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Persian Gulf

Index Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. [1]

176 relations: Abu Dhabi, Academic Press, Achaemenid Empire, Akkad (city), Al Shindagha, Allies of World War II, American University in Cairo Press, António Correia (admiral), Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf, Arab League, Arab nationalism, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Arab world, Arabian Peninsula, Arecaceae, Arnold Wilson, Artificial island, Avicennia, Babylonia, Baghdad Vilayet, Bahrain, Bandar Abbas, Bandar Siraf, Blue whale, Booted warbler, British Empire, Bryde's whale, Bubiyan Island, Bushehr, Cetacean surfacing behaviour, China, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Collared kingfisher, Coral reef, Cradle of civilization, Current Anthropology, Dalma (island), Dammam, Darius I, Dariush Grand Hotel, Dhofar Governorate, Dilmun, Doha, Dolphin, Donald Hawley, Dubai, Dugong, East India Company, East of Suez, Emirates 24/7, ..., Euphrates, Fars Province, Finless porpoise, Gerrha, Global warming, Greater and Lesser Tunbs, Greater flamingo, Guardian Media Group, Gulf News, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Suez, Gulf War, Gulf War oil spill, Hawksbill sea turtle, Hengam Island, Herodotus, HMS Jufair, Holocene, Hormozgan Province, Hormuz Island, House of Al Thani, Humpback whale, India, Indian Ocean, Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin, International Hydrographic Organization, International Security (journal), Iran, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Plateau, Iraq, Israel, Issuu, Johns Hopkins University Press, Kafala system, Khaleej Times, Khobar, Killer whale, Kish Island, Kuwait, Kuwait City, Lakhmids, Last Glacial Maximum, Liquefied natural gas, List of islands in the Persian Gulf, Local extinction, London, Manama, Mangrove, Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch, Medes, Mediterranean sea (oceanography), Mesopotamia, Middle East, Midhat Pasha, Minke whale, Minoo Island, Musandam Governorate, Musandam Peninsula, Natural gas, Nile, Oil field, Oil spill, Oil tanker, Oman, Omura's whale, Operation Barbarossa, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Outburst flood, Pan-Arabism, Parthian Empire, Peninsula, Persepolis, Persian Corridor, Persian Gulf Residency, Persian people, Persis, Pinctada, Piracy in the Persian Gulf, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Press TV, Pythagoras, Qatar, Qeshm Island, Red Sea, Reef, Rhizophora, River delta, Royal Navy, Safaniya Oil Field, Safavid dynasty, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Sei whale, Seine fishing, Seleucid Empire, Shapur II, Sharjah, Shatt al-Arab, Silk Road, Sperm whale, Spinner dolphin, Strait of Hormuz, Sumer, Sunset, Susa, Symbiosis, Tarout Island, Territorial disputes in the Persian Gulf, The Guardian, Tigris, Trans-Iranian Railway, Trucial States, United Arab Emirates, Vasco da Gama, Western Asia, Whale, World War I, World War II, YouTube, 4th millennium BC. Expand index (126 more) »

Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi (أبو ظبي) is the capital and the second most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (the most populous being Dubai), and also capital of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the largest of the UAE's seven emirates.

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Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Akkad (city)

Akkad (also Accad, Akkade, Agade; cuneiform URIKI) was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia during a period of about 150 years in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC.

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Al Shindagha

Al Shindagha (الشندغة), sometimes spelled Al Shindagah or Al Shindaga, is a neighbourhood in the traditional centre of the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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American University in Cairo Press

The American University in Cairo Press (AUCP, AUC Press) is the leading English-language publisher in the Middle East.

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António Correia (admiral)

António Correia (c. 1487 - 1566) was a Portuguese commander who in 1521 conquered Bahrain, beginning eighty years of Portuguese rule in the Persian Gulf.

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Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf

Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf includes cuisines that are shared by the population in the coastal region of Eastern Arabia.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arab nationalism

Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.

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Arab states of the Persian Gulf

The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).

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Arnold Wilson

Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson (18 July 1884 – 31 May 1940) was the British civil commissioner in Baghdad in 1918–20.

