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Personal computer

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A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. [1]

380 relations: Accelerated Graphics Port, Acer Inc., Acronym, Advanced Host Controller Interface, Advanced Micro Devices, Algorithm, Alienware, Alt key, Altair 8800, Altair BASIC, Aluminium, Amiga 1000, Analogy, Android (operating system), APL (programming language), Apple I, Apple II series, Apple Inc., Application software, Arcade game, Architecture, Asus, ATX, Average selling price, Barcode, Basel Action Network, BASIC, Bell Labs, Bendix G-15, BIOS, Blu-ray, Breakout box, Broadcasting, Bus (computing), Canonical (company), Card reader, Cathode ray tube, CBS Interactive, CD-RW, Cellular frequencies, Central processing unit, Clamshell design, Classic Mac OS, CNET, Commercial software, Commodore 64, Commodore International, Commodore PET, Compact Cassette, Compact disc, ..., Computer, Computer case, Computer data storage, Computer graphics, Computer hardware, Computer keyboard, Computer monitor, Computer mouse, Computer network, Computer program, Computer programming, Computer virus, Computer-aided design, Computerworld, Control key, Conventional PCI, CP/M, CPU socket, Cursor (user interface), Data (computing), Datapoint 2200, De facto standard, Delete key, Dell, Deloitte, Desk, Desktop computer, Desktop replacement computer, Developed country, Digital video recorder, Direct current, Disk storage, Distributed computing, Douglas Engelbart, DVD, DVD recordable, Dynamic random-access memory, Electric battery, Electrical enclosure, Electrical equipment, Electromagnetic radiation, Electronic circuit, Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, Electronic kit, Electronic waste, Email, Embedded system, Emerging markets, End user, End-user development, ENIAC, Esc key, ESports, EWeek, Expansion card, Extended producer responsibility, Firmware, Flash memory, FlexATX, Floppy disk, Free and open-source software, Free software, FreeBSD, Freeware, Function key, Gartner, GB-PVR, Get a Mac, Global Positioning System, GNU, GNU/Linux naming controversy, GOG.com, Graphical user interface, Greenpeace, Greenwood Publishing Group, Hard disk drive, Headset (audio), Heat sink, Hewlett-Packard, History of computing, Home cinema, Home computer, HowStuffWorks, HP 9800 series, HP Inc., I'm a PC, IBM, IBM 1130, IBM 5100, IBM PALM processor, IBM PC compatible, IBM Personal Computer, Image, Image scanner, Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market, Information and communication technologies for development, Input/output, Instruction set architecture, Integrated circuit, Intel, Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Intel Atom, International Data Corporation, International Data Group, Internet, Internet fax, IOS, IPad, Joystick, Kaypro, LAMP (software bundle), Laptop, League of Legends, Lenovo, LGP-30, Library (computing), LibreOffice, Light pen, LINC, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linux kernel, LinuxMCE, List of computer system manufacturers, List of home computers, Live CD, Local area network, Logitech, Los Angeles Times, Loudspeaker, M.2, Mac OS X Leopard, Mac OS X Lion, Mac OS X Snow Leopard, Macintosh, MacOS, MacOS High Sierra, MacOS Sierra, Macworld, Magnetic stripe card, Mainframe computer, Mains electricity, Market share of personal computer vendors, MCM/70, Media player (software), Media server, Michael Dell, Micral, Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems, MicroATX, Microcomputer, Microcomputer revolution, Microphone, Microprocessor, Microsoft, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Tablet PC, Microsoft Windows, Middleware, Minicomputer, MIR (computer), Mobile computing, Mobile device, Mobile operating system, Mobile phone, Modem, Motherboard, MS-DOS, Multi-monitor, Multimedia, MythTV, Netbook, NetBSD, Nettop, Network interface controller, NeXT, Novell, NVM Express, Olivetti, OLPC XO, One Laptop per Child, Open-source model, Operating system, Optical disc, Optical disc drive, Oracle Corporation, Origin (digital distribution software), OS X El Capitan, OS X Mavericks, OS X Mountain Lion, OS X Yosemite, Osborne 1, Parallel ATA, Parallel port, PARC (company), Paul Terrell, PC game, PC Magazine, PC World, PC-9800 series, PCI Express, Peripheral, Personal Computer Museum, Personal digital assistant, Pet food, Philips, Pier Giorgio Perotto, Plastic, Pocket-sized computer, Pointing device, Portable computer, Portable media player, Portmanteau, Power supply unit (computer), Printed circuit board, Printer (computing), Programma 101, Public computer, Quiet PC, QWERTY, Radio-frequency identification, RadioShack, Random-access memory, Razer Inc., Reason Foundation, Red Hat, Reference monitor, Richard Stallman, Router (computing), Routledge, S-100 bus, SageTV, Samsung Electronics, SCSI, Semiconductor, Serial ATA, Serial port, Server (computing), Shuttle Inc., Signal, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, Sinclair Research, Smartphone, Smithsonian Institution, Softmodem, Software, Software industry, Solaris (operating system), Solid-state drive, Sony, Sound card, Source code, Spreadsheet, SRI International, Stage lighting, Stan Frankel, Static random-access memory, Steam (software), Steam Machine (hardware platform), Steel, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stylus, Subnotebook, Sun Microsystems, Supercomputer, System software, Tablet computer, Tandy Corporation, Tape drive, Television set, The Mother of All Demos, The NPD Group, The Washington Times, Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display, Time (magazine), Time Person of the Year, Time-sharing, Touchscreen, Toughened glass, TRS-80, Typewriter, U.2, Ultra-mobile PC, Unified Extensible Firmware Interface, United Nations Environment Programme, Unix, Unix-like, Uplay, Usability, USB, USB flash drive, User interface, VIA C7, VIA Technologies, Victor Glushkov, Video card, Video game, Videocassette recorder, Volatile memory, Walt Mossberg, Wang 2200, Watt, Web application, Web browser, Web page, Webcam, Western Europe, Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows Media Center, Windows Mobile, Windows Server 2016, Windows XP, Wintel, Wood, Word processor, Workstation, X86, Xerox, Xerox Alto, Zip drive, ZX Spectrum, ZX80, ZX81, 1,000,000,000, 1964 New York World's Fair, 1984 (advertisement). 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Accelerated Graphics Port

