300 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, Abelmoschus moschatus, Acetone, Acetophenone, Acorus calamus, Actinism, Agarwood, Al-Kindi, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Alembic, Allergen, Allergy, Almond, Aluminium, Amber, Ambergris, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Androgyny, Anise, Apple, Archive, Argon, Aroma compound, Aromatherapy, Aromaticity, Avicenna, Balenciaga, Balsam of Peru, Bark (botany), Basil, Benzoin (resin), Bergamot orange, Birch, Bitter orange, Blossom, Body odor, Brown algae, Bulb, Calabria, Calone, Camphor, Cananga odorata, Caraway, Cardamom, Castoreum, Catherine de' Medici, Cedar wood, Cedrus, Celery, ..., Chanel, Chanel No. 5, Charaka Samhita, Chemical synthesis, Chemist, Chemistry, Cherry, Chirality (chemistry), Christian Dior SE, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Chypre, Cinnamon, Citrus, Civet (perfumery), Clove, Cocoa bean, Coconut oil, Cola, Cologne, Concrete (perfumery), Condensation, Cool Water (perfume), Copal, Copyright Act of 1976, Coriander, Corporation, Cosmetics, Coumarin, Court of Cassation (France), Croton eluteria, Cuneiform script, Cyprus, Daucus carota, Davidoff, Denaturation (biochemistry), Detergent, Dimethyl ether, Dipteryx odorata, Dirt, Distillation, Do it yourself, Eau de Cologne, Eau de toilette, Eilhard Wiedemann, Elizabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Enfleurage, Essential oil, Estée Lauder Companies, Ester, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Evernia prunastri, Far East, Fern, FiFi Awards, Fir, Firmenich, Fixative (perfumery), Florence, Florence flask, Flower, Fougère, Fractionating column, Fragrance lamp, Fragrance Museum, Fragrance oil, François Coty, Frankincense, Fruit, Fucus vesiculosus, Furanocoumarin, Galaxolide, Gardenia, Gas chromatography, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Generally recognized as safe, Ginger, Givaudan, Grapefruit, Grasse, Great Lakes, Greek language, Guerlain, Guy Laroche, Hay, Headspace technology, Heat, Herb, Herbal distillate, Herbivore, Hexane, Honey, Honey bee, Honeycomb, Houbigant Parfum, House of Fabergé, Hungarians, Hungary Water, Hyacinth (plant), Hydrocarbon, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hyraceum, Incense, Indus Valley Civilisation, Insect repellent, International Flavors & Fragrances, International Fragrance Association, International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients, Iran, Iris (plant), Ittar, Jasmine, Jean Patou, Jicky, Johann Maria Farina, Johann Maria Farina gegenüber dem Jülichs-Platz, Jojoba oil, Joy (perfume), Juniper, Kenzo, Labdanum, Lancôme, Lavandula, Leaf, Lemon, Lichen, Light, Lime (fruit), Linalool, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of essential oils, Litsea, Maker culture, Marcellin Berthelot, Mesopotamia, Michael Edwards (fragrance expert), Mitsouko (perfume), Mongoose, Monk, Museum, Musk, Musk deer, Musk xylene, Myrrh, Myrtus communis, Narcissus (plant), Neroli, Nutmeg, Odor, Oil, Olfaction, Opium (perfume), Opopanax, Orange (fruit), Orange blossom, Orange oil, Organic synthesis, Osmanthus, Osmothèque, Oxygen, Patch test, Patchouli, Pelargonium graveolens, Perfume, Perfume intolerance, Petitgrain, Pheromone, Pierre Balmain, Pine, Pinophyta, Plant, Plant stem, Plumeria, Polianthes tuberosa, Pollinator, Pomander, Potpourri, Profit margin, Pyrgos, Limassol, Pyrolysis, Rectified spirit, Redox, Renaissance, Resin, Rhizome, Robert Piguet, Rock hyrax, Root, Rose, Rose oil, Rose water, Rosemary, Rosewood, Sachet, Safrole, Salicylic acid, Salvia officinalis, Sandalwood, Santa Maria Novella, Sassafras, Scented water, Secondary metabolite, Seed, Serge Lutens, Sex in advertising, Shalimar (perfume), Shampoo, Sicily, Solvent, Sophia Grojsman, Sperm whale, Spice, Strawberry, Sulfur, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Supercritical fluid extraction, Supreme Court of the Netherlands, Sushruta Samhita, Symrise, Synesius, Synthetic musk, Takasago International Corporation, Tapputi, Tar, Terpene, Tetramethyl acetyloctahydronaphthalenes, Thermal insulation, Thierry Mugler, Tincture, Tobacco, Tomato, Trade, Trade secret, Trademark, Twig, Usnea, Vachellia farnesiana, Vanilla, Vanillin, Victorian era, Viola (plant), Wake, Wax, Wood, World Animal Protection, Yves Saint Laurent (brand), 4711. Expand index (250 more) » « Shrink index
A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.
