82 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Al-Farabi, Art music, Avaz (music), Avicenna, Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, Barbad, Barbat (lute), Chang (instrument), Cycle (music), Daf, Dariush Safvat, Dastgah, Dastgah music, Dayereh, Dohol, Dutar, Elam, Fiddle, Ghaychak, Ghazal, Hafez, Harp, Iran, Iranian folk music, Iranian mythology, Iranian pop music, Jamshid, Kamancheh, Karnay, Kitab al-Musiqa al-Kabir, Kus, List of Iranian musicians, Lute, Makam, Medes, Melodic motion, Melody type, Metre (music), Mirza Abdollah, Mode (music), Music of Iran, Musical composition, Musical improvisation, Muslim conquest of Persia, Name of Iran, Naqareh, National Iranian Radio & Television, Ney, Ney-anbān, ..., Oud, Pahlavi dynasty, Parthian Empire, Percussion instrument, Piano, Qajar dynasty, Qanun (instrument), Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Radif, Radif (music), Reza Ghotbi, Rhythm in Persian music, Rud, Rumi, Safavid dynasty, Safi al-Din al-Urmawi, Santur, Sasanian Empire, Sasanian music, Setar, Sorna, String instrument, Sufi poetry, Tanbur, Tar (string instrument), Tasnif, Tonbak, UNESCO, Violin, Wind instrument, Zither, Zurna. Expand index (32 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
Avaz, or Awaz (Persian: آواز) is unmetered vocal section of a mode in Persian music.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (short BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilisation, is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to c. 2300–1700 BC, located in present-day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus River).
Barbad (بربد) or Barbad-ī MarvaziBorhan-e Ghate', By Mohammad Hossein ibn-khalaf Tabrizi (باربد جهرمی / باربد / باربذ) was a Persian musician of the Sassanid era, who lived during the rule of Khosrau II, 590 to 628.
The barbat (بربط) or barbud was a lute of Central Asian or Greater Iranian or Persian origin.
The chang (چنگ) is a Persian musical instrument similar to harp.
Cycle has several meanings in the field of music.
The daf (دف daf; دُفْ duf) is a large Middle Eastern frame drum used in popular and classical music.
Dariush (Daryush) Safvat (داريوش صفوت‎; 1928 – 17 April 2013) was an internationally renowned and well-respected Persian music master and ethnomusicologist.
Dastgāh (دستگاه) is a musical modal system in traditional Persian art music.
Iranian/Persian Traditional Music (also known as mūsīqī-e sonnatī-e īrānī or mūsīqī-e aṣīl-e īrānī) is now modernly classified into the Dastgāh system.
A dayereh (or doyra, dojra, dajre, doira, dajreja, daire) is a medium-sized frame drum with jingles, used to accompany both popular and classical music in Bukharan Jews, Iran (Persia), Azerbaijan (known as qaval), the Caucasus, the Balkans, and many Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
A dohol (دُهُل) is a large cylindrical drum with two skin heads.
The dutar (also dotar or doutar; دوتار; дутор; Duttar; dutor;; Дутар) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
Ghaychak or Gheychak is a Persian bowed lute.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī (خواجه شمسالدین محمد حافظ شیرازی), known by his pen name Hafez (حافظ Ḥāfeẓ 'the memorizer; the (safe) keeper'; 1315-1390) and as "Hafiz", was a Persian poet who "lauded the joys of love and wine but also targeted religious hypocrisy." His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature and are often found in the homes of people in the Persian speaking world, who learn his poems by heart and still use them as proverbs and sayings.
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian folk music refers to the folk music transmitted through generations among the people of Iran, often consisting of tunes that exist in numerous variants.
Iranian mythology or Iranic mythology may involve in the mythology of Iranian peoples, a branch of Indo-Europeans.
Iranian pop music refers to pop music originated in Iran, with songs mainly in Persian and other regional languages of the country.
Jamshid (جمشید, Jamshīd) (Middle- and New Persian: جم, Jam) (Avestan: Yima) is a mythological figure of Greater Iranian culture and tradition.
The kamancheh (also kamānche or kamāncha) (کمانچه) is an Iranian bowed string instrument, used also in Armenian, Azerbaijani, Turkish and Kurdish music and related to the rebab, the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed Byzantine lyra, ancestor of the European violin family.
The karnay is a long trumpet with a mouthpiece.
Kitab al-Musiqa al-Kabir (كتاب الموسيقى الكبير, Great Book of Music) is a treatise on music in Arabic by the Medieval philosopher al-Farabi (872-950/951).
A Kus (Persian کوس kūs) is a large-sized ancient Persian kettledrum, similar to the timpani.
