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Periodic table

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The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends. [1]

185 relations: A Short History of Nearly Everything, Abundance of the chemical elements, Actinide, Actinium, Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Aluminium, American Journal of Physics, Amphoterism, Antoine Lavoisier, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic radius, Aufbau principle, August Kekulé, Barium, Bismuth, Block (periodic table), Bohr model, Bohuslav Brauner, Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, Caesium, Carbon, Carbon group, Charles Janet, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical element, Chemical property, Chemical reaction, Chemical Society, Chemistry, Chemistry World, Chlorine, Copernicium, D-block contraction, Döbereiner's triads, Dividing line between metals and nonmetals, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dubna, Earth (chemistry), Electron, Electron affinity, Electron configuration, Electron configurations of the elements (data page), Electron shell, Electron spectroscopy, Electronegativity, ..., Element collecting, Eric Scerri, Ernest Rutherford, Extended periodic table, Flerovium, Fluorine, For Dummies, Francium, Gallium, Gas, Germanium, Glenn T. Seaborg, Goldschmidt classification, Group (periodic table), Group 10 element, Group 11 element, Group 3 element, Group 4 element, Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs, Hafnium, Halogen, Hassium, Henry Moseley, History of the periodic table, Hydrogen, Ilya Repin, Inert pair effect, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodine, Ionization energy, Island of stability, Isotope, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, John Emsley, John Newlands (chemist), John Wiley & Sons, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Julius Lothar Meyer, Klein paradox, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanum, Lawrencium, Lemniscate, Leopold Gmelin, Liebigs Annalen, Linus Pauling, List of chemical elements, List of chemical elements naming controversies, List of periodic table-related articles, Lithium, Lutetium, McGraw-Hill Education, Mendeleev's predicted elements, Mercury(IV) fluoride, Metal, Metalloid, Methane, Moscovium, Moscow Oblast, Names for sets of chemical elements, Neon, Neptunium, Neutron, Neutron star, Neutronium, New Scientist, Niels Bohr, Nihonium, Niobium, Nobel Prize, Noble gas, Noble metal, Nonmetal, Nuclear drip line, Nuclear physics, Octave, Oganesson, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Paul-Antoine Giguère, Pekka Pyykkö, Period (periodic table), Periodic table (crystal structure), Periodic trends, Peter Atkins, Platinum, Plutonium, Positron emission, Potassium, Primordial nuclide, Proton, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Quantum mechanics, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Radon, Raymond Chang (chemist), Reactivity (chemistry), Refractory metals, Relative atomic mass, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Richard Feynman, Roman numerals, Royal Society of Chemistry, Scandium, Selenium, Silicon, Sodium, Speed of light, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Table of nuclides, Tantalum, Tellurium, Tennessine, Tetravalence, Thallium, The Mystery of Matter (film), Theodor Benfey, Theory of relativity, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Transition metal, Transuranium element, Unbinilium, University of Chicago Press, Ununennium, Valence (chemistry), Valence electron, William Odling, X-ray spectroscopy, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zirconium. Expand index (135 more) »

A Short History of Nearly Everything

A Short History of Nearly Everything by American author Bill Bryson is a popular science book that explains some areas of science, using easily accessible language that appeals more so to the general public than many other books dedicated to the subject.

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Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.

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Actinide

The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

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Actinium

Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.

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Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois

Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois (20 January 1820 – 14 November 1886) was a French geologist and mineralogist who was the first to arrange the chemical elements in order of atomic weights, doing so in 1862.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Alkaline earth metal

The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

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Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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American Journal of Physics

The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.

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Amphoterism

In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Atomic radius

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.

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Aufbau principle

The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.

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August Kekulé

Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.

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Barium

Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Bismuth

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Block (periodic table)

A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Bohuslav Brauner

Bohuslav Brauner (May 8, 1855 – February 15, 1935) was a Czech chemist.

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Bulletin for the History of Chemistry

The Bulletin for the History of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on the history of chemistry.

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Caesium

Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon group

The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

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Charles Janet

Charles Janet (15 June 1849 – 7 February 1932) was a French engineer, company director, inventor and biologist.