The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) was designed as a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer system, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics.

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Acer Inc.

Acer Inc. (lit. Hongji Corporation Ltd.) is a Taiwanese multinational hardware and electronics corporation, specializing in advanced electronics technology, headquartered in Xizhi, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

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Acronym

An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Advanced Host Controller Interface

The Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) is a technical standard defined by Intel that specifies the operation of Serial ATA (SATA) host bus adapters in a non-implementation-specific manner.

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Advanced Micro Devices

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

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Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Alienware

Alienware is an American computer hardware subsidiary of Dell.

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Alt key

The Alt key (pronounced or) on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys.

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Altair 8800

The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by MITS and based on the Intel 8080 CPU.

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Altair BASIC

Altair BASIC is a discontinued interpreter for the BASIC programming language that ran on the MITS Altair 8800 and subsequent S-100 bus computers.

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Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Amiga 1000

The Commodore Amiga 1000, also known as the A1000 and originally simply as the Amiga, is the first personal computer released by Commodore International in the Amiga line.

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Analogy

Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

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APL (programming language)

APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson.

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Apple I

Apple Computer 1, also known later as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976.

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Apple II series

The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Application software

An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.

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Arcade game

An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades.

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Architecture

Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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Asus

AsusTek Computer Inc. (stylised as ASUSTeK or ΛSUS) is a Taiwanese multinational computer and phone hardware and electronics company headquartered in Beitou District, Taipei, Taiwan.

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ATX

ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) is a motherboard configuration specification developed by Intel in 1995 to improve on previous ''de facto'' standards like the AT design.

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Average selling price

The average selling price (ASP) of goods or commodities is the average price at which a particular product or commodity is sold across channels or markets.

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Barcode

A barcode (also bar code) is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode.

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Basel Action Network

The Basel Action Network (BAN) is a charitable non-governmental organization working to combat the export of toxic waste from technology and other products from industrialized societies to developing countries.

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BASIC

BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Bendix G-15

The Bendix G-15 computer was introduced in 1956 by the Bendix Corporation, Computer Division, Los Angeles, California.

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BIOS

BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.

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Blu-ray

Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.

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Breakout box

A breakout box is a critical piece of electrical test equipment used to support integration testing, expedite maintenance, and streamline the troubleshooting process at the system, subsystem, and component level by simplifying the access to test signals.

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Broadcasting

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.

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Bus (computing)

In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.

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Canonical (company)

Canonical Ltd. is a UK-based privately held computer software company founded and funded by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth to market commercial support and related services for Ubuntu Linux and related projects.

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Card reader

A card reader is a data input device that reads data from a card-shaped storage medium.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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CBS Interactive

CBS Interactive Inc. (formerly CBS Digital Media Group) is an American media company and is a division of the CBS Corporation.

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CD-RW

CD-RW (Compact Disc-ReWritable) is a digital optical disc storage format.

