306 relations: Abasyn University, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, Afghan refugees, Afghanistan, Afridi, Afsharid dynasty, Agricultural University Peshawar, Agriculture, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Ahmadiyya, Akbar, Al-Biruni, Al-Masudi, Alexander Burnes, Alexander the Great, Ali Mardan Khan, All Saints Church, Peshawar, Anglican Communion, Antigone (Sophocles play), Arbab Niaz Stadium, Army Stadium, Peshawar, Asian Development Bank, Attock, Aurangzeb, Awam Express, Awami National Party, Ayman Udas, Azim Khan, Ürümqi, Bab-e-Khyber, Babur, Baburnama, Bacha Khan, Bacha Khan International Airport, Badminton, Bagh-e-Tatara, Bagram, Bahadur Shah I, Bahrain, Bala Hissar, Peshawar, Bannu, Battle of Nowshera, Battle of Peshawar (1001), Battle of Peshawar (1758), Bihar, Bollywood, Boxing, Buddhism, Bukhara, ..., Buner District, Bus rapid transit, CECOS University of Information Technology and Emerging Sciences, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Chamkani, Pakistan, Charles Allen (writer), Charsadda, Chatra (umbrella), China, China–Pakistan Economic Corridor, Chowk Yadgar, City University of Science and Information Technology, Common Era, Cunningham Clock Tower, Daewoo Express, Dal Khalsa (Sikh Army), Daulat Khan Lodi, Dera Ismail Khan, Digital economy, Dilazak, Dost Mohammad Khan (Emir of Afghanistan), Durand Line, Durrani Empire, Edwardes College, Engineering, Faxian, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Field hockey, Football, Further education, Gandhara, Gandhara University, George Trebeck, Ghaznavids, Gigyani tribe, Gilding, Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, Gondophares, Gorakhnath, Gorkhatri, Governor's House (Peshawar), Grand Trunk Road, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Greco-Buddhist art, Gross domestic product, Gurdwara, Hari Singh Nalwa, Haveli, Hayatabad, Hayatabad Sports Complex, Hazara Motorway, Hephthalite Empire, Hinayana, Hindko, Hindu, Hippie trail, Humanities, Humayun, India, Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Indus Highway, Indus River, Institute of Management Sciences (Peshawar), Inter-Services Intelligence, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, Iqra National University, Islamabad, Islamia College University, Israel, Jalozai, Jambudvipa, Jayapala, Jinnah Park, Peshawar, Judaism, Kabul, Kabul Shahi, Kanishka, Kanishka casket, Kanishka III, Kanishka stupa, Kapoor Haveli, Karachi, Karachi–Peshawar Line, Karakoram Highway, Kashgar, Köppen climate classification, Khudai Khidmatgar, Khushhal Khan Khattak Express, Khyber Girls Medical College, Khyber Mail (passenger train), Khyber Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Khyber Pass, Khyber train safari, Kidarites, Kohat, Kohat Tunnel, Kotla Mohsin Khan, Kujula Kadphises, Kushan Empire, Lahore, Landi Kotal, List of districts of Pakistan by Human Development Index, List of most populous cities in Pakistan, List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, Lodi dynasty, M1 motorway (Pakistan), M2 motorway (Pakistan), M4 motorway (Pakistan), Mahabat Khan Mosque, Mahatma Gandhi, Mahavihara, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mahmud Shah Durrani, Makassar, Malaysia, Management science, Mansehra, Maratha Empire, Mardan, Maurya Empire, Mayor of Peshawar, Medicine, Megasthenes, Mongol Empire, Monsoon, Mortimer Durand, Mughal Empire, Muhammad of Ghor, Mujahideen, Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, Nader Shah, Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire, Nath, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Operation Zarb-e-Azb, Pakistan, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority, Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan Standard Time, Pakistan Super League, Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, Paolo Avitabile, Parthia, Parthian Empire, Partition of India, Pashto, Pashto Academy, Pashtuns, Pataliputra, Patna, Persian language, Pervez Musharraf, Peshawar Cantonment, Peshawar Cantonment railway station, Peshawar church bombing, Peshawar City railway station, Peshawar Club Ground, Peshawar District, Peshawar Gymkhana Ground, Peshawar Museum, Peshawar Panthers, Peshawar Ring Road, Peshawar Zalmi, Peshawar Zoo, Peter Hopkirk, Pilgrim, Pir Roshan, Preston University (Pakistan), Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prithviraj Kapoor, Pushkalavati, Qasim Ali Khan Mosque, Qatar, Qayyum Stadium, Qissa Khawani Bazaar, Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre, Queen Victoria, Qurtuba University, Ranjit Singh, Rawalpindi, Roshaniyya, Sabuktigin, Salang Pass, Samaa TV, Sana'a, Sanskrit, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Science, Scythians, Second Anglo-Sikh War, Seleucid Empire, Seleucid–Mauryan