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Artificial island

An artificial island or man-made island is an island that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means.

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Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Baghdad Vilayet

The Vilayet of Baghdad (Ottoman language:, Vilâyet-i Bagdad, Modern Turkish: Bağdat Vilâyeti, Arabic:ولاية بغداد) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in modern-day central Iraq.

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Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.

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Bandar Abbas

Bandar Abbas (بندرعباس,, or Bandar-e ‘Abbās; also romanized as Bandar ‘Abbās and Bandar ‘Abbāsī; formerly known as Cambarão and Porto Comorão to Portuguese traders, as Gombroon to English traders and as Gamrun or Gumrun to Dutch merchants; also Jaroon (to the Arabs) and Cameron (to the English)) is a port city and capital of Hormozgān Province on the southern coast of Iran, on the Persian Gulf.

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Bandar Siraf

Bandar Siraf (بندر سیراف, also Romanized as Bandar-e Sīraf; also known as Sīraf, Ţāherī, and Tāhiri; also known as Bandar-e Ţāherī and Bandar-i Ţāhirī, بندر طاهری - "Bandar" meaning "Port" in Persian) is a city in the Central District of Kangan County, Bushehr Province, Iran.

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Blue whale

The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.

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Booted warbler

The booted warbler (Iduna caligata) is an Old World warbler in the tree warbler group.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Bryde's whale

Bryde's whale or the Bryde's whale complex putatively comprises two species of rorqual and maybe three.

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Bubiyan Island

Bubiyan Island (جزيرة بوبيان) is the largest island in the Kuwaiti coastal island chain situated in the north-western corner of the Persian Gulf, with an area of.

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Bushehr, or Bushire (بوشهر; also Romanised as Būshehr, Bouchehr, Buschir and Busehr; also Bandar Bushehr (بندر بوشهر), also Romanised as Bandar Būshehr and Bandar-e Būshehr; previously known as Beh Ardasher, Antiochia in Persis (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Περσίδος) and Bukht Ardashir), is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran.

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Cetacean surfacing behaviour

Cetacean surfacing behaviour or breaching is a group of behaviours demonstrated by the Cetacea infraorder when they come to the water's surface to breathe.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Clifford Edmund Bosworth

Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.

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Collared kingfisher

The collared kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris) is a medium-sized kingfisher belonging to the subfamily Halcyoninae, the tree kingfishers.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Cradle of civilization

The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.

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Current Anthropology

Current Anthropology is a peer-reviewed anthropology academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press and sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.

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Dalma (island)

Dalma is an Emirati island located in the Persian Gulf approximately off the coast of Abu Dhabi and from Doha.

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Dammam (الدمام) is the capital of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

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Darius I

Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

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Dariush Grand Hotel

The Dariush Grand Hotel (هتل بزرگ داریوش) is a 190-room, $600 million, five-star hotel located on the eastern part of Kish Island in the Persian Gulf.

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Dhofar Governorate

The Dhofar Governorate (محافظة ظفار, Muḥāfaẓat Ẓufār) is the largest of the eleven Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in terms of area.

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Dilmun, or Telmun, (Arabic: دلمون, Sumerian: 𒆠, ni.tukki.

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Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.

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Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.

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Donald Hawley

Sir Donald Hawley (22 May 1921 – 31 January 2008) was a British colonial lawyer, diplomat and writer.

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Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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East of Suez

The phrase East of Suez is used in British military and political discussions in reference to interests beyond the European theatre, and east of the Suez Canal—most notably its military base in Singapore—and may or may not include the Middle East.

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Emirates 24/7

Emirates 24|7 and Emirates 24/7 are a Dubai Media Incorporated news website and television news programme, respectively.

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The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Fars Province

Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.

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Finless porpoise

The Indo-Pacific finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides), or finless porpoise, is one of seven porpoise species.

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Gerrha (جرهاء) was an ancient city of Eastern Arabia, on the west side of the Persian Gulf.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (تنب بزرگ و تنب کوچک., Tonb-e Bozorg and Tonb-e Kuchak, طنب الكبرى و طنب الصغرى., Tunb el-Kubra and Tunb el-Sughra) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz.