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Cellular frequencies

Cellular frequencies are the sets of frequency ranges within the ultra high frequency band that have been assigned for cellular-compatible mobile devices, such as mobile phones, to connect to cellular networks.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Clamshell design

The flip or clamshell is a form factor of a smartphone or other device which is in two or more sections that fold via a hinge.

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Classic Mac OS

Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001.

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CNET

CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.

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Commercial software

Commercial software, or seldom payware, is computer software that is produced for sale or that serves commercial purposes.

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Commodore 64

The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).

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Commodore International

Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.

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Commodore PET

The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) is a line of home/personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.

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Compact Cassette

The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.

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Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer case

A computer case, also known as a computer chassis, tower, system unit or cabinet, is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a computer (usually excluding the display, keyboard and mouse).

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Computer keyboard

In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

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Computer monitor

A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.

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Computer mouse

A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

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Computer virus

A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.

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Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.

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Computerworld

Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.

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Control key

In computing, a Control key is a modifier key which, when pressed in conjunction with another key, performs a special operation (for example, C); similar to the Shift key, the Control key rarely performs any function when pressed by itself.

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Conventional PCI

Conventional PCI, often shortened to PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer.

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CP/M

CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.

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CPU socket

In computer hardware, a CPU socket or CPU slot comprises one or more mechanical components providing mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board (PCB).

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Cursor (user interface)

In computer user interfaces, a cursor is an indicator used to show the current position for user interaction on a computer monitor or other display device that will respond to input from a text input or pointing device.

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Data (computing)

Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.

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Datapoint 2200

The Datapoint 2200 was a mass-produced programmable terminal, designed by Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC) founders Phil Ray and Gus RocheLamont Wood,, Computerworld, 8 August 2008 and announced by CTC in June 1970 (with units shipping in 1971).

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De facto standard

A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).

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Delete key

The delete key is a key on most computer keyboards which typically is used to delete either (in text mode) the character ahead of or beneath the cursor, or (in GUI mode) the currently-selected object.

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Dell

Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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Deloitte

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, commonly referred to as Deloitte, is a UK-incorporated multinational professional services network.

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Desk

A desk or bureau is a piece of furniture with a flat table-style work surface used in a school, office, home or the like for academic, professional or domestic activities such as reading, writing, or using equipment such as a computer.

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Desktop computer

A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.

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Desktop replacement computer

A desktop replacement computer (DTR) is a personal computer that provides the full capabilities of a desktop computer while remaining mobile.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Digital video recorder

A digital video recorder (DVR) is an electronic device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card, SSD or other local or networked mass storage device.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Disk storage

Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.

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Distributed computing

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

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Douglas Engelbart

Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.

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DVD

DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.

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DVD recordable

DVD recordable and DVD rewritable refer to part of optical disc recording technologies.

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Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.

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Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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Electrical enclosure

An electrical enclosure is a cabinet for electrical or electronic equipment to mount switches, knobs and displays and to prevent electrical shock to equipment users and protect the contents from the environment.

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Electrical equipment

Electrical equipment includes any machine powered by electricity.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

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Electronic delay storage automatic calculator

The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.

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Electronic kit

An electronic kit is a package of electrical components used to build an electronic device.

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Electronic waste

Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices.

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Email

Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

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Embedded system

An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.

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Emerging markets

An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.

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End user

In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product.

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End-user development

End-user development (EUD) or end-user programming (EUP) refers to activities and tools that allow end-users – people who are not professional software developers – to program computers.

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ENIAC

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

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Esc key

On computer keyboards, the Esc key (named Escape key in the international standard series ISO/IEC 9995) is a key used to generate the escape character (which can be represented as ASCII code 27 in decimal, Unicode U+001B, or.

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ESports

eSports (also known as electronic sports, esports, e-sports, competitive (video) gaming, professional (video) gaming, or pro gaming) are a form of competition using video games.

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EWeek

eWeek (Enterprise Newsweekly, stylized as eWEEK) is a technology and business magazine, owned by QuinStreet.

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Expansion card

In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus.

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Extended producer responsibility

In the field of waste management, extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of environmental costs associated with goods throughout their life cycles into the market price of the products.

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Firmware

In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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FlexATX

FlexATX is a motherboard form factor derived from ATX.

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Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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Free and open-source software

Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.

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Free software

Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.

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FreeBSD

FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).

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Freeware

Freeware is software that is available for use at no monetary cost.

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Function key

A function key is a key on a computer or terminal keyboard which can be programmed so as to cause an operating system command interpreter or application program to perform certain actions, a form of soft key.

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Gartner

Gartner, Inc. is a global research and advisory firm providing insights, advice, and tools for leaders in IT, Finance, HR, Customer Service and Support, Legal and Compliance, Marketing, Sales, and Supply Chain functions across the world.