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Chemical & Engineering News

Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemical property

A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemical Society

The Chemical Society was formed in 1841 (then named the Chemical Society of London) by 77 scientists as a result of increased interest in scientific matters.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chemistry World

Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Copernicium

Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.

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D-block contraction

The d-block contraction (sometimes called scandide contraction) is a term used in chemistry to describe the effect of having full d orbitals on the period 4 elements.

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Döbereiner's triads

In the history of the periodic table, Döbereiner's triads were an early attempt to sort the elements into some logical order by their physical properties.

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Dividing line between metals and nonmetals

The dividing line between metals and nonmetals can be found, in varying configurations, on some representations of the periodic table of the elements (see mini-example, right).

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Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.

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Dubna

Dubna (p) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia.

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Earth (chemistry)

The chemical term earths was historically applied to certain chemical substances, once thought to be elements, and this name was borrowed from one of the four classical elements of Plato.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron affinity

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.

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Electron configuration

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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Electron configurations of the elements (data page)

This page shows the electron configurations of the neutral gaseous atoms in their ground states.

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Electron shell

In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.

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Electron spectroscopy

Electron spectroscopy is an analytical technique to study the electronic structure and its dynamics in atoms and molecules.

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Electronegativity

Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Element collecting

Element collecting is the hobby of collecting the chemical elements.

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Eric Scerri

Eric R. Scerri is a chemist, writer and philosopher of science, of Maltese origin.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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Extended periodic table

An extended periodic table theorizes about elements beyond oganesson (beyond period 7, or row 7).

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Flerovium

Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with symbol Fl and atomic number 114.

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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For Dummies

For Dummies is an extensive series of instructional/reference books which are intended to present non-intimidating guides for readers new to the various topics covered.

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Francium

Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.

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Gallium

Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.

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Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Germanium

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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Glenn T. Seaborg

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Goldschmidt classification

The Goldschmidt classification, developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947), is a geochemical classification which groups the chemical elements within the Earth according to their preferred host phases into lithophile (rock-loving), siderophile (iron-loving), chalcophile (ore-loving or chalcogen-loving), and atmophile (gas-loving) or volatile (the element, or a compound in which it occurs, is liquid or gaseous at ambient surface conditions).

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Group (periodic table)

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.

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Group 10 element

Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized darmstadtium (Ds).

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Group 11 element

Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).

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Group 3 element

Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Group 4 element

Group 4 is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs

Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs (2 December 1836 – 14 February 1923) was a chemist and natural philosopher most widely known for his findings on periodic laws within the chemical elements.

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Hafnium

Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.

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Halogen

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Hassium

Hassium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Hs and atomic number 108.

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Henry Moseley

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.

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History of the periodic table

The periodic table is an arrangement of the chemical elements and are organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations and recurring chemical properties.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Ilya Repin

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.

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Inert pair effect

The inert pair effect is the tendency of the two electrons in the outermost atomic ''s'' orbital to remain unionized or unshared in compounds of post-transition metals.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Iodine

Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Ionization energy

The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.

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Island of stability

In nuclear physics, the island of stability is the prediction that a set of heavy nuclides with a near magic number of protons and neutrons will temporarily reverse the trend of decreasing stability in elements heavier than uranium.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Jean-Baptiste Dumas

Jean Baptiste André Dumas (14 July 180010 April 1884) was a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights (relative atomic masses) and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities.

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Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner

Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (13 December 1780 – 24 March 1849) was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements and inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Döbereiner's lamp.

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John Emsley

Dr John Emsley (born 1938) is a UK popular science writer, broadcaster and academic specialising in chemistry.

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John Newlands (chemist)

John Alexander Reina Newlands (26 November 1837 – 29 July 1898) was a British chemist who did work concerning the periodicity of elements.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Julius Lothar Meyer

Julius Lothar Meyer (19 August 1830 – 11 April 1895) was a German chemist.

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Klein paradox

In 1929, physicist Oskar Klein obtained a surprising result by applying the Dirac equation to the familiar problem of electron scattering from a potential barrier.

