131 relations: Abhidharma, Abnormal psychology, Abraham Maslow, Albert Bandura, Alfred Adler, American Journal of Medical Genetics, Art, Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, B. F. Skinner, Barnum effect, Behavioral epigenetics, Behaviorism, Behavioural genetics, Behavioural sciences, Big Five personality traits, Biology, Bobo doll experiment, British Psychological Society, Buddhism, Buddhist personality types, C. Robert Cloninger, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Cassandra B. Whyte, Charles Darwin, Clark L. Hull, Classical conditioning, Clinical psychology, Cognition, Cognitive-experiential self-theory, Darwinism, David Keirsey, Differential psychology, Drive theory, E. B. Ford, Eduard Spranger, Ego psychology, Electroencephalography, Emotion, Enneagram of Personality, Explanatory style, Extraversion and introversion, Factor analysis, Four temperaments, Free will, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Genetics, George Kelly (psychologist), Gordon Allport, Heinz Kohut, ..., Holland Codes, Human Genome Project, Human nature, Humanistic psychology, Id, ego and super-ego, Idiographic image, Individual, Individual psychological assessment, Industrial and organizational psychology, Isabel Briggs Myers, Ivan Pavlov, John Dollard, John L. Holland, Journal of Individual Differences, Karen Horney, Latin, Lithuanians, Mask, Meditation, Memory, Meyer Friedman, MIT Press, Monoamine oxidase A, Motivation, Multivariate statistics, Myers–Briggs Type Indicator, Narcissism, Natural selection, Neal E. Miller, Neuroticism, Nomothetic and idiographic, Operant conditioning, Paradigm, Person, Personal construct theory, Personality, Personality test, Personality type, Philosophy, Phineas Gage, Polymorphism (biology), Positron emission tomography, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamics, Psychological Types, Psychological typologies, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Qualia, Repertory grid, Richard Herrnstein, Robert W. White (psychologist), Rorschach test, Science, Science (journal), Self-actualization, Self-concealment, Self-concept, Self-esteem, Sigmund Freud, Social learning theory, Socionics, Stimulus (physiology), Team composition, Thematic apperception test, Trait leadership, Trait theory, True self and false self, Twin, Twin study, Type A and Type B personality theory, Type theory, Uniqueness, Universality (philosophy), Vasopressin receptor 1A, Walter Mischel, Will (philosophy), William Moulton Marston, Yale University, 5-HTTLPR. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
Abhidharma (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma (Pali) are ancient (3rd century BCE and later) Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist sutras, according to schematic classifications.
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.
Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925) is a psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University.
Alfred W. Adler(7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.
American Journal of Medical Genetics is a peer-reviewed medical journal dealing with human genetics published in three separate sections (parts) by Wiley-Liss.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Aušra Augustinavičiūtė (April 4, 1927 – August 19, 2005) was a Lithuanian psychologist and sociologist, and dean of the Vilnius Pedagogical University's department of family science, author of numerous scientific theories and discoveries, and the founder of socionics.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
The Barnum effect, also called the Forer effect, is a common psychological phenomenon whereby individuals give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically to them but that are, in fact, vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people.
Behavioral epigenetics is the field of study examining the role of epigenetics in shaping animal (including human) behaviour.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.
The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five factor model (FFM), is a taxonomy for personality traits.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The Bobo doll experiment was the collective name of experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 when he studied children's behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll, a toy that gets up by itself to a standing position when it is knocked down.
The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism has developed a complex psychology of personality types (Pali: Puggala-paññatti), personality traits and underlying tendencies (anusaya).
Claude Robert Cloninger (born April 4, 1944) is an American psychiatrist and geneticist noted for his research on the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual foundation of both mental health and mental illness.
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology.
Cassandra Bolyard Whyte is an American higher education administrator, teacher, and educational researcher.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Clark Leonard Hull (May 24, 1884 – May 10, 1952) was an American psychologist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST) is a dual-process model of perception developed by Seymour Epstein.
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
David West Keirsey (August 31, 1921 – July 30, 2013) was an American psychologist, a professor emeritus at California State University, Fullerton, and the author of several books.
Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that underlie it.
In psychology, a drive theory or drive doctrine is a theory that attempts to define, analyze, or classify the psychological drives.
Edmund Brisco "Henry" Ford (23 April 1901 – 2 January 1988) was a British ecological geneticist.
Eduard Spranger (27 June 1882 – 17 September 1963) was a German philosopher and psychologist.
Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis rooted in Sigmund Freud's structural id-ego-superego model of the mind.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
The Enneagram of Personality, or simply the Enneagram (from the Greek words and), is a model of the human psyche which is principally understood and taught as a typology of nine interconnected personality types.
Explanatory style is a psychological attribute that indicates how people explain to themselves why they experience a particular event, either positive or negative.
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories.
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.
The Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
George Kelly (born George Alexander Kelly; April 28, 1905–March 6, 1967) was an American psychologist, therapist, educator and personality theorist.
Gordon Willard Allport (November 11, 1897 – October 9, 1967) was an American psychologist.
Heinz Kohut (3 May 1913 – 8 October 1981) was an Austrian-American psychoanalyst best known for his development of self psychology, an influential school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory which helped transform the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches.
