129 relations: Abiria, Adulis, Africa, Agatharchides, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Alexandria Bucephalous, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek units of measurement, Antimony, Apollodotus II, Arabian Peninsula, Arabs, Archaeology, Arrian, Assab, Azania, Bdellium, Berbera, Berenice (disambiguation), Berenice Troglodytica, Bharuch, Carnelian, Chera dynasty, Cinnamon, Clove, Dar es Salaam, Early Pandyan Kingdom, Egypt, Egypt (Roman province), Eleazus, Ganges, Gemstone, Greco-Roman world, Greece, Greek language, Greeks, Gulf of Kutch, Hadhramaut, Heidelberg, Heidelberg University Library, Hieronymus Froben, Himyarite Kingdom, Hippalus, Hjalmar Frisk, Homerites, Horn of Africa, Incense, India, Indian Ocean, ..., Indo-Roman trade relations, Indo-Scythians, Indonesia, Iran, Ivory, Jhelum River, Jubaland, Kannur, Karl Otfried Müller, Kaveri, Kochi, Lac, Latakia, Latin, Limyrike, Lycium, Mafia Island, Malabathrum, Malao, Malaysia, Massawa, Menander I, Minnagara, Muziris, Nabataean Kingdom, Nahapana, Napoleon, Nile, Ocean current, Opone, Pemba Island, Periplus, Periplus of the Euxine Sea, Persian Gulf, Philadelphia Convention Hall and Civic Center, Phoenicia, Prague, Qift, Ras Hafun, Realgar, Red Sea, Rhapta, Roman commerce, Roman Empire, Rome, Rufiji River, Sabaeans, Sanskrit, Saraostus, Saussurea costus, Scythia, Seleucid Empire, Sigismund Gelenius, Silk, Silk Road, Sindh, Slavery, Somalia, Spice, Spikenard, Tabula Peutingeriana, Tamilakam, Tanga, Tanzania, Tanzania, Thirty Years' War, Tiberius Claudius Balbilus, Tortoiseshell, Trade route, Tyndis, Ujjain, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Wadi Hammamat, Weilüe, Western Satraps, Wilfred Harvey Schoff, Yemen, Zanzibar, Zoskales. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
Abiria was a region in Sindh province of Pakistan described by the Classical authors, mainly Ptolemy.
Adulis or Aduli (Αδουλίς in Ancient Greek) is an archeological site in the Northern Red Sea of Eritrea, situated about 30 miles south of Massawa in the Gulf of Zula.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agatharchides or Agatharchus (Ἀγαθαρχίδης or Ἀγάθαρχος, Agatharchos) of Cnidus was a Greek historian and geographer (flourished 2nd century BC).
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alexandria Bucephalous (also variously known as Alexandria Bucephalus, Alexandria Bucephala, Bucephala, or Bucephalia), was a city founded by Alexander the Great in memory of his beloved horse Bucephalus.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greek units of measurement varied according to location and epoch.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Apollodotus II (Greek: Ἀπολλόδοτος Β΄) was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the western and eastern parts of Punjab.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Assab or Aseb (ዓሰብ,; عصب) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.
Azania (Ἀζανία) is a name that has been applied to various parts of southeastern tropical Africa.
Bdellium, also bdellion, is a semi-transparent oleo-gum resin extracted from Commiphora wightii and from Commiphora africana trees growing in Ethiopia, Eritrea and sub-saharan Africa.
Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.
Berenice is a feminine name.
Berenice (Berenike) or Berenice Troglodytica (Greek: Βερενίκη), also known as Baranis, is an ancient seaport of Egypt on the west coast of the Red Sea.
Bharuch (Gujarati: ભરૂચ, Bharūca), formerly known as Broach, is a city at the mouth of the river Narmada in Gujarat in western India.
Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
Dar es Salaam (Dar) (from دار السلام, "the house of peace"; formerly Mzizima) is the former capital as well as the most populous city in Tanzania and a regionally important economic centre.
The Early Pandyas of the Sangam period were one of the four main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country, the other three being the Cholas, the Cheras and Athiyamaan Dynasty.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Eleazus, also Eleazar or Iliazz Yalit I was the Hadramaut king of the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula, the "Frankincense kingdom", in the 1st century CE.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Gulf of Kutch is an inlet of the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India, in the state of Gujarat, which is renowned for extreme daily tides.
Hadramaut, Hadhramaut, Hadramout, Hadramawt or Ḥaḍramūt (حضرموت Ḥaḍramawt; Musnad: 𐩢𐩳𐩧𐩣𐩩) is a region on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
The University Library Heidelberg (Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg) is the central library of the University of Heidelberg.
Hieronymus Froben (1501–1563) was a famous pioneering printer in Basel and the eldest son of Johann Froben.
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.
Hippalus (Ancient Greek: Ἵππαλος) was a Greek navigator and merchant who probably lived in the 1st century BCE.
Hjalmar Frisk (4 August 1900, Gothenburg – 1 August 1984, Gothenburg) was a Swedish linguist in Indo-European studies and rector of Göteborg University 1951–1966.
For history see Himyarite Kingdom Homerites is a genus of small, involute, globase fossil ceratitids with an eccentric outer whorl and subammonitic sutures belonging to the family Halortidae The body chamber has a slight central keel and radial dichotomous ribs that commonly terminate at spines on the ventral shoulder.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.
Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.
Jubaland (Jubbaland, جوبالاند), the Juba Valley (Dooxada Jubba) or Azania (Asaaniya, آزانيا), is an autonomous region in southern Somalia.
Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India.
Karl Otfried Müller (28 August 1797 – 1 August 1840) was a German scholar and Philodorian, or admirer of ancient Sparta, who introduced the modern study of Greek mythology.
