185 relations: A Short History of Nearly Everything, Abundance of the chemical elements, Actinide, Actinium, Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Aluminium, American Journal of Physics, Amphoterism, Antoine Lavoisier, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic radius, Aufbau principle, August Kekulé, Barium, Bismuth, Block (periodic table), Bohr model, Bohuslav Brauner, Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, Caesium, Carbon, Carbon group, Charles Janet, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical element, Chemical property, Chemical reaction, Chemical Society, Chemistry, Chemistry World, Chlorine, Copernicium, D-block contraction, Döbereiner's triads, Dividing line between metals and nonmetals, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dubna, Earth (chemistry), Electron, Electron affinity, Electron configuration, Electron configurations of the elements (data page), Electron shell, Electron spectroscopy, Electronegativity, ..., Element collecting, Eric Scerri, Ernest Rutherford, Extended periodic table, Flerovium, Fluorine, For Dummies, Francium, Gallium, Gas, Germanium, Glenn T. Seaborg, Goldschmidt classification, Group (periodic table), Group 10 element, Group 11 element, Group 3 element, Group 4 element, Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs, Hafnium, Halogen, Hassium, Henry Moseley, History of the periodic table, Hydrogen, Ilya Repin, Inert pair effect, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodine, Ionization energy, Island of stability, Isotope, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, John Emsley, John Newlands (chemist), John Wiley & Sons, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Julius Lothar Meyer, Klein paradox, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanum, Lawrencium, Lemniscate, Leopold Gmelin, Liebigs Annalen, Linus Pauling, List of chemical elements, List of chemical elements naming controversies, List of periodic table-related articles, Lithium, Lutetium, McGraw-Hill Education, Mendeleev's predicted elements, Mercury(IV) fluoride, Metal, Metalloid, Methane, Moscovium, Moscow Oblast, Names for sets of chemical elements, Neon, Neptunium, Neutron, Neutron star, Neutronium, New Scientist, Niels Bohr, Nihonium, Niobium, Nobel Prize, Noble gas, Noble metal, Nonmetal, Nuclear drip line, Nuclear physics, Octave, Oganesson, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Paul-Antoine Giguère, Pekka Pyykkö, Period (periodic table), Periodic table (crystal structure), Periodic trends, Peter Atkins, Platinum, Plutonium, Positron emission, Potassium, Primordial nuclide, Proton, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Quantum mechanics, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Radon, Raymond Chang (chemist), Reactivity (chemistry), Refractory metals, Relative atomic mass, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Richard Feynman, Roman numerals, Royal Society of Chemistry, Scandium, Selenium, Silicon, Sodium, Speed of light, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Table of nuclides, Tantalum, Tellurium, Tennessine, Tetravalence, Thallium, The Mystery of Matter (film), Theodor Benfey, Theory of relativity, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Transition metal, Transuranium element, Unbinilium, University of Chicago Press, Ununennium, Valence (chemistry), Valence electron, William Odling, X-ray spectroscopy, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zirconium. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
A Short History of Nearly Everything by American author Bill Bryson is a popular science book that explains some areas of science, using easily accessible language that appeals more so to the general public than many other books dedicated to the subject.
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois (20 January 1820 – 14 November 1886) was a French geologist and mineralogist who was the first to arrange the chemical elements in order of atomic weights, doing so in 1862.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.
Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
Bohuslav Brauner (May 8, 1855 – February 15, 1935) was a Czech chemist.
The Bulletin for the History of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on the history of chemistry.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
Charles Janet (15 June 1849 – 7 February 1932) was a French engineer, company director, inventor and biologist.
Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
The Chemical Society was formed in 1841 (then named the Chemical Society of London) by 77 scientists as a result of increased interest in scientific matters.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.
The d-block contraction (sometimes called scandide contraction) is a term used in chemistry to describe the effect of having full d orbitals on the period 4 elements.
In the history of the periodic table, Döbereiner's triads were an early attempt to sort the elements into some logical order by their physical properties.
The dividing line between metals and nonmetals can be found, in varying configurations, on some representations of the periodic table of the elements (see mini-example, right).
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Dubna (p) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia.
The chemical term earths was historically applied to certain chemical substances, once thought to be elements, and this name was borrowed from one of the four classical elements of Plato.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
This page shows the electron configurations of the neutral gaseous atoms in their ground states.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electron spectroscopy is an analytical technique to study the electronic structure and its dynamics in atoms and molecules.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Element collecting is the hobby of collecting the chemical elements.
