electronic products, engineering equipment, oil field equipment, chemicals, light industrial products, explosives and blast materials, infantry equipment, high-effect destruction systems, anti-riot equipment, civil and military firearms and ammunition.
The North Sea Fleet (NSF) is one of the three fleets of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy, under the Northern Theater Command.
The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa.
The Northern Theater Command is one of the five war zones of the People's Liberation Army.
Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by Northrop's 1994 purchase of Grumman.
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is data collected from publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context.
The Paramilitary forces of China are composed of three main forces, the People's Liberation Army reserve force, the People's Armed Police (PAP), and the Militia, and they act as auxiliaries to the active forces of the People's Liberation Army.
The Chinese People's Armed Police Force (abbreviated: PAP) is a Chinese paramilitary police (Gendarmerie) force primarily responsible for internal security, law enforcement and maritime rights protection in China, as well as providing support to the PLA Ground Force during wartime.
People's Liberation Army is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China.
The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed forces of the People's Republic of China.
The People's Liberation Army Air Force Airborne Corps is a corps directly under the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) headquarters.
During the 1989 student demonstrations in Beijing, the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) played a decisive role in enforcing martial law, suppressing the demonstrations by force and upholding the authority of the Chinese Communist Party.
The People's Liberation Army Daily, or PLA Daily for short, is the official newspaper of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA).
The People's Liberation Army Ground Force (PLAGF) is the land-based service branch of the People's Liberation Army and it is the largest and oldest branch of the entire Chinese armed forces.
The People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison is a garrison of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA), responsible for defense duties in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region since the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the PRC in 1997.
The People's Liberation Army Navy Marine Corps (PLANMC), also known as the People's Liberation Army Marine Corps (PLAMC), is the marine force of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and one of five major branches of the PLA Navy (PLAN).
The People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF) is the naval aviation branch of the People's Liberation Army Navy.
The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), also known as the PLA Navy, is the naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, which is the armed wing of the Communist Party of China and, by default, the national armed forces of the People's Republic of China.
The People's Liberation Army Navy Coastal Defense Force is one of five branches of the People's Liberation Army Navy.
The People's Liberation Army Rocket Force, formerly the Second Artillery Corps (SAC), is the strategic and tactical missile forces of the People's Republic of China.
The People's Liberation Army special operations forces are the special forces of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
The People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force (PLASSF or SSF) is a theater command-level organisation responsible for the space, cyber, and electronic warfare missions of the People's Liberation Army and strategic-level information support for joint operations.
The (Chinese) People's Volunteer Army (PVA or CPVA) was the armed forces deployed by the People's Republic of China during the Korean War.
Piracy off the coast of Somalia has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War, around 2000, when foreign ships exploited the absence of an effective national coast guard by invading the fishing grounds and also dumping illegal waste that would further diminish the local catch.
PLA Unit 61398 (Pinyin: 61398 bùduì) is the Military Unit Cover Designator (MUCD) of a People's Liberation Army advanced persistent threat unit that has been alleged to be a source of Chinese computer hacking attacks.
The Political Work Department of the Central Military Commission is the chief political organ under the Central Military Commission.
The Precision Attack Air-to-Surface Missile (PAASM) is a weapon system currently under development by Raytheon which is designed to defeat armored vehicles, buildings, hardened bunkers and small naval targets.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
Procurement is the process of finding, agreeing terms and acquiring goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
Qitai County (Xiao'erjing: ٿِتَیْ ﺷِﯿًﺎ), historically known as Gucheng (古城), is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China under the administration of the Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture.
Quartermaster is a military or naval term, the meaning of which depends on the country and service.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
The ranks in the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force are similar to those of the Chinese Army, formally known as the People's Liberation Army Ground Force, except that those of the PLA Air Force are prefixed by 空军 (Kong Jun) meaning Air Force.
The People's Liberation Army has not always used ranks or insignia.
The ranks in the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy are similar to those of the People's Liberation Army Ground Force, except that those of the PLA Navy are prefixed by 海军 (Hai Jun) meaning Naval Force or Navy.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
The Republic of China Armed Forces, also known as the Chinese National Armed Forces (CNAF) or Armed Forces of Taiwan are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Navy (including the Republic of China Marine Corps), Air Force and Military Police Force.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research.
The military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is a military-theoretical hypothesis, about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organizational recommendations for change in the militaries of the United States and other countries.
Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman, scholar, intelligence analyst, and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011.
PJSC Rosneft Oil Company (stylized as ROSNEFT) is a Russian integrated energy company headquartered in the Russian capital of Moscow.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (both abbreviated STS) is the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture.
Sebastian Heilmann (born 1965 in Offenbach am Main, Germany) is a German political scientist and sinologist.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) in which the PRC shelled the islands of Kinmen and the nearby Matsu Islands along the east coast of the PRC (in the Taiwan Strait) to "liberate" Taiwan from the Chinese Nationalist Party, also called Kuomintang (KMT), and probe the extent of the United States defense of Taiwan's territory.