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GB-PVR

GB-PVR was a PVR (personal video recorder) application, running on Microsoft Windows, whose main function was scheduling TV recordings and playing back live TV.

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Get a Mac

The "Get a Mac" campaign is a television advertising campaign created for Apple Inc. (Apple Computer, Inc. at the start of the campaign) by TBWA\Media Arts Lab, the company's advertising agency, that ran from 2006 to 2009.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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GNU

GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.

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GNU/Linux naming controversy

The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free software community and open-source software community over whether to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel as "GNU/Linux" or "Linux".

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GOG.com

GOG.com (formerly Good Old Games) is a digital distribution platform for video games and films.

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Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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Greenpeace

Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Headset (audio)

A headset combines a headphone with a microphone.

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Heat sink

A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.

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Hewlett-Packard

The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

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History of computing

The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.

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Home cinema

Home cinema, also called home theater or home theatre, refers to home entertainment audio-visual systems that seek to reproduce a movie theater experience and mood using consumer electronics-grade video and audio equipment that is set up in a room or backyard of a private home.

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Home computer

Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.

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HowStuffWorks

HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.

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HP 9800 series

The HP 9800 was a family of what were initially called programmable calculators and later desktop computers made by Hewlett-Packard, replacing their first HP 9100 calculator.

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HP Inc.

HP (also known as HP Inc. and stylized as hp) is an American technology company which develops personal computers (PCs), printers and related supplies, as well as 3D Printing solutions.

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I'm a PC

"I'm a PC" is the title for a television advertising campaign created for Microsoft by ad agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky (CPB).

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IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM 1130

The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.

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IBM 5100

The IBM 5100 Portable Computer is a portable computer (one of the first) introduced in September 1975, six years before the IBM Personal Computer.

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IBM PALM processor

The IBM PALM processor (Put All Logic in Microcode) is a board-level 16-bit central processing unit used in the IBM 5100 Portable Computer, a predecessor of the IBM PC.

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IBM PC compatible

IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.

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IBM Personal Computer

The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.

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Image

An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

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Image scanner

An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context (barcode scanner, CT scanner etc.)—is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image.

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Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market

Following the introduction of the IBM Personal Computer, or IBM PC, many other personal computer architectures became extinct within just a few years.

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Information and communication technologies for development

Information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) refers to the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) toward social, economic, and political development, with a particular emphasis on helping poor and marginalized people and communities.

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Input/output

In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Intel 8008

The Intel 8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972.

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Intel 8080

The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.

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Intel Atom

Intel Atom is the brand name for a line of ultra-low-voltage IA-32 and x86-64 microprocessors by Intel Corporation.

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International Data Corporation

International Data Corporation (IDC) is a provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets.

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International Data Group

International Data Group, Inc. (IDG) is a Chinese-owned, American-based media, data and marketing services and venture capital organization.

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Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Internet fax

Internet fax, e-fax, or online fax is the use of the internet and internet protocols to send a fax (facsimile), rather than using a standard telephone connection and a fax machine.

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IOS

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.

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IPad

iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS mobile operating system.

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Joystick

A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.

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Kaypro

Kaypro Corporation was an American home/personal computer manufacturer of the 1980s.

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LAMP (software bundle)

LAMP is an archetypal model of web service stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language.

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Laptop

A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.

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League of Legends

League of Legends (abbreviated LoL) is a multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and published by Riot Games for Microsoft Windows and macOS.

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Lenovo

Lenovo Group Ltd. or Lenovo PC International, often shortened to Lenovo (formerly stylized as lenovo), is a Chinese multinational technology company with headquarters in Beijing, China and Morrisville, North Carolina.

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LGP-30

The LGP-30, standing for Librascope General Purpose and then Librascope General Precision, was an early off-the-shelf computer.

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Library (computing)

In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.

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LibreOffice

LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.

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Light pen

A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer's CRT display.

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LINC

The LINC (Laboratory INstrument Computer) is a 12-bit, 2048-word transistorized computer.

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Linus Torvalds

Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.

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Linux

Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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Linux kernel

The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.

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LinuxMCE

LinuxMCE (Linux Media Center Edition) is a free and open source software platform with a 10-foot user interface designed to allow a computer to act as a home theater PC (HTPC) for the living-room TV, personal video recorder, and home automation system.

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List of computer system manufacturers

The following is a list of notable computer system manufacturers.

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List of home computers

The home computers between 1977 and about 1990 were different from today's uniform and predictable machines.

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Live CD

A live CD (also live DVD, live disc, or live operating system) is a complete bootable computer installation including operating system which runs directly from a CD-ROM or similar storage device into a computer's memory, rather than loading from a hard disk drive.

