137 relations: Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Adipose tissue, Aldrin, Aliphatic compound, Alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane, Alzheimer's disease, American kestrel, Antarctica, Antiandrogen, Aquatic ecosystem, Arctic Circle, Aromaticity, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane, Bioaccumulation, Bioavailability, Bioconcentration, Biodegradation, Biomagnification, Birth weight, Body of water, Breast cancer, Brominated flame retardant, Bromodiphenylmethane, Canada goose, Capacitor, Carcinogen, Case-control study, Center for International Environmental Law, Central nervous system, Chemical decomposition, Chemical stability, Chloracne, Chlordane, Colic, Combustion, Crustacean, DDT, Developmental biology, Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, Dieldrin, Dioxin, Donald Mackay (scientist), Dose–response relationship, Dust, Ecotoxicity, Endocrine disruptor, Endometriosis, Endosulfan, ..., Endrin, Environmental degradation, Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutant, Fat, Female reproductive system, Fetus, Flame retardant, Food, Fungicide, Gas, Gastrointestinal tract, Gestational age, Grasshopper, Half-life, Halogenation, Hazardous waste, Health, Heptachlor, Hexabromocyclododecane, Hexachlorobenzene, Hexachlorocyclohexane, Hydrolysis, Hydrophobe, Immune system, Immunotoxin, In ovo, In utero, Incineration, Indoor air quality, Interaction, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International POPs Elimination Network, Kepone, Lindane, Lipophilicity, Liquid fuel, Male reproductive system, Medication, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Mirex, Mucous membrane, Natural environment, Neurotoxicity, Octabromodiphenyl ether, Oil, Organic compound, Organochloride, Parasitism, Parkinson's disease, Pentachlorobenzene, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, Perfluorooctanoic acid, Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances, Pesticide, Photocatalysis, Photodissociation, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Pregnancy, Prenatal development, Puberty, Rachel Carson, Reproductive health, Reproductive system, Risk assessment, Silent Spring, Soil, Solvent, Sperm, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Termite, Thermal insulation, Total synthesis, Toxaphene, Transformer, Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, Triclocarban, Triclosan, United Nations Environment Programme, United States, Vegetation, Volatility (chemistry), Western corn rootworm, Wood preservation. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
The Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants, a 1998 protocol on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is an addition to the 1979 Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP).
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Aldrin is an organochlorine insecticide that was widely used until the 1990s, when it was banned in most countries.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is an organochloride which is one of the isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH).
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is the smallest and most common falcon in North America.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) is an organochloride which is one of the isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH).
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
Bioconcentration is the accumulation of a chemical in or on an organism when the source of chemical is solely water.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are organobromine compounds that have an inhibitory effect on combustion chemistry and tend to reduce the flammability of products containing them.
Bromodiphenylmethane or 1,1'-(bromomethanediyl)dibenzene, is an organobromine compound with the chemical formula.
The Canada goose (Branta canadensis), also called the Canadian goose, is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white cheeks, white under its chin, and a brown body.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
A case-control study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute.
The Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL) is a public interest, not-for-profit environmental law firm founded in 1989 in the United States to strengthen international and comparative environmental law and policy around the world.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
Chemical stability when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.
Chloracne is an acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules associated with over-exposure to certain halogenated aromatic compounds, such as chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans.
Chlordane is a chemical compound and also part of a similarly named pesticide mixture resulting from synthesis (main components- heptachlor, chlordane, and nonachlor).
Colic or cholic (pronounced,, from Greek κολικός kolikos, "relative to the colon") is a form of pain that starts and stops abruptly.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) is a chemical compound formed by the loss of hydrogen chloride (dehydrohalogenation) from DDT, of which it is one of the more common breakdown products.
Dieldrin is an organochloride originally produced in 1948 by J. Hyman & Co, Denver, as an insecticide.
Dioxin may refer to.
Donald Mackay, (born 30 October 1936) is a Canadian scientist specializing in environmental chemistry.
The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Ecotoxicity, the subject of study of the field of ecotoxicology (a portmanteau of ecology and toxicology), refers to the potential for biological, chemical or physical stressors to affect ecosystems.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally.
Endrin is an organochloride with the chemical formula C12H8Cl6O that was first produced in 1950 by Shell and Velsicol Chemical Corporation.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
The term Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPP) was first suggested in the nomination in 2010 of pharmaceuticals and environment as an emerging issue in a Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE).
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.
Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Heptachlor is an organochlorine compound that was used as an insecticide.
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD or HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant.
Hexachlorobenzene, or perchlorobenzene, is an organochloride with the molecular formula C6Cl6.
Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is any of several polyhalogenated organic compounds consisting of a six-carbon ring with one chlorine and one hydrogen attached to each carbon.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
An immunotoxin is a man-made protein that consists of a targeting portion linked to a toxin.
In ovo is Latin for in the egg.
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.
Interaction is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have an effect upon one another.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN) is a global network of NGOs dedicated to the common aim of eliminating persistent organic pollutants.
Kepone, also known as chlordecone, is an organochlorine compound and a colourless solid.
Lindane, also known as gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCCH), gammaxene, Gammallin and sometimes incorrectly called benzene hexachloride (BHC), is an organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Mirex is an organochloride that was commercialized as an insecticide and later banned because of its impact on the environment.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Octabromodiphenyl ether (octaBDE, octa-BDE, OBDE, octa, octabromodiphenyl oxide, OBDPO) is a brominated flame retardant which belongs to the group of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C6HCl5 which is a chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon.
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (conjugate base perfluorooctanesulfonate) (PFOS) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and global pollutant.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.
Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances (PBTs) are a class of compounds that have high resistance to degradation from abiotic and biotic factors, high mobility in the environment and high toxicity.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
In chemistry, photocatalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDEs, are organobromine compounds that are used as flame retardant.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the dibenzofuran structure replaced by chlorines.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative estimate of risk related to a well-defined situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard).
Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.
Toxaphene was an insecticide used primarily for cotton in the southern United States during the late 1960s and 1970s.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is the transmission of information from one generation of an organism to the next (i.e., parent–child transmission) that affects the traits of offspring without alteration of the primary structure of DNA (i.e., the sequence of nucleotides)—in other words, epigenetically.
Triclocarban is an antibacterial agent common in personal care products like soaps and lotions as well as in the medical field, for which it was originally developed.
Triclosan (sometimes abbreviated as TCS) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in some consumer products, including toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and surgical cleaning treatments.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
The Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is one of the most devastating corn rootworm species in North America, especially in the midwestern corn-growing areas such as Iowa.
All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment).
Health effects of persistent organic pollutants, Long-range transport, PBTs, POPs, Persistant organic pollutant, Persistence of toxic compounds, Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic Pollutants, Persistent Organic Pollutant, Persistent Organic Pollutants, Persistent bioaccumulative toxic pollutants, Persistent organic pollutants.