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Peptide

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds. [1]

128 relations: Acetyl hexapeptide-3, AGG01, Agonist, Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Amylin, Amyloid beta, Antibiotic, Antioxidant, Aromatic sulfonation, Beefy meaty peptide, Beta-peptide, Bis-peptide, Blood pressure, Brain natriuretic peptide, C-terminus, Calcitonin, Carboxylic acid, Casein, Cathelicidin, Cecropin, Chemical bond, Chromatography, CJC-1295, CLE peptide, Cofactor (biochemistry), Covalent bond, Cyclic compound, Cyclic peptide, Defensin, Dipeptide, Disulfide, DNA, Electrophoresis, Eledoisin, Enkephalin, Enzyme, Epidermal growth factor, Fatty acid, Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl protecting group, Fungus, GHRP-6, Glucagon, Glutathione, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Greek language, Growth hormone secretagogue receptor, Growth hormone–releasing hormone, Hormone, ..., Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Insulin, Journal of Peptide Science, Kassinin, Lactobacillus, Lactotripeptides, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipid, Lipopeptide, Macromolecular assembly, Macromolecule, Magainin, Mass spectrometry, Messenger RNA, Microcin, Modularity (biology), Molecular biology, Monomer, Multifunctional peptides, N-terminus, Neurokinin A, Neurokinin B, Neuropeptide, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptidergic, Nonribosomal peptide, Nucleic acid, Oligomer, Oligopeptide, Oligosaccharide, Opioidergic, Oxazole, Oxytocin, Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4, Palmitoylation, Pancreatic hormone, Pancreatic polypeptide, Pepducin, Peptide bond, Peptide hormone, Peptide PHI, Peptide spectral library, Peptide synthesis, Peptide YY, Peptidomimetic, Peptoid, Phosphorylation, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, Plant, Platypus venom, Polyketide, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Post-translational modification, Prodynorphin, Proopiomelanocortin, Prostate cancer, Protease, Protein, Protein structure, Protein tag, Proteolysis, Proteose, Replikins, Ribosome, RNA, RNA splicing, Secretagogue, Secretin, Substance P, Tetrapeptide, Thiazole, Translation (biology), Tripeptide, Unicellular organism, Vasoactive intestinal peptide, World Anti-Doping Agency. Expand index (78 more) »

Acetyl hexapeptide-3

Acetyl hexapeptide-3 or acetyl hexapeptide-8 (sources differ) is a synthetic anti-wrinkle cosmetics ingredient.

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AGG01

AGG01 is the tentative name of a new peptide antibiotic discovered in the breast milk of the Tammar wallaby, reportedly one hundred times more powerful than penicillin.

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Agonist

An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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Amide

An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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Amine

In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amylin

Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-residue peptide hormone.

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Amyloid beta

Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36–43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients.

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Antibiotic

An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Antioxidant

Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Aromatic sulfonation

Aromatic sulfonation is an organic reaction in which a hydrogen atom on an arene is replaced by a sulfonic acid functional group in an electrophilic aromatic substitution.

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Beefy meaty peptide

Beefy meaty peptide, also known as delicious peptide and abbreviated as BMP, is an 8-amino acid long peptide that has been identified as giving a beefy flavour to foods in which it is present.

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Beta-peptide

β-peptides consist of β amino acids, which have their amino group bonded to the β carbon rather than the α carbon as in the 20 standard biological amino acids.

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Bis-peptide

Bis-peptides are analogues of peptides, but consist of bis-amino acids, which bear two carboxyl groups and two amino groups.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Brain natriuretic peptide

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by cardiomyocytes in the heart ventricles in response to stretching caused by increased ventricular blood volume.

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C-terminus

The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).

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Calcitonin

Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid gland, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Casein

Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).

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Cathelicidin

Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptides are a family of polypeptides primarily stored in the lysosomes of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

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Cecropin

Cecropins are antimicrobial peptides.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chromatography

Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.

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CJC-1295

CJC-1295, also known as DAC:GRF (short for drug affinity complex:growth hormone-releasing factor), is a synthetic analogue of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) (also known as growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF)) and a growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) which was developed by ConjuChem Biotechnologies.

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CLE peptide

CLE peptides (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED) are a group of peptides found in plants that are involved with cell signaling.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cyclic compound

A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.

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Cyclic peptide

Cyclic peptides are polypeptide chains which contain a circular sequence of bonds.

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Defensin

Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

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Dipeptide

A dipeptide is a sometimes ambiguous designation of two classes of organic compounds: Its molecules contain either two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond or one amino acid with two peptide bonds.

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Disulfide

In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Electrophoresis

Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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Eledoisin

Eledoisin is an undecapeptide of mollusk origin, belonging to the tachykinin family of neuropeptides.

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Enkephalin

An enkephalin (occasionally spelled encephalin) is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epidermal growth factor

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl protecting group

The fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl protecting group (Fmoc) is a base-labile protecting group used in organic synthesis.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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GHRP-6

Growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) (developmental code name SKF-110679), also known as growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide, is one of several synthetic met-enkephalin analogues that include unnatural D-amino acids, were developed for their growth hormone-releasing activity and are called growth hormone secretagogues.