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Greater flamingo

The greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is the most widespread and largest species of the flamingo family.

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Guardian Media Group

Guardian Media Group plc (GMG) is a British mass media company owning various media operations including The Guardian and The Observer.

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Gulf News

Gulf News is a daily English language newspaper published from Dubai.

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Gulf of Aden

The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.

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Gulf of Aqaba

The Gulf of Aqaba (خليج العقبة, Khalij al-Aqabah) or Gulf of Eilat (מפרץ אילת, Mifrats Eilat) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland.

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Gulf of Oman

The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (خليج عُمان khalīj ʿUmān; دریای عمان daryāye ʿUmān) is a strait (and not an actual gulf) that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf.

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Gulf of Suez

The Gulf of Suez (khalīǧ as-suwais; formerly بحر القلزم,, "Sea of Calm") is a gulf at the northern end of the Red Sea, to the west of the Sinai Peninsula.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Gulf War oil spill

The Gulf War oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history till now, resulting from the Gulf War in 1991.

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Hawksbill sea turtle

The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a critically endangered sea turtle belonging to the family Cheloniidae.

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Hengam Island

Hengam Island (جزیره هنگام), is an Iranian island located south of Qeshm Island, Iran, in the Persian Gulf.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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HMS Jufair

HMS Jufair is a British Royal Navy base first established in Bahrain on 13 April 1935, as part of the port at Mina Salman.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Hormozgan Province

Hormozgan Province (استان هرمزگان, Ostān-e Hormozgān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Hormuz Island

Hormuz Island (جزیره هرمز Jazireh-ye Hormoz), also spelled Hormoz, is an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf.

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House of Al Thani

The House of Thani (translit) is the ruling family of Qatar, whose origins can be traced back to Al-Maadeed of the Banu Tamim tribal confederation.

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Humpback whale

The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a species of baleen whale.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin

The Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) is a species of bottlenose dolphin.

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Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin

The Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin is a member of the Delphinidae family and a species that encompasses two separate subspecies of Humpback Dolphin: (1) Sousa chinensis and (2) Sousa plumbea.

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International Hydrographic Organization

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.

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International Security (journal)

International Security is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of international and national security.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

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Iranian Plateau

The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Issuu is an online platform that enables anyone — from independent creators to global brands — to share, measure and monetize their digital content.

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Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Kafala system

The kafala system (also spelled "kefala system", Arabic: نظام الكفالة niẓām al-kafāla, meaning "sponsorship system") is a system used to monitor migrant laborers, working primarily in the construction and domestic sectors, in Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.

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Khaleej Times

Khaleej Times (KT) is a daily English language newspaper published in United Arab Emirates. Launched on April 16, 1978, KT is the UAE's oldest and remains the country's longest running English daily.

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Khobar (also spelled Al-Khobar or; الخبر) is a large city located in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the coast of the Persian Gulf.

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Killer whale

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Kish Island

Kish (کیش (Kīsh)) is a resort island in the Persian Gulf off the southern coast of Iran.

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Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Kuwait City

Kuwait City (مدينة الكويت) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait.

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The Lakhmids (اللخميون) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD.

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Last Glacial Maximum

In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

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Liquefied natural gas

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.

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List of islands in the Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf is home to many islands, mostly small, distributed in the gulf's entire geographic area and administered by the neighbouring nations.

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Local extinction

Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Manama (المنامة Bahrani pronunciation) is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 157,000 people.

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A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch

Marine National Park in the Gulf of Kutch is situated on the southern shore of the Gulf of Kachchh in the Devbhumi Dwarka district of Gujarat state, India.

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The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.

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Mediterranean sea (oceanography)

A mediterranean sea is, in oceanography, a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of water with outer oceans and with water circulation dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Midhat Pasha

Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (18 October 1822 – 26 April 1883), was one of the leading Ottoman statesmen during the late Tanzimat period.

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Minke whale

The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.

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Minoo Island

Minoo Island is an Iranian island in the Khuzestan province (located in Persian Gulf), in southwestern Iran and is close to the city of Abadan.

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Musandam Governorate

The Musandam Governorate (Muḥāfaẓaṫ Musandam) is a governorate of Oman.

