153 relations: Accent (sociolinguistics), Action-specific perception, Aglais io, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, Ambient optic array, Ambiguous image, Andy Clark, Apophenia, Attention, Audio frequency, Auditory cortex, Auditory system, Brain, Camouflage, Cerebral cortex, Change blindness, Cognitive module, Cognitivism (psychology), Color, Color constancy, Computation, Cone cell, Constructive perception, Daoshi, Ear, Ecological psychology, Empirical evidence, Empirical theory of perception, Enactivism, Ernst von Glasersfeld, European cuisine, Expectation (epistemic), Experimental psychology, Extended physiological proprioception, Eye, Eyespot (mimicry), Félix Guattari, Fear processing in the brain, Feature integration theory, Flavor, Food, Gary Johns, General tau theory, Gestalt psychology, Gilles Deleuze, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gustav Fechner, Hearing, Henri Bergson, Hertz, ..., Holism, Human, Hypothesis, Ideasthesia, Illusion, Impedance matching, Information, Infrasound, Interactive activation and competition networks, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Introspection, James J. Gibson, Jerome Bruner, John Locke, Latin, Learning, Mechanoreceptor, Meditation, Memory, Mental image, Mimicry, Mindfulness, Model-dependent realism, Morphology (linguistics), Motivation, Mouthfeel, Multisensory integration, Multistable perception, Naïve realism, Near sets, Nervous system, Neural correlates of consciousness, Neural pathway, Odor, Olfaction, Olfactory epithelium, Organism, Palgrave Macmillan, Paradigm, Pareidolia, Perception, Perceptual learning, Perceptual paradox, Perceptual psychology, Perceptual system, Philosophy of perception, Phonemic restoration effect, Photon, Playing card, Poverty of the stimulus, Predictive coding, Principles of grouping, Proprioception, Psychology, Psychophysics, Qualia, Recept, Receptive field, Recognition-by-components theory, Research, Retina, Reverberation, Richard Gregory, Rod cell, Rubin vase, Saṃjñā, Science, Semantics, Sense, Sensory maps, Sensory nervous system, Sensory neuron, Sensory neuroscience, Simulated reality, Simulation, Social cognition, Social constructionism, Somatosensory system, Sound, Stimulus (physiology), Stimulus (psychology), Stimulus modality, Suit (cards), Sweetness, Syntax, Tai chi, Taste, Taste bud, Temporal lobe, Thermoreceptor, Tongue, Transducer, Transsaccadic memory, Ultrasound, Umami, Vibration, Visual perception, Visual routine, Visual system, Visual thinking, Weber–Fechner law, Wilhelm Wundt, Yoga. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
Action-specific perception, or perception-action, is a psychological theory that people perceive their environment and events within it in terms of their ability to act.
Aglais io, the European peacock, more commonly known simply as the peacock butterfly, is a colourful butterfly, found in Europe and temperate Asia as far east as Japan.
Alice in Wonderland syndrome is a disorienting neuropsychological condition that affects perception.
The ambient optic array is the structured arrangement of light with respect to a point of observation.
Ambiguous images or reversible figures are optical illusion images which exploit graphical similarities and other properties of visual system interpretation between two or more distinct image forms.
Andrew Clark, FBA (born 1957) is a professor of philosophy and Chair in Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.
Apophenia is the tendency to perceive connections and meaning between unrelated things.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
An audio frequency (abbreviation: AF) or audible frequency is characterized as a periodic vibration whose frequency is audible to the average human.
The primary auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates.
The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Change blindness is a perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it.
The Economist, Sep 27th 2007 --> A cognitive module is, in theories of the modularity of mind and the closely related society of mind theory, a specialised tool or sub-unit that can be used by other parts to resolve cognitive tasks.
In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Color constancy is an example of subjective constancy and a feature of the human color perception system which ensures that the perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions.
Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Constructive perception, is the theory of perception in which the perceiver uses sensory information and other sources of information to construct a cognitive understanding of a stimulus.
Daoshi usually refer to Taoist priests, professional Taoists who provide religious and ritual performances Daoshi may also refer to.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Ecological psychology is a term claimed by several schools of psychology with the main one involving the work of James J. Gibson and his associates, and another one the work of Roger G. Barker, Herb Wright and associates at the University of Kansas in Lawrence.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
An empirical theory of perception is a kind of explanation for how percepts arise.
Enactivism argues that cognition arises through a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment.
Ernst von Glasersfeld (March 8, 1917 in Munich – November 12, 2010 in Leverett, Franklin County, Massachusetts) was a philosopher, and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Georgia, research associate at the Scientific Reasoning Research Institute, and adjunct professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries,.
In the case of uncertainty, expectation is what is considered the most likely to happen.
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.
Extended physiological proprioception (EPP) is a concept pioneered by D.C. Simpson (1972) to describe the ability to perceive at the tip of a tool, in this case a prosthetic limb.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
An eyespot (sometimes ocellus) is an eye-like marking.
Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French psychotherapist, philosopher, semiologist, and activist.
Many experiments have been done to find out how the brain interprets stimuli and how animals develop fear responses.