Abelmoschus moschatus (Abelmosk, ambrette seeds, annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, muskdana, musk mallow, musk okra, musk seeds, ornamental okra, rose mallow seeds, tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okra) is an aromatic and medicinal plant in the family Malvaceae native to Asia and Australia.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetophenone is the organic compound with the formula C6H5C(O)CH3 (also represented by the pseudoelement symbols PhAc or BzMe).
Acorus calamus (also called sweet flag or calamus, among many common names) is a species of flowering plant, a tall wetland monocot of the Acoraceae family, in the genus Acorus.
Actinism is the property of solar radiation that leads to the production of photochemical and photobiological effects.
Agarwood, aloeswood or gharuwood is a fragrant dark resinous wood used in incense, perfume, and small carvings.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.
An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube, used for distilling chemicals.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
Ambergris (or, ambra grisea, ambre gris), ambergrease, or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Androgyny is the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics.
Anise (Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
Aromatherapy uses plant materials and aromatic plant oils, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds for improving psychological or physical well-being.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Balenciaga is a luxury fashion house founded in Spain by Cristóbal Balenciaga, a designer born in the Basque Country, Spain, now owned by the French multinational company Kering.
Balsam of Peru, also known and marketed by many other names, is a balsam derived from a tree known as Myroxylon balsamum var.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).
Benzoin or benjamin is a balsamic resin obtained from the bark of several species of trees in the genus Styrax.
Citrus bergamia, the bergamot orange (pronounced), is a fragrant citrus fruit the size of an orange, with a yellow or green color similar to a lime, depending on ripeness.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange refers to a citrus tree (Citrus × aurantium) and its fruit.
In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit trees (genus Prunus) and of some other plants with a similar appearance that flower profusely for a period of time in spring.
Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).
The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Calone or methylbenzodioxepinone, trade-named Calone 1951, also known in the industry as "watermelon ketone", was discovered by Pfizer in 1966.
Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma.
Cananga odorata, known as the cananga tree, is a tropical tree that is native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
Caraway, also known as meridian fennel, and Persian cumin, (Carum carvi) is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,USDA Plants native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
Castoreum is the exudate from the castor sacs of the mature North American beaver (Castor canadensis) and the European beaver (Castor fiber).
Catherine de Medici (Italian: Caterina de Medici,; French: Catherine de Médicis,; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II.
Cedar wood comes from several different trees known as cedars that grow in different parts of the world, and may have different uses.
Cedrus (common English name cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae (subfamily Abietoideae).
Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity.
Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.
The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Charaka (Sanskrit चरक संहिता IAST: caraka-saṃhitā) is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Christian Dior SE, commonly known as Dior, is a European luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who also heads LVMH – the world's largest luxury group.
Chrysopogon zizanioides, commonly known as vetiver (derived from the Tamil: வெட்டிவேர் veṭṭivēr) is a perennial bunchgrass of the Poaceae family, native to India.
Chypre is the name of a family (or concept) of perfumes that are characterised by an accord composed of citrus top-notes, a middle centered on cistus labdanum, and a mossy-animalic basenote derived from oakmoss.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Civet (Zibeth; Zibet; Zibetum), also known as civet musk, is the glandular secretion produced by both sexes of the civet (Viverridae).
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).
Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Concrete, in perfumery, is a semi-solid mass obtained by solvent extraction of fresh plant material.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Cool Water is a perfume introduced in 1988 by Davidoff, now a part of Coty Prestige.
Copal is a name given to tree resin, particularly the aromatic resins from the copal tree Protium copal (Burseraceae) used by the cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica as ceremonially burned incense and for other purposes.
The Copyright Act of 1976 is a United States copyright law and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States, as amended by several later enacted copyright provisions.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Coumarin (2H-chromen-2-one) is a fragrant organic chemical compound in the benzopyrone chemical class, although it may also be seen as a subclass of lactones.
The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) founded in 1804 is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.
Croton eluteria, known as Cascarilla, is a plant species of the genus Croton, that is native to the Caribbean.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Daucus carota, whose common names include wild carrot, bird's nest, bishop's lace, and Queen Anne's lace (North America), is a white, flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate regions of Europe and southwest Asia, and naturalized to North America and Australia.