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Local area network

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.

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Logitech

Logitech International S.A. (commonly referred to as Logitech or Logi; stylized as logitech, previously LOGITECH) is a Swiss provider of personal computer and mobile accessories, with its headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland and administrative headquarters in Newark, California.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Loudspeaker

A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.

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M.2

M.2, formerly known as the Next Generation Form Factor (NGFF), is a specification from 2013 for internally mounted computer expansion cards and associated connectors.

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Mac OS X Leopard

Mac OS X Leopard (version 10.5) is the sixth major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

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Mac OS X Lion

Mac OS X Lion (version 10.7) is the eighth major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

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Mac OS X Snow Leopard

Mac OS X Snow Leopard (version 10.6) is the seventh major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

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Macintosh

The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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MacOS

macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

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MacOS High Sierra

macOS High Sierra (version 10.13) is the fourteenth major release of macOS, Apple Inc.'s desktop operating system for Macintosh computers.

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MacOS Sierra

macOS Sierra (version 10.12) is the thirteenth major release of macOS (previously), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

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Macworld

Macworld is a web site dedicated to products and software of Apple Inc., published by Mac Publishing, which is headquartered in San Francisco, California.

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Magnetic stripe card

A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card.

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Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.

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Mains electricity

Mains electricity (as it is known in the UK; US terms include grid power, wall power, and domestic power) is the general-purpose alternating-current (AC) electric power supply.

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Market share of personal computer vendors

The annual worldwide market share of personal computer vendors includes desktop computers, laptop computers and netbooks, but excludes mobile devices, such as tablet computers that do not fall under the category of 2-in-1 PCs.

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MCM/70

The MCM/70 was a pioneering microcomputer first built in 1973 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and released the next year, making it one of the first microcomputers in the world, the second to be shipped in completed form, and the first portable computer.

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Media player (software)

A media player is a computer program for playing multimedia files like videos, movies and music.

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Media server

A media server refers either to a dedicated computer appliance or to a specialized application software, ranging from an enterprise class machine providing video on demand, to, more commonly, a small personal computer or NAS (Network Attached Storage) for the home, dedicated for storing various digital media (meaning digital videos/movies, audio/music, and picture files).

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Michael Dell

Michael Saul Dell (born February 23, 1965) is an American businessman, investor, philanthropist, and author.

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Micral

Micral is a series of microcomputers produced by the French company Réalisation d'Études Électroniques (R2E), beginning with the Micral N in early 1973.

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Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems

Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) was an American electronics company founded in Albuquerque, New Mexico that began manufacturing electronic calculators in 1971 and personal computers in 1975.

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MicroATX

microATX (sometimes referred to as µATX, uATX or mATX) is a standard for motherboards that was introduced in December 1997.

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Microcomputer

A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).

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Microcomputer revolution

The microcomputer revolution (or personal computer revolution or digital revolution) is a phrase used to describe the rapid advances of microprocessor-based computers from esoteric hobby projects to a commonplace fixture of homes in industrial societies during the 1970s and 1980s.

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Microphone

A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.

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Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.

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Microsoft Tablet PC

Microsoft Tablet PC is a term coined by Microsoft for tablet computers conforming to a set of specifications announced in 2001 by Microsoft, for a pen-enabled personal computer, conforming to hardware specifications devised by Microsoft and running a licensed copy of Windows XP Tablet PC Edition operating system or a derivative thereof.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Middleware

Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system.

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Minicomputer

A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.

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MIR (computer)

The MIR series of early Soviet personal computers was developed from 1965 (MIR), 1968 (MIR-1) to 1969 (MIR-2) in a group headed by Victor Glushkov.

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Mobile computing

Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video.

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Mobile device

A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

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Mobile operating system

No description.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Modem

A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

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Motherboard

A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.

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MS-DOS

MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.

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Multi-monitor

Multi-monitor, also called multi-display and multi-head, is the use of multiple physical display devices, such as monitors, televisions, and projectors, in order to increase the area available for computer programs running on a single computer system.

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Multimedia

Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.

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MythTV

MythTV is a free and open-source home entertainment application with a simplified "10-foot user interface" design for the living-room TV.

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Netbook

Netbook is a generic name given to a category of small, lightweight, legacy-free, and inexpensive laptop computers that were introduced in 2007.

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NetBSD

NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Nettop

A nettop (or miniature PC, Mini PC or Smart Micro PC) is a small-sized, inexpensive, low-power, legacy-free desktop computer designed for basic tasks such as Internet surfing, accessing web-based applications, document processing, and audio/video playback.

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Network interface controller

A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

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NeXT

NeXT (later NeXT Computer and NeXT Software) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.