Feature integration theory is a theory of attention developed in 1980 by Anne Treisman and Garry Gelade that suggests that when perceiving a stimulus, features are "registered early, automatically, and in parallel, while objects are identified separately" and at a later stage in processing.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Gary Thomas Johns (born 29 August 1952) is an Australian writer and former politician.
General tau theory deals with the guidance of bodily movements.
Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (from Gestalt "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Gustav Theodor Fechner (19 April 1801 – 18 November 1887), was a German philosopher, physicist and experimental psychologist.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Ideasthesia (alternative spelling ideaesthesia) is defined as a phenomenon in which activations of concepts (inducers) evoke perception-like experiences (concurrents).
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation.
In electronics, impedance matching is the practice of designing the input impedance of an electrical load or the output impedance of its corresponding signal source to maximize the power transfer or minimize signal reflection from the load.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Infrasound, sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second, the "normal" limit of human hearing.
Interactive activation and competition (IAC) networks are artificial neural networks used to model memory and intuitive generalizations.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
James Jerome Gibson (January 27, 1904 – December 11, 1979), was an American psychologist and one of the most important contributors to the field of visual perception.
Jerome Seymour Bruner (October 1, 1915 – June 5, 2016) was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training.
Model-dependent realism is a view of scientific inquiry that focuses on the role of scientific models of phenomena.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Mouthfeel refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste.
Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system.
Multistable perception (or Bistable perception) are a form of perceptual phenomena in which there are unpredictable sequences of spontaneous subjective changes.
In philosophy of mind, naïve realism, also known as direct realism or common sense realism, is the idea that the senses provide us with direct awareness of objects as they really are.
In mathematics, near sets are either spatially close or descriptively close.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
The neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) constitute the minimal set of neuronal events and mechanisms sufficient for a specific conscious percept.
A neural pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon in which the mind responds to a stimulus, usually an image or a sound, by perceiving a familiar pattern where none exists.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Perceptual learning is learning better perception skills such as differentiating two musical tones from one another or categorizations of spatial and temporal patterns relevant to real-world expertise as in reading, seeing relations among chess pieces, knowing whether or not an X-ray image shows a tumor.
A perceptual paradox illustrates the failure of a theoretical prediction.
Perceptual psychology is a subfield of cognitive psychology that is concerned specifically with the pre-conscious innate aspects of the human cognitive system: perception.
A perceptual system is a computational system (biological or artificial) designed to make inferences about properties of a physical environment based on scenes.
The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world.
Phonemic restoration effect is a perceptual phenomenon where under certain conditions, sounds actually missing from a speech signal can be restored by the brain and may appear to be heard.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games.
Poverty of the stimulus (POS) is the argument from linguistics that children are not exposed to rich enough data within their linguistic environments to acquire every feature of their language.
Predictive coding models suggest that the brain is constantly generating and updating hypotheses that predict sensory input at varying levels of abstraction.
The principles of grouping (or Gestalt laws of grouping) are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects, a principle known as Prägnanz.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
"Recept" (pronounced) is a term used in the work of 19th-century psychologist George Romanes to refer to an idea that is formed by the repetition of percepts (i.e., successive percepts of the same object).
The receptive field of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space (e.g., the body surface, or the visual field) in which a stimulus will modify the firing of that neuron.
The recognition-by-components theory, or RBC theory, is a bottom-up process proposed by Irving Biederman in 1987 to explain object recognition.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Reverberation, in psychoacoustics and acoustics, is a persistence of sound after the sound is produced.
Richard Langton Gregory CBE FRS FRSE (24 July 1923 – 17 May 2010) was a British psychologist and Emeritus Professor of Neuropsychology at the University of Bristol.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
Rubin's vase (sometimes known as the Rubin face or the figure–ground vase) is a famous set of ambiguous or bi-stable (i.e., reversing) two-dimensional forms developed around 1915 by the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin.
Saṃjñā (Sanskrit; Pali: sañña) is a Buddhist term that is typically translated as "perception" or "cognition." It can be defined as grasping at the distinguishing features or characteristics.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
Sensory maps are areas of the brain which respond to sensory stimulation, and are spatially organized according to some feature of the sensory stimulation.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
Sensory neuroscience is a subfield of neuroscience which explores the anatomy and physiology of neurons that are part of sensory systems such as vision, hearing, and olfaction.
Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by quantum computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
Social cognition is "a sub-topic of social psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
In psychology, a stimulus is any object or event that elicits a sensory or behavioral response in an organism.
Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus.
Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Taijiquan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
Taste buds contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
A thermoreceptor is a non-specialised sense receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature, primarily within the innocuous range.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
Transsaccadic memory is the neural process that allows humans to perceive their surroundings as a seamless, unified image despite rapid changes in fixation points.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Umami, or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
A visual routine is a means of extracting information from a visual scene.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Visual thinking, also called visual/spatial learning or picture thinking is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing.
The Weber–Fechner law refers to two related laws in the field of psychophysics, known as Weber's law and Fechner's law.
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
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