Davidoff is a Swiss premium brand of cigars and smoker’s accessories.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
Dipteryx odorata (commonly known as "cumaru" or "kumaru") is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae.
Dirt is unclean matter, especially when in contact with a person's clothes, skin or possessions when they are said to become dirty.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
"Do it yourself" ("DIY") is the method of building, modifying, or repairing things without the direct aid of experts or professionals.
Eau de Cologne (German: Kölnisch Wasser; meaning "Water from Cologne"), or simply cologne, is a perfume originating from Cologne, Germany.
Eau de toilette or toilet water is a lightly scented cologne used as a skin freshener.
Eilhard Ernst Gustav Wiedemann (1 August 1852, Berlin – 7 January 1928, Erlangen) was a German physicist and historian of science.
Elizabeth of Poland (Polish: Elżbieta Łokietkówna) (1305 – 29 December 1380) was Queen consort of Hungary by marriage to Charles I of Hungary, and regent of Poland from 1370 to 1376 during the absence of her son Louis I of Hungary.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
The Estée Lauder Companies Inc. is an multinational manufacturer and marketer of prestige skincare, makeup, fragrance and hair care products, based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethyl acetate (systematically ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula, simplified to.
Evernia prunastri, also known as oakmoss, is a species of lichen.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
The FiFi Awards are an annual event sponsored by The Fragrance Foundation which honor the fragrance industry's creative achievements.
Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.
Firmenich SA is a private Swiss company in the fragrance and flavor business.
A fixative is used to equalize the vapor pressures, and thus the volatilities, of the raw materials in a perfume oil, as well as to increase the tenacity.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
A Florence flask is a type of flask used as an item of laboratory glassware.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Fougère,, is one of the main olfactive families of perfumes.
A fractionating column is an essential item used in distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in volatilities.
Also known as a "perfume lamp", "effusion lamp," or "catalytic lamp", a fragrance lamp is a lamp that disperses scented alcohol using a heated stone attached to a cotton wick.
The Farina Fragrance Museum is situated across from Cologne City Hall, and near the famous Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in the Obenmarspforten in Innenstadt, Cologne.
Fragrance oil(s), also known as aroma oils, aromatic oils, and flavor oils, are blended synthetic aroma compounds or natural essential oils that are diluted with a carrier like propylene glycol, vegetable oil, or mineral oil.
François Coty (born Joseph Marie François Spoturno; 3 May 1874 – 25 July 1934) was a French perfumer and businessman.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fucus vesiculosus, known by the common name bladder wrack or bladderwrack, is a seaweed found on the coasts of the North Sea, the western Baltic Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, also known by the common names black tang, rockweed, bladder fucus, sea oak, black tany, cut weed, dyers fucus, red fucus, and rock wrack.
The furanocoumarins, or furocoumarins, are a class of organic chemical compounds produced by a variety of plants.
Galaxolide (trade name; also known as Abbalide, Pearlide, Astrolide, Musk 50, Polarlide; chemical name 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8,-hexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran or HHCB) is a synthetic musk with a clean sweet musky floral woody odor used in fragrances.
Gardenia is a genus of flowering plants in the coffee family, Rubiaceae, native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Madagascar and Pacific Islands.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
Givaudan is a Swiss manufacturer of flavors, fragrances, and active cosmetic ingredients.
The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit.
Grasse (Provençal Grassa in classical norm or Grasso in Mistralian norm; traditional Grassa) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department (of which it is a sub-prefecture), on the French Riviera.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guerlain is a French perfume, cosmetics and skincare house, which is among the oldest in the world.
Guy Laroche was a French fashion designer (16 July 1921 in La Rochelle, France – 17 February 1989 in Paris) and founder of the eponymous company.
Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing animals such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep.
Headspace technology is a technique developed in the 1980s to elucidate the odor compounds present in the air surrounding various objects.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Herbal distillates, also known as floral waters, hydrosols, hydrolates, herbal waters, and essential waters, are aqueous products of hydrodistillation.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal prismatic wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen.
Houbigant Parfum is a perfume manufacturer founded in Paris, France in 1775 by Jean-François Houbigant of Grasse (1752–1807).
The House of Fabergé (Russian: Дом Фаберже) is a jewellery firm founded in 1842 in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia, by Gustav Faberge, using the accented name "Fabergé".
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungary water (sometimes called "the Queen of Hungary's Water", Eau de la Reine de Hongary, or "spirits of rosemary") was one of the first alcohol-based perfumes in Europe, primarily made with rosemary.