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Novell

Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah.

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NVM Express

NVM Express (NVMe) or Non-Volatile Memory Host Controller Interface Specification (NVMHCIS) is an open logical device interface specification for accessing non-volatile storage media attached via a PCI Express (PCIe) bus.

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Olivetti

Olivetti S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of typewriters, computers, tablets, smartphones, printers and other such business products as calculators and fax machines.

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OLPC XO

The OLPC XO, previously known as the $100 Laptop, Children's Machine, and 2B1, is an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world, to provide them with access to knowledge, and opportunities to "explore, experiment and express themselves" (constructionist learning).

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One Laptop per Child

One Laptop per Child (OLPC) is a non-profit initiative established with the goal of transforming education for children around the world; this goal was to be achieved by creating and distributing educational devices for the developing world, and by creating software and content for those devices.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.

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Optical disc drive

In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disc drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs.

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Oracle Corporation

Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.

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Origin (digital distribution software)

Origin is an online gaming, digital distribution and digital rights management (DRM) platform developed by Electronic Arts that allows users to purchase games on the internet for PC and mobile platforms, and download them with the Origin client (formerly EA Download Manager, EA Downloader and EA Link).

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OS X El Capitan

OS X El Capitan (version 10.11) is the twelfth major release of OS X (now named macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

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OS X Mavericks

OS X Mavericks (version 10.9) is the tenth major release of OS X (now named macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

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OS X Mountain Lion

OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth major release of OS X (now named macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

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OS X Yosemite

OS X Yosemite (version 10.10) is the eleventh major release of OS X (now named macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

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Osborne 1

The Osborne 1 was the first commercially successful portable microcomputer, released on April 3, 1981, by Osborne Computer Corporation.

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Parallel ATA

Parallel ATA (PATA), originally, is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disk drives, floppy disk drives, and optical disc drives in computers.

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Parallel port

A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers (personal and otherwise) for connecting peripherals.

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PARC (company)

PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.

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Paul Terrell

Paul Terrell is an American businessman.

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PC game

PC games, also known as computer games or personal computer games, are video games played on a personal computer rather than a dedicated video game console or arcade machine.

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PC Magazine

PC Magazine (shortened as PCMag) is an American computer magazine published by Ziff Davis.

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PC World

PC World, stylized PCWorld, is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG.

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PC-9800 series

The, commonly shortened to PC-98, is a lineup of Japanese 16-bit and 32-bit personal computers manufactured by NEC from 1982 through 2000.

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PCI Express

PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe or PCI-e, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.

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Peripheral

A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.

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Personal Computer Museum

The Personal Computer Museum is located in Brantford, Ontario, Canada, located in a former city building that is built from reclaimed bricks from the Brantford Opera House.

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Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.

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Pet food

Pet food is plant or animal material intended for consumption by pets.

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Philips

Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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Pier Giorgio Perotto

Pier Giorgio Perotto (Turin, December 24, 1930 – Genoa, January 23, 2002) was an Italian electrical engineer and inventor.

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Plastic

Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

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Pocket-sized computer

Pocket-sized computer describes the post-programmable calculator / pre-smartphone pocket-sized portable-office hardware devices that included the earlier DOS-based palmtops and subsequent Windows-CE handhelds, as well as a few other terms, primarily covering the 1980s thru 2007.

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Pointing device

A pointing device is an input interface (specifically a human interface device) that allows a user to input spatial (i.e., continuous and multi-dimensional) data to a computer.

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Portable computer

A portable computer was a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another and included a display and keyboard.

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Portable media player

A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files.

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Portmanteau

A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.

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Power supply unit (computer)

A power supply unit (or PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC power for the internal components of a computer.

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Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

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Printer (computing)

In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.

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Programma 101

The Olivetti Programma 101, also known as Perottina or P101, is the first commercial programmable "desktop computer" Produced by Italian manufacturer Olivetti, based in Ivrea, Piedmont, and invented by the Italian engineer Pier Giorgio Perotto, the P101 had the main features of large computers of that period.

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Public computer

A public computer (or public access computer) is any of various computers available in public areas.

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Quiet PC

A quiet PC is a personal computer that makes very little, or no noise.

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QWERTY

QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets.

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Radio-frequency identification

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.

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RadioShack

RadioShack, formally RadioShack Corporation, is the trade name of an American retailer founded in 1921, which operates a chain of electronics stores.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Razer Inc.

Razer Inc. (stylized as RΛZΞR), is a global gaming hardware manufacturing company established in 2005 by Singaporean entrepreneur Min-Liang Tan and Robert Krakoff, after securing huge investment from Hong Kong tycoon Li Ka-shing and Singapore's Temasek Holdings.