Eric R. Scerri is a chemist, writer and philosopher of science, of Maltese origin.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
An extended periodic table theorizes about elements beyond oganesson (beyond period 7, or row 7).
Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with symbol Fl and atomic number 114.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
For Dummies is an extensive series of instructional/reference books which are intended to present non-intimidating guides for readers new to the various topics covered.
Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The Goldschmidt classification, developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947), is a geochemical classification which groups the chemical elements within the Earth according to their preferred host phases into lithophile (rock-loving), siderophile (iron-loving), chalcophile (ore-loving or chalcogen-loving), and atmophile (gas-loving) or volatile (the element, or a compound in which it occurs, is liquid or gaseous at ambient surface conditions).
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized darmstadtium (Ds).
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Group 4 is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs (2 December 1836 – 14 February 1923) was a chemist and natural philosopher most widely known for his findings on periodic laws within the chemical elements.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Hassium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Hs and atomic number 108.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.
The periodic table is an arrangement of the chemical elements and are organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations and recurring chemical properties.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.
The inert pair effect is the tendency of the two electrons in the outermost atomic ''s'' orbital to remain unionized or unshared in compounds of post-transition metals.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
In nuclear physics, the island of stability is the prediction that a set of heavy nuclides with a near magic number of protons and neutrons will temporarily reverse the trend of decreasing stability in elements heavier than uranium.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Jean Baptiste André Dumas (14 July 180010 April 1884) was a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights (relative atomic masses) and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (13 December 1780 – 24 March 1849) was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements and inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Döbereiner's lamp.
Dr John Emsley (born 1938) is a UK popular science writer, broadcaster and academic specialising in chemistry.
John Alexander Reina Newlands (26 November 1837 – 29 July 1898) was a British chemist who did work concerning the periodicity of elements.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Julius Lothar Meyer (19 August 1830 – 11 April 1895) was a German chemist.
In 1929, physicist Oskar Klein obtained a surprising result by applying the Dirac equation to the familiar problem of electron scattering from a potential barrier.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.
In algebraic geometry, a lemniscate is any of several figure-eight or -shaped curves.
Leopold Gmelin (2 August 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German chemist.
Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
, 118 chemical elements are identified.
The currently accepted names and symbols of the chemical elements are determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), usually following recommendations by the recognized discoverers of each element.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Dmitri Mendeleev published a periodic table of the chemical elements in 1869 based on properties that appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest.
Mercury(IV) fluoride, HgF4, is the first mercury compound to be reported with mercury in the oxidation state IV.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Moscovium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Mc and atomic number 115.
Moscow Oblast (p), or Podmoskovye (p, literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
There are currently 118 known chemical elements exhibiting a large number of different physical and chemical properties.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
Neutronium (sometimes shortened to neutrium, also referred to as neutrite) is a hypothetical substance composed purely of neutrons.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nihonium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Nh and atomic number 113.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
The nuclear drip line is the boundary delimiting the zone beyond which atomic nuclei decay by the emission of a proton or neutron.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paul-Antoine Giguère, (January 13, 1910 – December 25, 1987) was a Canadian academic and chemist.
Veli Pekka Pyykkö (October 12, 1941) is a Finnish academic.
A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.
For elements that are solid at standard temperature and pressure the table gives the crystalline structure of the most thermodynamically stable form(s) in those conditions.
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.
Peter William Atkins (born 10 August 1940) is an English chemist and former Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Lincoln College.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Raymond Chang (1939-April 10, 2017) was an emeritus professor at Williams College in the Department of Chemistry and a textbook author.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
A table of nuclides or chart of nuclides is a two-dimensional graph in which one axis represents the number of neutrons and the other represents the number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Tennessine is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ts and atomic number 117.
In chemistry, tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell, giving the atom a chemical valence of four.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is a 2014 American documentary film, which premiered nationwide on August 19, 2015.
Theodor Benfey (28 January 1809, in Nörten near Göttingen – 26 June 1881, in Göttingen) was a German philologist.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
Unbinilium, also known as eka-radium or simply element 120, is the hypothetical chemical element in the periodic table with symbol Ubn and atomic number 120.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Ununennium, also known as eka-francium or simply element 119, is the hypothetical chemical element with symbol Uue and atomic number 119.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
William Odling, FRS (5 September 1829 in Southwark, London – 17 February 1921 in Oxford) was an English chemist who contributed to the development of the periodic table.
X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
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