Hyacinthus is a small genus of bulbous, fragrant flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hyraceum is the petrified and rock-like excrement composed of both urine and feces excreted by the Cape hyrax (Procavia capensis, also referred to as the rock hyrax or dassie).
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface.
International Flavors & Fragrances is an American corporation producing flavors and fragrances and cosmetic actives, which it markets globally.
The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) founded in 1973 and based in Geneva, Switzerland, is the official self-regulatory representative body of the fragrance industry worldwide.
The International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients, abbreviated INCI, is a system of names for waxes, oils, pigments, chemicals, and other ingredients of soaps, cosmetics, and the like, based on scientific names and other Latin and English words.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers.
Ittar (Hindi/Urdu), also known as attar, is an essential oil derived from botanical sources.
Jasmine (taxonomic name Jasminum) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae).
Jean Patou (19 August 1880 - 8 March 1936) was a French fashion designer and founder of the Jean Patou brand.
Jicky is a perfume by the House of Guerlain, created by Aimé Guerlain.
Johann Maria Farina 1685–1766 Giovanni Maria Farina (born 8 December 1685, Santa Maria Maggiore; Germanized name: Johann Maria Farina, Francized: Jean Marie Farina – 25 November 1766, Cologne) was an Italian-born perfumier from Germany who created the first Eau de Cologne.
Johann Maria Farina gegenüber dem Jülichs-Platz GmbH (English: John Maria Farina opposite Jülich's Square) is the world's oldest eau de Cologne and perfume factory.
Jojoba oil is the liquid produced in the seed of the Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) plant, a shrub, which is native to southern Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico.
Joy is a perfume created for Parisian couturier Jean Patou by perfumer Henri Alméras in 1929.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
is a common masculine Japanese given name.
Labdanum, also called ladanum, laudanum, ladan or ladanon, is a sticky brown resin obtained from the shrubs Cistus ladanifer (western Mediterranean) and Cistus creticus (eastern Mediterranean), species of rockrose.
Lancôme is a French luxury perfumes and cosmetics house that distributes products internationally.
Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants.
Litsea is a genus of evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs belonging to the Laurel family, Lauraceae.
The maker culture is a contemporary culture or subculture representing a technology-based extension of DIY culture that intersects with hacker culture (which is less concerned with physical objects as it focuses on software) and revels in the creation of new devices as well as tinkering with existing ones.
Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot FRS FRSE (25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the ThomsenendashBerthelot principle of thermochemistry.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Michael Anthony Edwards (10 December 1943) is a British fragrance taxonomist, historian, and founding editor of Fragrances of the World, the largest guide to perfume classification.
Mitsouko is a 1919 perfume by Guerlain.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
A museum (plural musea or museums) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance.
Musk is a class of aromatic substances commonly used as base notes in perfumery.
Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae.
Musk xylene is a synthetic musk fragrance which mimics natural musk.
Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.
Myrtus communis, the common myrtle, is a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family Myrtaceae.
Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants of the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.
Neroli oil is an essential oil produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree (Citrus aurantium subsp. amara or Bigaradia).
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Opium is an Oriental-spicy perfume created for fashion brand Yves Saint Laurent (YSL) by perfumer Jean Amic and Jean-Louis Sieuzac of Roure, first marketed in 1977.
Opopanax, also known as opobalsam, refers to a number of gum resins (natural substances that are a mixture of water-soluble gums and alcohol-soluble resins) traditionally considered to have medicinal properties.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
The Orange blossom is the fragrant flower of the ''Citrus sinensis'' (orange tree).
Orange oil is an essential oil produced by cells within the rind of an orange fruit (Citrus sinensis fruit).
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Osmanthus is a genus of about 30 species of flowering plants in the family Oleaceae.
The Osmothèque (from Greek osmē "scent" patterned on French bibliothèque "library") is the world’s largest scent archive, a leading international research institution tracing the history of perfumery, based in Versailles with conference centers in New York City and Paris.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A patch test is a method used to determine whether a specific substance causes allergic inflammation of a patient's skin.
Patchoulialso spelled "patchouly" or "pachouli" (Pogostemon cablin) is a species of plant from the family Lamiaceae, commonly called the "mint" or "deadnettle" family.
Pelargonium graveolens is an uncommon Pelargonium species native to the Cape Provinces and the Northern Provinces of South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.
Perfume intolerance or perfume allergy is a condition wherein people exhibit sensitivity or allergic reactions to ingredients in some perfumes and some other fragrances.
