168 relations: Agriculture, Aleko, Alpine A110, Anti-clericalism, Anton Yugov, Artillery, Austria, Axis powers, Šar Mountains, Black Sea, Blagoevgrad Province, Bogdan Filov, Bulgaralpine, Bulgaria, Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, Bulgarian Communist Party, Bulgarian Constitutional Assembly election, 1946, Bulgarian Constitutional Assembly election, 1990, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian lev, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgarian parliamentary election, 1931, Bulgarian parliamentary election, 1945, Bulgarian People's Army, Bulgarian republic referendum, 1946, Bulgarian resistance movement during World War II, Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers Party (Broad Socialists), Bulgarian Socialist Party, Bulgarrenault, Cambridge University Press, Car, Catholic Church, Central Intelligence Agency, Centre-left politics, Coca-Cola, Cold War, Collective farming, Comecon, Committee for State Security, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist state, Constitutional republic, Cornell University Press, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Czechoslovakia, Dimitrov Constitution, Dollar, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Elatsite mine, ..., Fatherland Front (Bulgaria), Fiat 124, Fiat 850, Fiat Automobiles, Finland, Forced labour camps in Communist Bulgaria, Georgi Dimitrov, Georgi Markov, Georgi Parvanov, Greece, Gross domestic product, Harvard University Press, Helsinki Accords, History of Bulgaria since 1989, History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953), Home Office, Human rights, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Indiana University Press, Industrialisation, Information technology, Italy, Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, Joseph Stalin, Kimon Georgiev, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Leonid Brezhnev, Liberalism, Light industry, List of heads of state of Bulgaria, List of Prime Ministers of Bulgaria, London, Lyudmila Zhivkova, Marxism–Leninism, Mila Rodino, Mongolia, Moscow, Moskvitch, Moskvitch 408, Multi-party system, Muslim, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikola Petkov, Nomenklatura, Novosibirsk, One-party state, OTR-23 Oka, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, People's Republic, People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Petar Mladenov, Pew Research Center, Pirin-Fiat, Planned economy, Plovdiv, Polish October, Polish People's Republic, Pomaks, Portugal, Prague Spring, Pravetz computers, Prince Kiril of Bulgaria, Protestantism, Purchasing power, Radio, Red Army, Refrigerator, Regent, Renault, Renault 8 and 10, Revival Process, Ricin, Scud, Silicon Valley, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Socialism, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Romania, Socialist Republic of Serbia, Socialist state, Southern Dobruja, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Spain, Stalinism, Stanko Todorov, Supercomputer, T-34, Tank, Television set, The New York Times, Titoism, Todor Zhivkov, Tourism, Tripartite Pact, Turkey, Umbrella, Unitary state, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Security Council Resolution 109, United States, Valko Chervenkov, Vasil Kolarov, Vojvodina, Warsaw Pact, Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, West Germany, Western Thrace, Workers of the world, unite!, Yugoslavia, Zhivkov Constitution, 1936 Soviet Constitution, 1944 Bulgarian coup d'état, 9K52 Luna-M. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Moskvitch-2141, also known under the trade name Aleko (Russian: "АЛЕКО", derivative from the name of the automaker "Автомобильный завод имени Ленинского Комсомола", Avtomobilny zavod imeni Leninskogo Komsomola, meaning "Automotive Factory of Lenin's Komsomol"), is a Russian mid-size car that was first announced in 1985 and sold in the Soviet Union and its successor states between 1986 and 1997 by the now defunct Moskvitch Company, based in Moscow, Russia.
The Alpine A110 was a sports car produced by the French manufacturer Alpine from 1961 to 1977.
Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.
Anton Tanev (Dontcho) Yugov (Антон Танев Югов) (28 August 1904 – 6 July 1991) was a leading member of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) served as Prime Minister of the country from 1956 to 1962.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Šar Mountains (Macedonian and Шар планина, Šar planina) or Sharr Mountains (Malet e Sharrit), form a mountain range in the Balkans that extends from Kosovo and the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia, to northeastern Albania.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blagoevgrad Province (област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria.
Bogdan Dimitrov Filov (Богдан Димитров Филов) (10 April 1883 – 1 February 1945) was a Bulgarian archaeologist, art historian and politician.
Bulgaralpine was a sports automobile produced in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, and the result of a collaboration between Alpine (a French automobile firm) and ETO Bulet (a Bulgarian export trade organization).
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union also translated to English as Bulgarian Agrarian People's Union (Български земеделски народен съюз, Bǎlgarski Zemedelski Naroden Sǎjuz; BZNS) is a political party devoted to representing the causes of the Bulgarian peasantry.
