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# Permittivity

In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium. [1]

96 relations: Ab initio, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Acoustic attenuation, Ampere, Angular frequency, Anisotropy, Arthur R. von Hippel, Atom, Birefringence, Brillouin zone, Cauchy distribution, Causality, Clausius–Mossotti relation, Convolution, Convolution theorem, Coulomb, Coulomb's constant, Cryostat, Density functional theory, Density of states, Dielectric, Dielectric loss, Dielectric spectroscopy, Dipole, Dirac delta function, Dispersion (optics), Displacement current, Drude model, Dual-polarization interferometry, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Electric displacement field, Electric field, Electric flux, Electric susceptibility, Electric-field screening, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electro-gyration, Electrolytic capacitor, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electron, Ellipsometry, Farad, Fourier transform, Frequency, Frequency domain, Gauss's law, Gaussian surface, Green's function (many-body theory), Green–Kubo relations, ... Expand index (46 more) »

## Ab initio

Ab initio is a Latin term meaning "from the beginning" and is derived from the Latin ab ("from") + initio, ablative singular of initium ("beginning").

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

## Acoustic attenuation

Acoustic attenuation is a measure of the energy loss of sound propagation in media.

## Ampere

The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.

## Angular frequency

In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate.

## Anisotropy

Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

## Arthur R. von Hippel

Arthur Robert von Hippel (November 19, 1898 &ndash; December 31, 2003) was a German American materials scientist and physicist.

## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

## Birefringence

Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.

## Brillouin zone

In mathematics and solid state physics, the first Brillouin zone is a uniquely defined primitive cell in reciprocal space.

## Cauchy distribution

The Cauchy distribution, named after Augustin Cauchy, is a continuous probability distribution.

## Causality

Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

## Clausius–Mossotti relation

The Clausius–Mossotti relation expresses the dielectric constant (relative permittivity) εr of a material in terms of the atomic polarizibility α of the material's constituent atoms and/or molecules, or a homogeneous mixture thereof.

## Convolution

In mathematics (and, in particular, functional analysis) convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) to produce a third function, that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the integral of the pointwise multiplication of the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.

## Convolution theorem

In mathematics, the convolution theorem states that under suitable conditions the Fourier transform of a convolution is the pointwise product of Fourier transforms.

## Coulomb

The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.

## Coulomb's constant

Coulomb's constant, the electric force constant, or the electrostatic constant (denoted) is a proportionality constant in electrodynamics equations.

## Cryostat

A cryostat (from cryo meaning cold and stat meaning stable) is a device used to maintain low cryogenic temperatures of samples or devices mounted within the cryostat.

## Density functional theory

Density functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate the electronic structure (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases.

## Density of states

In solid-state and condensed matter physics, the density of states (DOS) of a system describes the number of states per interval of energy at each energy level available to be occupied.

## Dielectric

A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.

## Dielectric loss

Dielectric loss quantifies a dielectric material's inherent dissipation of electromagnetic energy (e.g. heat).

## Dielectric spectroscopy

Dielectric spectroscopy (which falls in a subcategory of impedance spectroscopy) measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency.

## Dipole

In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.

## Dirac delta function

In mathematics, the Dirac delta function (function) is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac.

## Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

## Displacement current

In electromagnetism, displacement current density is the quantity appearing in Maxwell's equations that is defined in terms of the rate of change of, the electric displacement field.

## Drude model

The Drude model of electrical conduction was proposed in 1900 by Paul Drude to explain the transport properties of electrons in materials (especially metals).

## Dual-polarization interferometry

Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam.

## Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.

## Electric displacement field

In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.

## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

## Electric flux

In electromagnetism, electric flux is the measure of flow of the electric field through a given area.

## Electric susceptibility

In electricity (electromagnetism), the electric susceptibility (\chi_; Latin: susceptibilis "receptive") is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of polarization of a dielectric material in response to an applied electric field.

## Electric-field screening

In physics, screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers.

## Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

## Electro-gyration

The electrogyration effect is the spatial dispersion phenomenon, that consists in the change of optical activity (gyration) of crystals by a constant or time-varying electric field.

## Electrolytic capacitor

An electrolytic capacitor (e-cap) is a polarized capacitor whose anode or positive plate is made of a metal that forms an insulating oxide layer through anodization.

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

## Ellipsometry

Ellipsometry is an optical technique for investigating the dielectric properties (complex refractive index or dielectric function) of thin films.

The farad (symbol: F) is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.

## Fourier transform

The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.

## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

## Frequency domain

In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.

## Gauss's law

In physics, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field.

## Gaussian surface

A Gaussian surface (sometimes abbreviated as G.S.) is a closed surface in three-dimensional space through which the flux of a vector field is calculated; usually the gravitational field, the electric field, or magnetic field.

## Green's function (many-body theory)

In many-body theory, the term Green's function (or Green function) is sometimes used interchangeably with correlation function, but refers specifically to correlators of field operators or creation and annihilation operators.

## Green–Kubo relations

The Green–Kubo relations (Melville S. Green 1954, Ryogo Kubo 1957) give the exact mathematical expression for transport coefficients \gamma in terms of integrals of time correlation functions.

## Heat

In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

## Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

## Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

## Imaginary unit

The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number is a solution to the quadratic equation.

## Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

## International Bureau of Weights and Measures

The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

## Irrational number

In mathematics, the irrational numbers are all the real numbers which are not rational numbers, the latter being the numbers constructed from ratios (or fractions) of integers.

## ISO 31

ISO 31 (Quantities and units, International Organization for Standardization, 1992) is a deprecated international standard for the use of physical quantities and units of measurement, and formulas involving them, in scientific and educational documents.

## Isotropy

Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").

## Kramers–Kronig relations

The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.

## Linear response function

A linear response function describes the input-output relationship of a signal transducer such as a radio turning electromagnetic waves into music or a neuron turning synaptic input into a response.

## List of things named after Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) is the eponym of all of the topics listed below.

## Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

## Microwave

Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

## Nonlinear optics

Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.

## Perfect conductor

A perfect conductor or perfect electric conductor (PEC) is an idealized material exhibiting infinite electrical conductivity or, equivalently, zero resistivity (cf. perfect dielectric).

## Permeability (electromagnetism)

In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.

## Phase velocity

The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.

## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

## Plasma oscillation

Plasma oscillations, also known as Langmuir waves (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals in the ultraviolet region.

## Polarizability

Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles.

## Polarization density

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

## Quasioptics

Quasioptics concerns the propagation of electromagnetic radiation when the size of the wavelength is comparable to the size of the optical components (e.g. lenses, mirrors, and apertures) and hence diffraction effects become significant.

## Relative permittivity

The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.

## Resonance

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

## Rotational Brownian motion

Rotational Brownian motion is the random change in the orientation of a polar molecule due to collisions with other molecules.

## Scalar (physics)

A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.

## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

## Square metre

The square metre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 (Unicode character). It is the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre.

## Supercapacitor

A supercapacitor (SC) (also called a supercap, ultracapacitor or Goldcap) is a high-capacity capacitor with capacitance values much higher than other capacitors (but lower voltage limits) that bridge the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries.

## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

## Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

In physics, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a spectroscopic technique in which the properties of matter are probed with short pulses of terahertz radiation.

## Time domain

Time domain is the analysis of mathematical functions, physical signals or time series of economic or environmental data, with respect to time.

## Transmission medium

A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.

## Uniaxial crystal

Uniaxial crystals are transmissive optical elements in which the refractive index of one crystal axis is different from the other two crystal axes (i.e. ni ≠ nj.

## Vacuum

Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

## Vacuum permeability

The physical constant μ0, (pronounced "mu naught" or "mu zero"), commonly called the vacuum permeability, permeability of free space, permeability of vacuum, or magnetic constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum.

## Vacuum permittivity

The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.

## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

## Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

## References

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