Petitgrain is an essential oil that is extracted from the leaves and green twigs of the bitter orange tree (Citrus aurantium ssp. amara) via steam distillation.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Pierre Alexandre Claudius Balmain (b. Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, Savoie, 18 May 1914 – Paris, France, 29 June 1982) was a French fashion designer and founder of leading post-war fashion house Balmain.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
Plumeria is a genus of flowering plants in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae.
Polianthes tuberosa, the tuberose, is a perennial plant related to the agaves, extracts of which are used as a note in perfumery.
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
A pomander, from French pomme d'ambre, i.e., apple of amber, is a ball made for perfumes, such as ambergris (whence the name), musk, or civet.
Potpourri is a mixture of dried, naturally fragrant plant material, used to provide a gentle natural scent, commonly in residential settings.
Profit margin, net margin, net profit margin or net profit ratio is a measure of profitability.
Pyrgos (Πύργος) is a village east of the town of Limassol, Cyprus.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Robert Piguet (1898 – 1953) was a Swiss-born, Paris-based fashion designer who is mainly remembered for training Christian Dior and Hubert de Givenchy.
The rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), also called rock badger, rock rabbit, and Cape hyrax, is commonly referred to in South African English as the dassie.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
Rose oil (rose otto, attar of rose, attar of roses or rose essence) is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose.
Rose water (گلاب; golāb) is a flavoured water made by steeping rose petals in water.
Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.
Rosewood refers to any of a number of richly hued timbers, often brownish with darker veining, but found in many different hues.
A sachet is a small cloth scented bag filled with herbs, potpourri, or aromatic ingredients.
Safrole is a phenylpropene.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers.
Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum.
Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, Italy, situated just across from the main railway station named after it.
Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia.
Scented water, odoriferous waterBaer, p. 43 or sweet water, is a water with a sweet aromatic smell.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Serge Lutens (born 14 March 1942 in Lille, France) is a French photographer, filmmaker, hair stylist, perfume creator and fashion designer.
Sex in advertising is the use of sex appeal in advertising to help sell a particular product or service.
Shalimar is a perfume originally created by Jacques Guerlain in 1921 and currently produced by Guerlain.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sophia Grojsman (born 8 March 1945 in Lubcha, Belarus) is a Belarus-born American perfumer.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (s) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure.
Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating one component (the extractant) from another (the matrix) using supercritical fluids as the extracting solvent.
The Supreme Court of the Netherlands (Hoge Raad der Nederlanden or simply Hoge Raad), officially the High Council of the Netherlands, is the final court of appeal in civil, criminal and tax cases in the Netherlands, including Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Aruba.
The Sushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता, IAST: Suśrutasaṃhitā, literally "Suśruta's Compendium") is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery, and one of the most important such treatises on this subject to survive from the ancient world.
Symrise is a major producer of flavours and fragrances with sales of €2.903 billion in 2016.
Synesius (Συνέσιος; c. 373 – c. 414), a Greek bishop of Ptolemais in the Libyan Pentapolis after 410, was born of wealthy parents who claimed descent from Spartan kings, at Balagrae (now Bayda, Libya) near Cyrene between 370 and 375.
Synthetic musks, known as white musks in the perfume industry, are a class of synthetic aroma compounds to emulate the scent of deer musk and other animal musks (ambergris, castoreum and civet).
() is a major international producer of flavours and fragrances headquartered in Japan, with presence in 24 countries worldwide and net sales of $900 million in 2006.
Tapputi, also referred to as Tapputi-Belatekallim ("Belatekallim" refers to female overseer of a palace), is considered to be the world’s first chemist, a perfume-maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet dated around 1200 BC in Babylonian Mesopotamia.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
Thierry Mugler (born 21 December 1948) is a French fashion designer.
A tincture is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome).
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
A twig is a small thin terminal branch of a woody plant.
Usnea is a genus of mostly pale grayish-green fruticose lichens that grow like leafless mini-shrubs or tassels anchored on bark or twigs.
Vachellia farnesiana, also known as Acacia farnesiana, and previously Mimosa farnesiana, commonly known as sweet acacia, huisache or needle bush (named because of the numerous thorns distributed along its branches).
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Vanillin is a phenolic aldehyde, which is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Viola (and) is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae.
In fluid dynamics, a wake may either be.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World Animal Protection (formerly The World Society for the Protection of Animals) is an international non-profit animal welfare organization that has been in operation for over 30 years.
Yves Saint Laurent SAS (YSL), also known as Saint Laurent, is a French luxury fashion house founded by Yves Saint Laurent and his partner, Pierre Bergé.
4711 is a traditional German Eau de Cologne by Mäurer & Wirtz.
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