62 relations: Acceleration, Arithmetic, Astronomy, Atmosphere, Celestial mechanics, Chaos theory, Circle, Comet, Comet Hale–Bopp, Computer, Conic section, Conjunction (astronomy), Discovery of Neptune, Drag (physics), Earth, Equations of motion, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Fundamental ephemeris, Gas giant, Geometry, Gravitational constant, Isaac Newton, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Development Ephemeris, Jupiter, Kepler orbit, Lunar theory, Mass, Mechanical calculator, Moon, N-body problem, Navigation, Nereid (moon), Newton's law of universal gravitation, Newton's laws of motion, Numerical integration, Orbit modeling, Orbit of the Moon, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital elements, Orbital period, Orbital resonance, Osculating orbit, Philip Herbert Cowell, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Planet, Position (vector), Proper orbital elements, Satellite, Saturn, Series expansion, ..., Significant figures, Solar System, Spheroid, Stability of the Solar System, Standard gravitational parameter, Star, Sun, Three-body problem, Two-body problem, Uranus, Variation of parameters, Venus. Expand index (12 more) »

## Acceleration

In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.

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## Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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## Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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## Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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## Celestial mechanics

Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.

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## Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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## Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape.

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## Comet

A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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## Comet Hale–Bopp

Comet Hale–Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) is a comet that was perhaps the most widely observed of the 20th century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades.

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## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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## Conic section

In mathematics, a conic section (or simply conic) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane.

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## Conjunction (astronomy)

In astronomy, a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, usually as observed from Earth.

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## Discovery of Neptune

The planet Neptune was mathematically predicted before it was directly observed.

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## Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

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## Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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## Equations of motion

In physics, equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time.

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## Formation and evolution of the Solar System

The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.

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## Fundamental ephemeris

A fundamental ephemeris of the Solar System is a model of the objects of the system in space, with all of their positions and motions accurately represented.

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## Gas giant

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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## Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

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## Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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## Jet Propulsion Laboratory Development Ephemeris

The name Jet Propulsion Laboratory Development Ephemeris (followed by a number), the abbreviation JPL DE(number), or just DE(number) designates one of a series of models of the Solar System produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, primarily for purposes of spacecraft navigation and astronomy.

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## Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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## Kepler orbit

In celestial mechanics, a Kepler orbit (or Keplerian orbit) is the motion of one body relative to another, as an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, which forms a two-dimensional orbital plane in three-dimensional space.

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## Lunar theory

Lunar theory attempts to account for the motions of the Moon.

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## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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## Mechanical calculator

A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.

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## Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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## N-body problem

In physics, the -body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of celestial objects interacting with each other gravitationally.

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## Navigation

Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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## Nereid (moon)

Nereid is the third-largest moon of Neptune.

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## Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

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## Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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## Numerical integration

In numerical analysis, numerical integration constitutes a broad family of algorithms for calculating the numerical value of a definite integral, and by extension, the term is also sometimes used to describe the numerical solution of differential equations.

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## Orbit modeling

Orbit modeling is the process of creating mathematical models to simulate motion of a massive body as it moves in orbit around another massive body due to gravity.

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## Orbit of the Moon

The Moon orbits Earth in the prograde direction and completes one revolution relative to the stars in about 27.322 days (a sidereal month) and one revolution relative to the Sun in about 29.530 days (a synodic month).

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## Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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## Orbital elements

Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.

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## Orbital period

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

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## Orbital resonance

In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.

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## Osculating orbit

In astronomy, and in particular in astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it would have about its central body if perturbations were not present.

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## Philip Herbert Cowell

Philip Herbert Cowell FRS (7 August 1870, Calcutta – 6 June 1949) was a British astronomer.

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## Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

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## Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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## Position (vector)

In geometry, a position or position vector, also known as location vector or radius vector, is a Euclidean vector that represents the position of a point P in space in relation to an arbitrary reference origin O. Usually denoted x, r, or s, it corresponds to the straight-line from O to P. The term "position vector" is used mostly in the fields of differential geometry, mechanics and occasionally vector calculus.

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## Proper orbital elements

The proper orbital elements of an orbit are constants of motion of an object in space that remain practically unchanged over an astronomically long timescale.

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## Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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## Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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## Series expansion

In mathematics, a series expansion is a method for calculating a function that cannot be expressed by just elementary operators (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division).

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## Significant figures

The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.

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## Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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## Spheroid

A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.

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## Stability of the Solar System

The stability of the Solar System is a subject of much inquiry in astronomy.

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## Standard gravitational parameter

In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter μ of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the body.

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## Star

A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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## Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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## Three-body problem

In physics and classical mechanics, the three-body problem is the problem of taking an initial set of data that specifies the positions, masses, and velocities of three bodies for some particular point in time and then determining the motions of the three bodies, in accordance with Newton's laws of motion and of universal gravitation, which are the laws of classical mechanics.

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## Two-body problem

In classical mechanics, the two-body problem is to determine the motion of two point particles that interact only with each other.

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## Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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## Variation of parameters

In mathematics, variation of parameters, also known as variation of constants, is a general method to solve inhomogeneous linear ordinary differential equations.

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## Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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## Redirects here:

Gravitational perturbation, Gravitational perturbations, Orbital Perturbation, Perturbations (astronomy).

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perturbation_(astronomy)