The Holland Codes or the Holland Occupational Themes (RIASEC) refers to a theory of careers and vocational choice (based upon personality types) that was initially developed by American psychologist John L. Holland.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.
The id, ego, and super-ego are three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche.
In the field of clinical sciences, an idiographic image (from Greek ιδιος-γραφιχος: ídios + graphikós, meaning "to describe a peculiarity") is the representation of a result which has been obtained thanks to a study or research method whose subject-matters are specific cases, i.e. a portrayal which avoids nomothetic generalizations.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
Individual psychological assessment (IPA) is a tool used by organizations to make decisions on employment.
Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O psychology), which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, and work and organizational psychology, is an applied discipline within psychology.
Isabel Briggs Myers (October 18, 1897 – May 5, 1980) was an American author and co-creator of a personality inventory known as the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
John Dollard (29 August 1900 – 8 October 1980) was an American psychologist and social scientist best known for his studies on race relations in America and the frustration-aggression hypothesis he proposed with Neal E. Miller and others.
John Lewis Holland"Award for distinguished scientific applications of psychology: John L. Holland." American Psychologist, Vol 63(8), Nov 2008, 672-674.
The Journal of Individual Differences is an academic journal covering personality psychology published by Hogrefe Publishing.
Karen Horney (16 September 1885 – 4 December 1952) was a German psychoanalyst who practiced in the United States during her later career.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
A mask is an object normally worn on the face, typically for protection, disguise, performance, or entertainment.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Meyer Friedman (July 13, 1910–April 27, 2001) was an American cardiologist who developed, with colleague R.H. Rosenman, the theory that the "Type A" behavior of chronically angry and impatient people raises their risk of heart attacks.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Multivariate statistics is a subdivision of statistics encompassing the simultaneous observation and analysis of more than one outcome variable.
The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire with the purpose of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.
Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's own attributes.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Neal Elgar Miller (August 3, 1909 – March 23, 2002) was an American experimental psychologist.
Neuroticism is one of the Big Five higher-order personality traits in the study of psychology.
Nomothetic and idiographic are terms used by Kantian philosopher Wilhelm Windelband to describe two distinct approaches to knowledge, each one corresponding to a different intellectual tendency, and each one corresponding to a different branch of academe.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.
Personal construct theory or personal construct psychology (PCP) is a theory of personality and cognition developed by the American psychologist George Kelly in the 1950s.
Personality is defined as the set of habitual behaviors, cognitions and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors.
A personality test is a method of assessing human personality constructs.
Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of individuals.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Phineas P. Gage (18231860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage".
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
The Professional Psychology: Research and Practice is a peer-reviewed, English language journal published six times per year by the American Psychological Association (APA).
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychodynamics, also known as psychodynamic psychology, in its broadest sense, is an approach to psychology that emphasizes systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early experience.
Psychological Types is Volume 6 in the Princeton / Bollingen edition of The Collected Works of C. G. Jung.
Psychological typologies are classifications used by psychologists to describe the distinctions between people.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
The repertory grid is an interviewing technique which uses nonparametric factor analysis to determine an idiographic measure of personality.
Richard J. Herrnstein (May 20, 1930 – September 13, 1994) was an American psychologist and sociologist.
Robert W. White (1904–2001) was an American psychologist whose professional interests centered on the study of personality, both normal and abnormal.
The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways.
Self-concealment (SC) is a psychological construct defined as "a predisposition to actively conceal from others personal information that one perceives as distressing or negative".
One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself.
Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Social learning theory is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others.
Socionics, in psychology and sociology, is a theory of information processing and personality type, distinguished by its information model of the psyche (called "Model A") and a model of interpersonal relations.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
Team composition refers to the overall mix of characteristics among people in a team, which is a unit of two or more individuals who interact interdependently to achieve a common objective.
Thematic apperception test (TAT) is a projective psychological test.
Trait leadership is defined as integrated patterns of personal characteristics that reflect a range of individual differences and foster consistent leader effectiveness across a variety of group and organizational situations (Zaccaro, Kemp, & Bader, 2004).
In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality.
True self (also known as real self, authentic self, original self and vulnerable self) and false self (also known as fake self, idealized self, superficial self and pseudo self) are psychological concepts often used in connection with narcissism.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.
Type A and Type B personality theory describes two contrasting personality types.
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.
Uniqueness is a state or condition wherein someone or something is unlike anything else in comparison.
In philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism.
Vasopressin receptor 1A (V1AR), or arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (officially called AVPR1A) is one of the three major receptor types for vasopressin (AVPR1B and AVPR2 being the others), and is present throughout the brain, as well as in the periphery in the liver, kidney, and vasculature.
Walter Mischel (born February 22, 1930) is an Austrian-born American psychologist specializing in personality theory and social psychology.
Will, generally, is that faculty of the mind which selects, at the moment of decision, the strongest desire from among the various desires present.
William Moulton Marston (May 9, 1893 – May 2, 1947), also known by the pen name Charles Moulton, was an American psychologist, inventor of an early prototype of the lie detector, self-help author, and comic book writer who created the character Wonder Woman.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) is a degenerate repeat polymorphic region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter.
Central trait, Personalities, Personality Psychology, Personality genetics, Personality profile, Personality profiling, Personality psychologist, Personality studies, Personality study, Personality theory.