The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP; Bulgarian: Българска Комунистическа Партия, Bâlgarska Komunisticheska Partiya (БКП)) was the Communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1989 when the country ceased to be a communist state.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in Bulgaria on 27 October 1946.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in Bulgaria on 10 June 1990, with a second round for eighteen seats on 17 June.
The lev (лев, plural: лева, левове / leva, levove) is the currency of Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 21 June 1931.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 18 November 1945,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, pp368-369 the country's first to feature universal suffrage for women.
The Bulgarian People's Army (BNA) (Bulgarian: Българска народна армия) was the military of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB).
A referendum on becoming a republic was held in Bulgaria on 8 September 1946.
The Bulgarian Resistance was part of the anti-Axis resistance during World War II.
Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers Party (Broad Socialists) (Българска работническа социалдемократическа партия (широки социалисти), Balgarska rabotnicheska sotsialdemokraticheska partia (shiroki sotsialisti)) was a reformist socialist political party in Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian Socialist Party (Българска социалистическа партия, БСП; Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya, BSP), known as the Centenarian (Столетницата, Stoletnitsata), is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party.
Bulgarrenault (or Bulgar Renault) was an automobile produced in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria, and the result of a collaboration between Metalhim (a Bulgarian defence firm) and Bulet (a Bulgarian export trade organization).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Centre-left politics or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, is an adherence to views leaning to the left-wing, but closer to the centre on the left–right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
The Committee for State Security (Комитет за държавна сигурност, Komitet za dǎržavna sigurnost; abbreviated КДС, CSS, DS), popularly known as State Security (Държавна сигурност, Darzhavna sigurnost; abbrievated ДС) was the name of the Bulgarian secret service during the Communist rule of Bulgaria and the Cold War, until 1989.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Dimitrov Constitution was the second Constitution of Bulgaria, in effect from 1947 to 1971.
Dollar (often represented by the dollar sign $) is the name of more than twenty currencies, including those of Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Liberia, Namibia, New Zealand, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Elatsite mine is a large copper mine located in the west of Bulgaria in Sofia Province.
The Fatherland Front (OF) (Отечествен фронт, ОФ) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II.
The Fiat 124 is a small family car manufactured and marketed by Fiat between 1966 and 1974.
The Fiat 850 (Tipo 100G) is a small rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive car manufactured and marketed by Italian car manufacturer Fiat from 1964 to 1973.
Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
As in other Eastern Bloc states, Communist Bulgaria operated a network of forced labour camps between 1944 and 1989, with particular intensity until 1962.
Georgi Dimitrov Mikhaylov (Гео̀рги Димитро̀в Миха̀йлов), also known as Georgi Mikhaylovich Dimitrov (Гео́ргий Миха́йлович Дими́тров; 18 June 1882 – 2 July 1949), was a Bulgarian communist politician.
Georgi Ivanov Markov (Георги Иванов Марков; 1 March 1929 – 11 September 1978) was a Bulgarian dissident writer.
Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov (Георги Седефчов Първанов) (born 28 June 1957) is a Bulgarian historian and politician who was President of Bulgaria from 2002 to 2012.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.
The History of Bulgaria since 1989 is the period of Bulgarian history that begins after the fall of socialism and the transition to capitalism.
The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Jassy–Kishinev Operation, named after the two major cities, Iași and Chișinău, in the staging area, was a Soviet offensive against Axis forces, which took place in Eastern Romania from 20 to 29 August 1944 during World War II.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kimon Georgiev Stoyanov (Кимон Георгиев Стоянов; August 11, 1882 – September 28, 1969) was a Bulgarian general who was the Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 1934 to 1935 and again from 1944 to 1946.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.
This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Bulgarian state, from the establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria to the present day.
This is a list of the heads of government of the modern Bulgarian state, from the establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria to the present day.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lyudmila Todorova Zhivkova (Людмила Тодорова Живкова; 26 July 1942 – 21 July 1981) was the daughter of Bulgarian Communist leader Todor Zhivkov, who reached the rank of senior Bulgarian Communist Party functionary and Politburo member.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Mila Rodino ("Мила Родино", translated as "Dear Motherland" or "Dear native land") is the current national anthem of Bulgaria.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moskvitch (Москвич) (also written as Moskvich, Moskvič or Moskwitsch) was a Soviet/Russian automobile brand produced by AZLK from 1946 to 1991 and by OAO Moskvitch from 1991 to 2001.
The Moskvitch-408 (also referred to as the Moskvich-408, and M-408) series is a small family car produced by the Soviet car manufacturer MZMA/AZLK between 1964 and 1975.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikola Dimitrov Petkov (Никола Димитров Петков; July 8, 1893 – September 23, 1947) was a Bulgarian politician, one of the leaders of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (usually abbreviated as BZNS).