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Reason Foundation

The Reason Foundation is an American libertarian think tank founded in 1978.

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Red Hat

Red Hat, Inc. is an American multinational software company providing open-source software products to the enterprise community.

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Reference monitor

In operating systems architecture a reference monitor concept defines a set of design requirements on a reference validation mechanism, which enforces an access control policy over subjects' (e.g., processes and users) ability to perform operations (e.g., read and write) on objects (e.g., files and sockets) on a system.

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Richard Stallman

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.

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Router (computing)

A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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S-100 bus

The S-100 bus or Altair bus, IEEE696-1983 (withdrawn), was an early computer bus designed in 1974 as a part of the Altair 8800.

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SageTV

SageTV Media Center, now open source, was a proprietary, commercial DVR (Digital Video Recording) and HTPC (Home theater PC) software for Mac OS X, Windows and Linux.

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Samsung Electronics

Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korean: 삼성전자; Hanja: 三星電子 (Literally "tristar electronics")) is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. Through having an extremely complicated ownership structure with some circular ownership, it is the flagship company of the Samsung Group, accounting for 70% of the group's revenue in 2012. Samsung Electronics has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 308,745 people. It is the world's largest information technology company, consumer electronics maker and chipmaker by revenue. As of October 2017, Samsung Electronics' market cap stood at US$372.0 billion. Samsung has long been a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, semiconductors, chips, flash memory and hard drive devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia. It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones and smartphones, started with the original Samsung Solstice and later fueled by the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices. The company is also a major vendor of tablet computers, particularly its Android-powered Samsung Galaxy Tab collection, and is generally regarded as pioneering the phablet market through the Samsung Galaxy Note family of devices. Samsung has been the world's largest television manufacturer since 2006, and the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones since 2011. It is also the world's largest memory chips manufacturer. In July 2017, Samsung Electronics overtook Intel as the largest semiconductor chip maker in the world. Samsung, like many other South Korean family-run chaebols, has been criticized for low dividend payouts and other governance practices that favor controlling shareholders at the expense of ordinary investors. In 2012, Kwon Oh-hyun was appointed the company's CEO but announced in October 2017 that he would resign in March 2018, citing an "unprecedented crisis".

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SCSI

Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices.

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Serial ATA

Serial ATA (SATA, abbreviated from Serial AT Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives.

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Serial port

In computing, a serial port is a serial communication interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time (in contrast to a parallel port).

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Server (computing)

In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

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Shuttle Inc.

Shuttle Inc. (TAIEX:2405) is a Taiwan-based manufacturer of motherboards, barebone computers, complete PC systems and monitors.

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Signal

A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

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Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.

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Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition

The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC) is a San Jose, California-based research and advocacy group that promotes safe environmental practices in the high tech industry.

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Sinclair Research

Sinclair Research Ltd is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair in Cambridge.

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Smartphone

A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Softmodem

A softmodem (software modem) is a modem with minimal hardware that uses software running on the host computer, and the computer's resources (especially the central processing unit, random access memory, and sometimes audio processing), in place of the hardware in a conventional modem.

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Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Software industry

The software industry includes businesses for development, maintenance and publication of software that are using different business models, mainly either "license/maintenance based" (on-premises) or "Cloud based" (such as SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, MaaS, AaaS, etc.). The industry also includes software services, such as training, documentation, consulting and data recovery.

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Solaris (operating system)

Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

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Solid-state drive

A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently.

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Sony

is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

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Sound card

A sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs.

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Source code

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.

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Spreadsheet

A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.

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SRI International

SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.

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Stage lighting

Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts.

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Stan Frankel

Stanley Phillips "Stan" Frankel (1919 – May, 1978) was an American computer scientist.

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Static random-access memory

Static random-access memory (static RAM or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit.

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Steam (software)

Steam is a digital distribution platform developed by Valve Corporation, which offers digital rights management (DRM), multiplayer gaming, video streaming and social networking services.

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Steam Machine (hardware platform)

No description.

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Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Steve Jobs

Steven Paul Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur and business magnate.

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Steve Wozniak

Stephen Gary Wozniak (born on August 11, 1950), often referred to by the nickname Woz, is an American inventor, electronics engineer, programmer, philanthropist, and technology entrepreneur who co-founded Apple Computer, Inc.

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Stylus

A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery.

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Subnotebook

A subnotebook (also called an ultraportable, superportable or mini notebook) is a class of laptop (or 'notebook') computers that are smaller and lighter than a typical notebook.

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Sun Microsystems

Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.

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Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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System software

System software is computer software designed to provide a platform to other software.