This is a list of Iranian (Persian) musicians and musical groups.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
Makam (pl. makamlar; from the Arabic word مقام) is a system of melody types used in Arabic, Persian and Turkish classical music.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Melodic motion is the quality of movement of a melody, including nearness or farness of successive pitches or notes in a melody.
Melody type or type-melody is a set of melodic formulas, figures, and patterns.
In music, metre (Am. meter) refers to the regularly recurring patterns and accents such as bars and beats.
Mirza Abdollah, also known as Agha Mirza Abdollah Farahani (میرزا عبدالله فراهانی) (b. 1843 – 1918), was a tar and setar player.
In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.
The music of Iran encompasses music that is produced by Iranian artists.
Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.
Musical improvisation (also known as musical extemporization) is the creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
In the Western world, Persia (or one of its cognates) was historically the common name for Iran.
The naqqāra, nagara or nagada is a Middle Eastern drum with a rounded back and a hide head, usually played in pairs.
National Iranian Radio and Television, or NIRT for short,(رادیو تلویزیون ملی ایران) was the first Iranian radio and television organization which started its work on October 26, 1966, and operated up until the Iranian Revolution in 1979, after which NIRT became the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
The ney (نی / نای), is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music.
Ney-anbān (نی انبان, numerous Latin spellings), is a type of bagpipe which is popular in southern Iran, especially around Bushehr.
The oud (عود) is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument (a chordophone in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments) with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Iraqi, Arabian, Jewish, Persian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali, and various other forms of Middle Eastern and North African music.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
The kanun, ganoun or kanoon (qānūn;kanonaki; קָנוֹן, qanon; fa, qānūn; kanun; k’anon; qanun) is a string instrument played either solo, or more often as part of an ensemble, in much of the Middle East, Maghreb, West Africa, Central Asia, and southeastern regions of Europe.
Qotb al-Din Mahmoud b. Zia al-Din Mas'ud b. Mosleh Shirazi (1236—1311) (قطبالدین محمود بن ضیاالدین مسعود بن مصلح شیرازی) was a 13th-century Iranian polymath and poet who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.
Radif (Arabic: رديف) is a rule in Persian, Turkic, and Urdu poetry which states that, in the form of poetry known as a Ghazal, the second line of all the couplets (bayts or Shers) must end with the same word/s.
Radif (ردیف, meaning order) is a collection of many old melodic figures preserved through many generations by oral tradition.
Reza Ghotbi (رضا قطبی, 1940 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian engineer who headed National Iranian Radio & Television during Pahlavi dynasty.
Understanding the rhythmic aspect of Iranian music is aided by understanding the rhythmic structure of Persian poetry, the old Persian rhythmic cycles and the rhythmic characteristics of improvised and composed music.
The rud (رود) is a Persian stringed musical instrument.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Safi al-Din al-Urmawi al-Baghdadi (صفی الدین اورموی) or Safi al-Din Abd al-Mu'min ibn Yusuf ibn al-Fakhir al-Urmawi al-Baghdadi (born c. 1216 AD in Urmia, died in 1294 AD in Baghdad) was a renowned musician and writer on the theory of music, possibly of Persian origin.
The santur (also santūr, santour, santoor) (سنتور) is a hammered dulcimer of Persian/Iranic origins.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Sasanian music refers to the golden age of Persian music that occurred under the reign of the Sasanian dynasty.
The Setar (سهتار, from, meaning "three" and, meaning "string") is an Iranian musical instrument.
The sornā or Sarnā (Persianسورنا, سُرنا sornā, also سورنای, سُرنای sornāy, also Surna and Zurna) is an ancient Iranian woodwind instrument.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
Sufi poetry has been written in many languages, both for private devotional reading and as lyrics for music played during worship, or dhikr.
The terms Tanbur, Tanbūr, Tanbura, Tambur, Tambura or Tanboor can refer to various long-necked, string instruments originating in Mesopotamia, Southern or Central Asia.
Tar (تار; tar) is an Iranian.
Tasnif (تصنيف) is one of the several forms of Persian Music and can be considered as the Persian equivalent of Ballad.
The tompak (official Persian name) (تنپک, تنبک, دنبک، تمپک), also tombak, donbak, dombak or zarb (ضَرب or ضرب) in Afghanistan zer baghali (زیر بغلی), is a goblet drum from Persia (ancient Iran).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator.
Zither is a class of stringed instruments.
The zurna (also called surnay, birbynė, lettish horn, zurla, surla, sornai, dili tuiduk, zournas, or zurma), is a wind instrument played in central Eurasia, ranging from the Balkans to Central Asia.