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Lanthanide

The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.

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Lanthanide contraction

The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.

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Lanthanum

Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.

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Lawrencium

Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.

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Lemniscate

In algebraic geometry, a lemniscate is any of several figure-eight or -shaped curves.

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Leopold Gmelin

Leopold Gmelin (2 August 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German chemist.

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Liebigs Annalen

Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide.

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Linus Pauling

Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.

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List of chemical elements

, 118 chemical elements are identified.

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List of chemical elements naming controversies

The currently accepted names and symbols of the chemical elements are determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), usually following recommendations by the recognized discoverers of each element.

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List of periodic table-related articles

No description.

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Lithium

Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Lutetium

Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Mendeleev's predicted elements

Dmitri Mendeleev published a periodic table of the chemical elements in 1869 based on properties that appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest.

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Mercury(IV) fluoride

Mercury(IV) fluoride, HgF4, is the first mercury compound to be reported with mercury in the oxidation state IV.

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Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metalloid

A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Moscovium

Moscovium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Mc and atomic number 115.

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Moscow Oblast

Moscow Oblast (p), or Podmoskovye (p, literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Names for sets of chemical elements

There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties.

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Neon

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Neptunium

Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.

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Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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Neutronium

Neutronium (sometimes shortened to neutrium, also referred to as neutrite) is a hypothetical substance composed purely of neutrons.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nihonium

Nihonium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Nh and atomic number 113.

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Niobium

Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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Noble metal

In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).

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Nonmetal

Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.

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Nuclear drip line

The nuclear drip line is the boundary delimiting the zone beyond which atomic nuclei decay by the emission of a proton or neutron.

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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Octave

In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.

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Oganesson

Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paul-Antoine Giguère

Paul-Antoine Giguère, (January 13, 1910 – December 25, 1987) was a Canadian academic and chemist.

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Pekka Pyykkö

Veli Pekka Pyykkö (October 12, 1941) is a Finnish academic.

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Period (periodic table)

A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.

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Periodic table (crystal structure)

For elements that are solid at standard temperature and pressure the table gives the crystalline structure of the most thermodynamically stable form(s) in those conditions.

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Periodic trends

Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.

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Peter Atkins

Peter William Atkins (born 10 August 1940) is an English chemist and former Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Lincoln College.

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Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Plutonium

Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Positron emission

Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).

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Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Primordial nuclide

In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Pure and Applied Chemistry

Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radon

Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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Raymond Chang (chemist)

Raymond Chang (1939-April 10, 2017) was an emeritus professor at Williams College in the Department of Chemistry and a textbook author.

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Reactivity (chemistry)

In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.

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Refractory metals

Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear.

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Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.

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Relativistic quantum chemistry

Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.

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Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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Scandium

Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

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Selenium

Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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Table of nuclides

A table of nuclides or chart of nuclides is a two-dimensional graph in which one axis represents the number of neutrons and the other represents the number of protons in an atomic nucleus.

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Tantalum

Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.

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Tellurium

Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.

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Tennessine

Tennessine is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ts and atomic number 117.

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Tetravalence

In chemistry, tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell, giving the atom a chemical valence of four.

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Thallium

Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

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The Mystery of Matter (film)

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is a 2014 American documentary film, which premiered nationwide on August 19, 2015.

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Theodor Benfey

Theodor Benfey (28 January 1809, in Nörten near Göttingen – 26 June 1881, in Göttingen) was a German philologist.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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Timeline of chemical element discoveries

The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Transuranium element

The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).

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Unbinilium

Unbinilium, also known as eka-radium or simply element 120, is the hypothetical chemical element in the periodic table with symbol Ubn and atomic number 120.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Ununennium

Ununennium, also known as eka-francium or simply element 119, is the hypothetical chemical element with symbol Uue and atomic number 119.

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Valence (chemistry)

In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.

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Valence electron

In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

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William Odling

William Odling, FRS (5 September 1829 in Southwark, London – 17 February 1921 in Oxford) was an English chemist who contributed to the development of the periodic table.

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X-ray spectroscopy

X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.

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Ytterbium

Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.

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Yttrium

Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

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Zirconium

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table

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