46 relations: Active site, Amino acid, Ancient Greek, Antibody, Aromaticity, Aspartic protease, Autocatalysis, Beemans gum, Biomolecular structure, Chewing gum, Chief cell, Chymotrypsin, Digestion, Digestive enzyme, Endopeptidase, Food, Gastric acid, Gastric chief cell, Gastricsin, Gastrin, Gene expression, Human digestive system, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrophobe, John Howard Northrop, Laryngopharyngeal reflux, MEROPS, Parietal cell, Pepstatin, Peptide, Peptide bond, PGA5, PH, Phenylalanine, Protease, Protein, Protein crystallization, Rennet, Statine, Stomach, Theodor Schwann, Trypsin, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Vagus nerve, Zymogen.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Aspartic proteases are a catalytic type of protease enzymes that use an activated water molecule bound to one or more aspartate residues for catalysis of their peptide substrates.
A single chemical reaction is said to be autocatalytic if one of the reaction products is also a catalyst for the same or a coupled reaction.
Beemans gum (originally Beeman's Gum, see image at right) is a chewing gum invented by Ohio physician Dr.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed.
In human anatomy, there are three types of chief cells, the gastric chief cell, the parathyroid chief cell, and the type 1 chief cells found in the carotid body.
Chymotrypsin (chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
Endopeptidase or endoproteinase are proteolytic peptidases that break peptide bonds of nonterminal amino acids (i.e. within the molecule), in contrast to exopeptidases, which break peptide bonds from end-pieces of terminal amino acids.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants.
Gastricsin also known as pepsinogen C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PGC gene.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
John Howard Northrop (July 5, 1891 – May 27, 1987) was an American biochemist who, with James Batcheller Sumner and Wendell Meredith Stanley, won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), also known as extraesophageal reflux disease (EERD), silent reflux, and supra-esophageal reflux, is the retrograde flow of gastric contents into the larynx, oropharynx and/or the nasopharynx.
MEROPS is an on-line database for peptidases (also known as proteases, proteinases and proteolytic enzymes) and their inhibitors.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
Pepstatin is a potent inhibitor of aspartyl proteases.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
Pepsin A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PGA5 gene.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein crystallization is the process of formation of a protein crystal.
Rennet is a complex set of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals.
Statine is a gamma amino acid that occurs twice in the sequence of pepstatin, a protease inhibitor that is active against pepsin and other acid proteases.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
A zymogen, also called a proenzyme, is an inactive precursor of an enzyme.