The Selective Service System is an independent agency of the United States government that maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
"Serve the People" or "Service for the People" is a political slogan which first appeared in Mao-era China.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
The Shenyang Military Region was one of seven military regions for the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of about or less.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969.
The Sino-Vietnamese conflicts of 1979–91 were a series of border and naval clashes between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam following the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979.
The Sino-Vietnamese War (Chiến tranh biên giới Việt-Trung), also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief border war fought between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in early 1979.
The South Sea Fleet (SSF) is one of the three fleets of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy, operating in the South China Sea under the Southern Theater Command.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Southern Theater Command is one of the five war zones of China's People's Liberation Army, founded on February 1, 2016.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Sovremenny-class destroyer is the principal anti-surface warship of the Russian Navy ("Sovremenny" translates like "Modern").
Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
The Spratly Islands (南沙群岛 (Nánshā Qúndǎo), Kepulauan Spratly, Kapuluan ng Kalayaan, Quần đảo Trường Sa) are a disputed group of islands, islets and cays and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, in the South China Sea.
The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the U.S. Army's institute for strategic and national security research and analysis.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Subversion (Latin subvertere: overthrow) refers to a process by which the values and principles of a system in place are contradicted or reversed, an attempt to transform the established social order and its structures of power, authority, hierarchy, and norm (social).
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Sukhoi Su-27 (Сухой Су-27; NATO reporting name: Flanker) is a twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi.
The Sukhoi Su-30 (Сухой Су-30; NATO reporting name: Flanker-C) is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation.
The Summer Palace, is a vast ensemble of lakes, gardens and palaces in Beijing.
Throughout the history of the People's Republic of China, the position that effectively reigned as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces changed from time to time.
Surface combatants (or surface ships or surface vessels) are a subset of naval warships which are designed for warfare on the surface of the water, with their own weapons.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
The People's Liberation Army uses a system of theater commands, of which there are now five.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The Third Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1995–1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was the effect of a series of missile tests conducted by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the waters surrounding Taiwan including the Taiwan Strait from 21 July 1995, to 23 March 1996.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.
The timeline of the Cox Report controversy is a chronology of information relating to the People's Republic of China's (PRC) nuclear espionage against the United States detailed in the Congressional Cox Report.
Titan Rain was the designation given by the federal government of the United States to a series of coordinated attacks on American computer systems since 2003; they were known to have been ongoing for at least three years.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
The Type 052D destroyer (NATO code name Luyang III class, or Kunming class after the lead ship) is a class of guided missile destroyers being deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force.
Type 07 is a group of military uniforms used by all branches of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Type 094 (Chinese designation: 09-IV; NATO reporting name: Jin class) is a class of ballistic missile submarine developed by China for the People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force.
The Type 22 (NATO designation: Houbei class) missile boat is a ship class in the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) is the newest United Nations peacekeeping mission for the recently independent South Sudan, which became independent on 9 July 2011.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
United States Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM) is a unified combatant command of the United States Armed Forces responsible for the Indo-Asia-Pacific region.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
The office of Vice-Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) functions as the deputy to the CMC Chairman.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Wei Fenghe (born 1954) is a general (shang jiang) in the Chinese People's Liberation Army who served as Commander of the PLA Rocket Force, formerly known as the Second Artillery Corps.
The Western Theater Command is one of the five war zones of People's Liberation Army, was founded on February 1, 2016, its predecessor are the Chengdu Military Region and Lanzhou Military Region.
A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance/place.
A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.
Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xu Qiliang (born March 1950) is an air force general in the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) of the People's Republic of China.
Xu Shiyou (1905–1985) was a general in the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.
Yang Dezhi (January 13, 1911 – October 25, 1994) was a Chinese general and politician.
Yang Liwei (born 21 June 1965) is a major general, military pilot, and China National Space Administration astronaut.
Ye Jianying (28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist general, Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970.
Zhai Zhigang (born October 10, 1966) is a major general in the People's Liberation Army Air Force and a CNSA astronaut.
Zhang Shengmin (born February 1958) is a general of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Rocket Force.
Zhang Youxia (born July 1950) is a general in the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China and current the second-ranked Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Central Military Commission (CMC).
Zhangjiakou also known by several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest.
Zhanjiang is a prefecture-level city at the southwestern end of Guangdong province, People's Republic of China, facing Hainan to the south.
Zheng Lücheng (Chinese 郑律成, Korean 정률성, Kwangju; 13 August 1918 – 7 December 1976) was a Korea-born Chinese composer.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
Zhu De ((also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
The Zhurihe Training Base is a People's Liberation Army base in Inner Mongolia, China.
The 1954 Constitution of the People's Republic of China was adopted and enacted on September 20, 1954, through the first session of the First National People’s Congress in Beijing.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
On January 11, 2007, China conducted an anti-satellite missile test.
The first wave of the recent People's Republic of China military reform was announced in November 2015 at a plenary session of the Central Leading Group for Military Reform of the Central Military Commission.
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China took place on 1 October 2009.
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