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Glucagon

Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.

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Glutathione

Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Growth hormone secretagogue receptor

Growth hormone secretagogue receptor(GHS-R), also known as ghrelin receptor, is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs), such as ghrelin, the "hunger hormone".

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Growth hormone–releasing hormone

Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as somatocrinin or by several other names in its endogenous forms and as somatorelin (INN) in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone of growth hormone (GH).

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Hormone

A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hydroxylation

Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

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Insulin

Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Journal of Peptide Science

The Journal of Peptide Science is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1995 by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of the European Peptide Society.

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Kassinin

Kassinin is a peptide derived from the Kassina frog.

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Lactobacillus

Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.

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Lactotripeptides

Lactotripeptides are two naturally occurring milk peptides: Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP) and Valine-Proline-Proline (VPP).

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lipopeptide

A lipopeptide is a molecule consisting of a lipid connected to a peptide.

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Macromolecular assembly

The term macromolecular assembly (MA) refers to massive chemical structures such as viruses and non-biologic nanoparticles, cellular organelles and membranes and ribosomes, etc.

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Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Magainin

The magainins are a class of antimicrobial peptides found in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Microcin

Microcins are very small bacteriocins, composed of a relatively few peptides.

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Modularity (biology)

Modularity refers to the ability of a system to organize discrete, individual units that can overall increase the efficiency of network activity and, in a biological sense, facilitates selective forces upon the network.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Monomer

A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".

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Multifunctional peptides

A multifunctional peptide is a peptide which occurs when two genes band together.

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N-terminus

The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.

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Neurokinin A

Neurokinin A, formerly known as Substance K, is a neurologically active peptide translated from the pre-protachykinin gene.

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Neurokinin B

Neurokinin B (NKB) belongs in the family of tachykinin peptides.

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Neuropeptide

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

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Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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Neuropeptidergic

Neuropeptidergic means "related to neuropeptides".

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Nonribosomal peptide

Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and fungi.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Oligomer

An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.

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Oligopeptide

An oligopeptide, often just called peptide (oligo-, "a few"), consists of two to twenty amino acids and can include dipeptides, tripeptides, tetrapeptides, and pentapeptides.

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Oligosaccharide

An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).

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Opioidergic

An opioidergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the opioid neuropeptide systems (i.e., endorphin, enkephalin, dynorphin, nociceptin) in the body or brain.

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Oxazole

Oxazole is the parent compound for a vast class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds.

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Oxytocin

Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.

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Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4

Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 (palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 before 2006) is a matrikine used in anti-wrinkle cosmetics.

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Palmitoylation

Palmitoylation is the covalent attachment of fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, to cysteine and less frequently to serine and threonine residues of proteins, which are typically membrane proteins.

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Pancreatic hormone

A pancreatic hormone is any of various hormones produced by the pancreas.

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Pancreatic polypeptide

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas predominantly in the head of the pancreas.

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Pepducin

Pepducins are cell-penetrating peptides that act as intracellular modulators of signal transference from receptors to G proteins.

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Peptide bond

A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.

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Peptide hormone

Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.

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Peptide PHI

Peptide PHI (or peptide histidine isoleucine) is a peptide which functions as a hormone.

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Peptide spectral library

A peptide spectral library is a curated, annotated and non-redundant collection/database of LC-MS/MS peptide spectra.

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Peptide synthesis

In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, compounds where multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.

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Peptide YY

Peptide YY (PYY) also known as peptide tyrosine tyrosine is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the PYY gene.

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Peptidomimetic

A peptidomimetic is a small protein-like chain designed to mimic a peptide.

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Peptoid

Peptoids, or poly-N-substituted glycines, are a class of peptidomimetics whose side chains are appended to the nitrogen atom of the peptide backbone, rather than to the α-carbons (as they are in amino acids).

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Phosphorylation

In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Platypus venom

The platypus is one of the few living mammals to produce venom.

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Polyketide

Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites produced by certain living organisms in order to impart to them some survival advantage.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Post-translational modification

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.

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Prodynorphin

Prodynorphin, also known as proenkephalin B, is an opioid polypeptide hormone involved with chemical signal transduction and cell communication.

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Proopiomelanocortin

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues.

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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

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Protease

A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein structure

Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.

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Protein tag

Protein tags are peptide sequences genetically grafted onto a recombinant protein.

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Proteolysis

Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.

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Proteose

A proteose is any of various water-soluble compounds that are produced during digestion by the hydrolytic breakdown of proteins short of the amino acid stage.

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Replikins

Replikins are a group of peptides, whose increase in concentration in virus or other organism proteins is associated with rapid replication.

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Ribosome

The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA splicing

In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).

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Secretagogue

A secretagogue is a substance that causes another substance to be secreted.

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Secretin

Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.

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Substance P

Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.

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Tetrapeptide

A tetrapeptide is a peptide, classified as an oligopeptide, since it only consists of four amino acids joined by peptide bonds.

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Thiazole

Thiazole, or 1,3-thiazole, is a heterocyclic compound that contains both sulfur and nitrogen; the term 'thiazole' also refers to a large family of derivatives.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Tripeptide

A tripeptide is a peptide consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine.

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World Anti-Doping Agency

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptide

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