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Tablet computer

A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.

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Tandy Corporation

Tandy Corporation was an American family-owned leather goods company based in Fort Worth, Texas.

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Tape drive

A tape drive is a data storage device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape.

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Television set

A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.

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The Mother of All Demos

"The Mother of All Demos" is a name retroactively applied to a landmark computer demonstration, given at the Association for Computing Machinery / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ACM/IEEE)—Computer Society's Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco, which was presented by Douglas Engelbart on 9 December, 1968.

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The NPD Group

The NPD Group, Inc. (NPD; formerly National Purchase Diary Panel Inc. and NPD Research Inc.) is an American market research company founded on September 28, 1966 and based in Port Washington, New York.

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The Washington Times

The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.

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Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display

A Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT LCD) is a variant of a liquid-crystal display (LCD) that uses thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology to improve image qualities such as addressability and contrast.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Time Person of the Year

Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...

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Time-sharing

In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.

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Touchscreen

A touchscreen is an input and output device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system.

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Toughened glass

Toughened or tempered glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass.

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TRS-80

The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores.

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Typewriter

A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.

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U.2

U.2, formerly known as SFF-8639, is a computer interface for connecting SSDs to a computer.

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Ultra-mobile PC

An ultra-mobile PC (ultra-mobile personal computer or UMPC) is a miniature version of a pen computer, a class of laptop whose specifications were launched by Microsoft and Intel in spring 2006.

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Unified Extensible Firmware Interface

The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is a specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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Unix

Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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Unix-like

A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.

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Uplay

Uplay is a digital distribution, digital rights management, multiplayer and communications service developed by Massive Entertainment to provide an experience similar to the achievements/trophies offered by various other game companies.

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Usability

Usability is the ease of use and learnability of a human-made object such as a tool or device.

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USB

USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.

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USB flash drive

A USB flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.

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User interface

The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.

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VIA C7

The VIA C7 is an x86 central processing unit designed by Centaur Technology and sold by VIA Technologies.

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VIA Technologies

VIA Technologies Inc., is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory.

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Victor Glushkov

Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov (a; August 24, 1923 – January 30, 1982) was a Soviet mathematician, the founding father of information technology in the Soviet Union, and one of the founders of Cybernetics.

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Video card

A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).

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Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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Videocassette recorder

A videocassette recorder, VCR, or video recorder is an electromechanical device that records analog audio and analog video from broadcast television or other source on a removable, magnetic tape videocassette, and can play back the recording.

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Volatile memory

Volatile memory, in contrast to non-volatile memory, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information; it retains its contents while powered on but when the power is interrupted, the stored data is quickly lost.

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Walt Mossberg

Walter S. Mossberg (born March 27, 1947) is an American journalist.

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Wang 2200

The Wang 2200 appeared in May 1973, and was Wang Laboratories' first minicomputer that could perform data processing in a common computer language.

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Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Web application

In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.

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Web browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.

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Web page

A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.

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Webcam

A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through a computer to a computer network.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Windows 10

Windows 10 (codenamed Redstone, formerly Threshold) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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Windows 8

Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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Windows Media Center

Windows Media Center (WMC) is a discontinued digital video recorder and media player created by Microsoft.

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Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile is a discontinued family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs.

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Windows Server 2016

Windows Server 2016 is a server operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems, developed concurrently with Windows 10.

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Windows XP

Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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Wintel

Wintel is a portmanteau of Windows and Intel, referring to personal computers using Intel x86-compatible processors running Microsoft Windows.

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Wood

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Word processor

A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.

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Workstation

A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.

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X86

x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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Xerox

Xerox Corporation (also known as Xerox, stylized as xerox since 2008, and previously as XEROX or XeroX from 1960 to 2008) is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document solutions, and document technology products in more than 160 countries.

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Xerox Alto

The Xerox Alto is the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface (GUI), later using the desktop metaphor.

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Zip drive

The Zip drive is a removable floppy disk storage system that was introduced by Iomega in late 1994.

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ZX Spectrum

The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.

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ZX80

The Sinclair ZX80 is a home computer brought to market in 1980 by Science of Cambridge Ltd.

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ZX81

The ZX81 is a home computer that was produced by Sinclair Research and manufactured in Dundee, Scotland by Timex Corporation.

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1,000,000,000

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

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1964 New York World's Fair

The 1964/1965 New York World's Fair held over 140 pavilions, 110 restaurants, for 80 nations (hosted by 37), 24 US states, and over 45 corporations to build exhibits or attractions at Flushing Meadows Park in Queens, NY.

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1984 (advertisement)

"1984" is an American television commercial that introduced the Apple Macintosh personal computer.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer

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