Kaveri (anglicized as Cauvery), also referred as Ponni, is an Indian river flowing through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of lac insects, of which the most commonly cultivated species is Kerria lacca.
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Limyrikê is a historical region of present-day India, mentioned in the ancient Greco-Roman texts.
Lycium is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family, Solanaceae.
Mafia Island ("Chole Shamba") is not part of the Tanzanian Zanzibar Archipelago, which is formed of Unguja, Pemba, Mnemba and Latham Island.
Malabathrum, malabathron, or malobathrum is the name used in classical and medieval texts for certain cinnamon-like aromatic plant leaves and an ointment prepared from those leaves.
Malao was an ancient Somali port city in present-day Somalia.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Massawa (Maṣṣawa‘, Mitsiwa), also known as Miṣṣiwa‘ (مِـصِّـوَع) and Bāḍiʿ (بَـاضِـع),Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet, Lonely Planet Ethiopia and Eritrea, (Lonely Planet: 2006), p.340.
Menander I Soter (Μένανδρος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, Ménandros A' ho Sōtḗr, "Menander I the Saviour"; known in Indian Pali sources as Milinda) was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165Bopearachchi (1998) and (1991), respectively. The first date is estimated by Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, the other Boperachchi/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.
Minnagara was an ancient port located in what is now the modern city of Karachi, in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Muziris (Muchiri, Muyirikode, Makotai, Mahodayapuram) was an ancient seaport and urban center on the Malabar Coast (modern-day Indian state of Kerala) that dates from at least the 1st century BC, if not before it.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
Nahapana (r. 1st or 2nd century CE) was an important ruler of the Western Kshatrapas, descendant of the Indo-Scythians, in northwestern India.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Opone (Οπώνη) was an ancient Somali city situated in the Horn of Africa.
Pemba Island (الجزيرة الخضراء al-Jazīra al-khadrā, literally "The Green Island"), is an island forming part of the Zanzibar Archipelago, lying within the Swahili Coast in the Indian Ocean.
A periplus is a manuscript document that lists the ports and coastal landmarks, in order and with approximate intervening distances, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a shore.
The Periplus of the Euxine Sea (Περίπλους τοῦ Εὐξείνου Πόντου, Periplus Ponti Euxini) is a periplus or guidebook detailing the destinations visitors encounter when traveling about the shore of the Black Sea.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Philadelphia Convention Hall and Civic Center—more commonly known as the Philadelphia Civic Center and the Philadelphia Convention Center, and formerly known as Municipal Auditorium and the Philadelphia Convention Hall—located in Philadelphia, in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, was a complex of five or more buildings developed out of a series of buildings dedicated to expanding trade which began with the National Export Exhibition in 1899.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Qift (قفط; Ⲕⲉϥⲧ Keft or Kebto; Egyptian Gebtu; Κόπτος Coptos or Koptos; Roman Justinianopolis) is a small town in the Qena Governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile.
Ras Hafun (Ras Xaafuun, رأس حـافـون), also known as Cape Hafun, is a promontory in the northeastern Bari region of Somalia.
Realgar, α-As4S4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic".
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Rhapta (Ράπτα) was a marketplace said to be on the coast of Southeast Africa, first described in the 1st century CE.
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Rufiji River lies entirely within Tanzania.
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saraostus (also Surastrene, modern Saurashtra in India) was the name given by the Greeks to the area of Saurashtra and parts of south-western Gujarat.
Saussurea costus, commonly known as costus or kuth, is a species of thistle in the genus Saussurea native to India.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Sigismund Gelenius (1497 - 1554) also known as Sigismund Gelen or Sigmund Gelen, was born as Zikmund Hrubý z Jelení into a family of Bohemian nobles in Prague.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Spikenard, also called nard, nardin, and muskroot, is a class of aromatic amber-colored essential oil derived from Nardostachys jatamansi, a flowering plant of the valerian family which grows in the Himalayas of Nepal, China, and India.
Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also referred to as Peutinger's Tabula or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium (ancient Roman road map) showing the layout of the cursus publicus, the road network of the Roman Empire.
Tamilakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.
Tanga is both the name of the most northerly port city of Tanzania on the west of the Indian Ocean, and the surrounding Tanga Region.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Tiberius Claudius Balbilus, his full name Tiberius Claudius Balbillus Modestus, also known as Tiberius Claudius Balbillus, Barbillus, Babilus, Balbillus and Balbillus the Wise (Tiberius Claudius Balbillus Modestus in Τιβέριος Κλαύδιος Βαλβίλλος Μόδεστος, 3-79) was a distinguished Ancient Roman scholar, politician and a court astrologer to the Roman emperors Claudius, Nero and Vespasian in the 1st century.
Tortoiseshell or tortoise shell is a material produced from the shells of the larger species of tortoise and turtle, mainly the hawksbill sea turtle, which is an endangered species largely because of its exploitation for the material.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
Tyndis (Tondis Tundis or Thundi) was an ancient Indian seaport and harbor-town mentioned in the ancient Greek writings, such as the Periplus Maris Erythraei.
Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly called the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum that is part of the University of Pennsylvania.
Wadi Hammamat (Valley of Many Baths) is a dry river bed in Egypt's Eastern Desert, about halfway between Al-Qusayr and Qena.
The Weilüe was a Chinese historical text written by Yu Huan between 239 and 265.
The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas (35–405 CE) were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states).
Wilfred Harvey Schoff (1874–1932) was an early twentieth-century American antiquarian and classical scholar.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
Zoskales (c. 100 CE) was an ancient King in the Horn of Africa.
Menuthias, Periplus Maris Erythraei, Periplus Maris Erytraei, Periplus of the Eritrean Sea, Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, Periplus of the Erythræan Sea, Periplus of the Erythræan sea, Periplus of the Red Sea.