The nomenklatura (p; nomenclatura) were a category of people within the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries who held various key administrative positions in the bureaucracy, running all spheres of those countries' activity: government, industry, agriculture, education, etc., whose positions were granted only with approval by the communist party of each country or region.
Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The OTR-23 Oka (OTP-23 «Ока»; named after Oka River) was a mobile theatre ballistic missile (оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс) deployed by the Soviet Union near the end of the Cold War to replace the obsolete SS-1C 'Scud B'.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Petar Toshev Mladenov (Петър Тошев Младенов; 22 August 1936 – 31 May 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pirin-Fiat was the trademark of several passenger automobiles produced in Lovech, Bulgaria, and the result of a collaboration between Fiat (an Italian automobile firm) and SPC Balkankar (a Bulgarian state production cooperative).
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Polish October, also known as October 1956, Polish thaw, or Gomułka's thaw, marked a change in the politics of Poland in the second half of 1956.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
Pomaks (Помаци/Pomatsi, Πομάκοι/Pomákoi, Pomaklar) is a term used for Slavic Muslims inhabiting Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and northwestern Turkey, mainly referring to the ca.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Pravetz (Правец in the original Cyrillic, series 8 and series 16) were Bulgarian computers, manufactured mainly in the town of Pravetz.
Prince Kyril of Bulgaria, Prince of Preslav (Kyril Heinrich Franz Ludwig Anton Karl Philipp; 17 November 1895 – 1 February 1945) was the second son of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria and his first wife Marie Louise of Bourbon-Parma.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
The Renault 8 (Renault R8 until 1964) and Renault 10 are two rear-engined, rear-wheel drive small family cars produced by the French manufacturer Renault in the 1960s and early 1970s.
The Revival Process, also known as the Process of Rebirth (Възродителен процес - Vǎzroditelen proces) was the official name of the forceful assimilation of Bulgaria's Muslim Turkish minority (900,000 people or 10% of the population) to assimilate by changing their Turkish and Arabic names to Bulgarian names and forbidding the exercise of their customs, religion and language.
Ricin, a lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a highly potent toxin.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
Simeon II of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Симеон Борисов Сакскобургготски, (transliteration: Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski) or Цар Симеон II (Tsar Simeon II); Wettin; Simeone di Sassonia-Coburgo-Gotha; born 16 June 1937) is the last reigning Bulgarian monarch and later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Socijalistička Republika Makedonija) was one of the six constituent countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and a socialist nation state of the Macedonians.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
The Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Република Србија/Socijalistička Republika Srbija) was one of the six constitutional republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
Southern Dobruja (Bulgarian: Южна Добруджа, Yuzhna Dobrudzha or simply Добруджа, Dobrudzha) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Stanko Todorov Georgiev (December 10, 1920 – December 17, 1996) was a Bulgarian communist politician.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Titoism is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union.
Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Тодор Христов Живков; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998) was the communist leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 4 March 1954 until 10 November 1989.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
An umbrella or parasol is a folding canopy supported by wooden or metal ribs, which is usually mounted on a wooden, metal, or plastic pole.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 109, adopted on December 14, 1955, after being instructed by the General Assembly to consider the applications for membership of Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania, and Spain the Council recommended all of the above-named countries for admission to the United Nations.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vâlko Velyov Chervenkov, Encyclopædia Britannica Online was a Bulgarian communist politician.
Vasil Petrov Kolarov (Васил Петров Коларов) (16 July 1877 – 23 January 1950) was a Bulgarian communist political leader and leading functionary in the Communist International (Comintern).
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; Eastern Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.
The political slogan "Workers of the world, unite!" is one of the most famous rallying cries from The Communist Manifesto (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!", but soon popularised in English as "Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!").
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
The Zhivkov Constitution was the third Constitution of Bulgaria, and the second of the Communist era.
The 1936 Soviet Constitution, adopted on 5 December 1936 and also known as the Stalin Constitution, redesigned the government of the Soviet Union.
The 1944 Bulgarian coup d'état, also known as the 9 September coup d'état (Деветосептемврийски преврат, Devetoseptemvriyski prevrat) and called in pre-1989 Bulgaria the National Uprising of 9 September or the Socialist Revolution of 9 September, was a forcible change in the Kingdom of Bulgaria's administration and government carried out on the eve of 9 September 1944.
The 9K52 Luna-M (Луна; moon) is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system.
Bulgarian People's Republic, Communism in Bulgaria, Communist Bulgaria, End of Communism in Bulgaria (1989), History of Bulgaria during communism, History of Communist Bulgaria, History of communist bulgaria, History of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, People's Rep. of Bulgaria, Peoples Republic of Bulgaria, People’s Republic of Bulgaria, Red Bulgaria, Socialist Bulgaria, The People's Republic of Bulgaria, НРБ.