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Musandam Peninsula

The Musandam Peninsula (Jazīraṫ Musandam) is a peninsula that forms the northeastern point of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Oil field

An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.

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Oil spill

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.

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Oil tanker

An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.

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Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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Omura's whale

Omura's whale or the dwarf fin whale (Balaenoptera omurai) is a species of rorqual about which very little is known.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Outburst flood

In geomorphology, an outburst flood, which is a type of megaflood, is a high-magnitude, low-frequency catastrophic flood involving the sudden release of water.

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Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.

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Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.

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Persian Corridor

The Persian Corridor was a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II.

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Persian Gulf Residency

The Persian Gulf Residency was an official colonial subdivision (i.e., residency) of the British Raj from 1763 until 1947 (and remained British protectorates after Indian independence in 1947, up to 1971), whereby the United Kingdom maintained varying degrees of political and economic control over several states in the Persian Gulf, including what is today known as the United Arab Emirates (formerly called the "Trucial Coast States") and at various times southern portions of Persia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Qatar.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Persis (Περσίς), better known as Persia (Parsa; پارس, Pars), or "Persia proper", was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia.

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Pinctada is a genus of saltwater oysters, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Pteriidae, the pearl oysters.

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Piracy in the Persian Gulf

Piracy in the Persian Gulf was prevalent until the 19th century.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Press TV

Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).

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Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.

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Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Qeshm Island

Qeshm (قشم), formerly also known as Kishm, is an Iranian island in the Strait of Hormuz, separated from the mainland by the Clarence Strait/Khuran in the Persian Gulf.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.

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Rhizophora is a genus of tropical mangrove trees, sometimes collectively called true mangroves.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Safaniya Oil Field

Safaniya Oil Field (حقل السفانية النفطي), operated and owned by Saudi Aramco, is the largest offshore oil field in the world.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Sei whale

The sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) is a baleen whale, the third-largest rorqual after the blue whale and the fin whale.

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Seine fishing

Seine fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Shapur II

Shapur II (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩 Šāpuhr), also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire.

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Sharjah (الشارقة; Gulf Arabic: aš-šārja) is the third largest and third most populous city in the United Arab Emirates, forming part of the Dubai-Sharjah-Ajman metropolitan area.

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Shatt al-Arab

Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sperm whale

The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.

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Spinner dolphin

The spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a small dolphin found in off-shore tropical waters around the world.

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Strait of Hormuz

The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sunset or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation.

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Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Tarout Island

Tārūt Island (جزيرة تاروت) is an island in the Persian Gulf belonging to the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, connected by two causeways to Qatif.

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Territorial disputes in the Persian Gulf

This article deals with territorial disputes between states of in and around the Persian Gulf in Southwestern Asia.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Trans-Iranian Railway

The Trans-Iranian Railway (Persian: راه آهن سراسری ایران) was a major railway building project started in 1927 and completed in 1938, under the direction of the Persian monarch, Reza Shah, and entirely with indigenous capital.

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Trucial States

The Trucial Coast (or أو المتصالح; also known as Trucial States, Trucial Oman, Trucial States of the Coast of Oman, and Trucial Sheikhdoms) were a group of tribal confederations in the south-eastern Persian Gulf, previously known to the British as the "Pirate Coast", which were signatories to treaties (hence 'trucial') with the British government.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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4th millennium BC

The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.

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Redirects here:

Arab Körfezi, Arabistan Körfezi, Arabo-Persian Gulf, Arap Körfezi, Basra Körfezi, Fars Körfezi, Great Green Ocean, Gulf Arab/Arabic, Gulf Area, Gulf Region, Gulf of Basra, Gulf of Iran, Gulf of Iran (Persian Gulf), Gulf of Persia, Gulf region, Iranian Gulf, Islamic Gulf, Middle East Area of Operations, North Arabian Gulf, Perisan Gulf, Pers Körfezi, Persian Gulf Region, Persian gulf, Persic Gulph, Persicus Sinus, Sea of Basra, Sea of Fars, Sinus Persicus, The Persian Gulf, İran Körfezi.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Gulf

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