war, Seleucus I Nicator, Semi-arid climate, Sethi Mohallah, Shah Jahan, Shah Mahmud Khan, Shah Shujah Durrani, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Shahi Bagh, Shapur I, Sharia, Sher Shah Suri, Sikh, Sindh, Sister city, Socialism in Pakistan, Song Yun, Sophocles, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Special economic zone, Squash (sport), Swat District, Swimming, Syed Ahmad Khan, Takht-i-Bahi, Taliban, Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, Test cricket, The Great Game (Peter Hopkirk book), Timur Shah Durrani, TransPeshawar, Union councils of Pakistan, United Arab Emirates, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United States invasion of Afghanistan, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, University of Peshawar, Valley of Peshawar, Vasudeva I, War in Afghanistan, War in Afghanistan (1978–present), War in North-West Pakistan, Wazir Bagh, William Moorcroft (explorer), World Bank, Wrestling, Xinjiang, Xuanzang, Yogi, Yusufzai, Zoroastrianism, 1960 U-2 incident, 2014 Peshawar school massacre, 2017 Census of Pakistan. 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The Abasyn University is a private research university located in the residential neighborhood of Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Shaikh Abu al-Fazal ibn Mubarak (ابو الفضل) also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami (14 January 1551 – 12 August 1602) was the Grand vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbar's reign in three volumes, (the third volume is known as the Ain-i-Akbari) and a Persian translation of the Bible.
Afghan refugees are nationals of Afghanistan who left their country as a result of major wars or persecution.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Afrīdī (اپريدی Aprīdai, plur. اپريدي Aprīdī; آفریدی) is a Pashtun tribe present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
The University of Agriculture, Peshawar (UAP; جامعہ زرعیہ پشاور، یا زرعی یونیورسٹی پشاور; د کرنې پوهنتون، پېښور), is a research university located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahmad Hasan Dani (Urdu: احمد حسن دانی) FRAS, SI, HI (20 June 1920 – 26 January 2009), was a Pakistani intellectual, archaeologist, historian, and linguist.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
Captain Sir Alexander Burnes (16 May 1805 – 2 November 1841) was a British explorer and diplomat associated with The Great Game.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali Mardan Khan (علی مردان خان, علی مردان خان) (died April 1657) was a Kurdish military leader and administrator, serving under the Safavid kings Shah Abbas I and Shah Safi, and later the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan.
All Saints' Church located inside the Kohati Gate of the old walled city of Peshawar in Pakistan, is a parish of the Church of Pakistan.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Antigone (Ἀντιγόνη) is a tragedy by Sophocles written in or before 441 BC.
Arbab Niaz Stadium is an international cricket ground located at Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Army Stadium Peshawar also known as Karnal Sher Khan Stadium is located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Attock City (Punjabi, Urdu), formerly Campbellpore or Campbellpur until 1978, is a city located in northern part of Punjab province of Pakistan near the capital of Islamabad in the Panjistan region, and is the headquarters of Attock District.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
Awam Express (عوام ایکسپریس) is a passenger train operated daily by Pakistan Railways between Karachi and Peshawar.
The Awami National Party (ملي عوامي ګوند, عوامی نيشنل پارٹی; Acronym: ANP), is a secular and leftist Pashtun nationalist political party in Pakistan.
Aiman Udas was a singer and songwriter in Peshawar, Pakistan.
Azim Khan (عظیم خان) was an ethnic Pashtun and the governor of Kashmir during the period 1810-1816.
Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.
Bab-e-Khyber (Pashto and; "Khyber Gate") Naveed Hussain 22 January 2012 Express Tribune Retrieved 29 May 2014 is a monument which stands at the entrance of the Khyber Pass in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
Bāburnāma (Chagatai/بابر نامہ;´, literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur.
Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988), nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, lit.
Bacha Khan International Airport (باچا خان بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا; د باچا خان نړیوال هوایی ډګر), previously called Peshawar International Airport (د پېښور نړیوال هوائی ډګر), is an international airport located in the city of Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.
Tatara Park located at Hayatabad Phase 1 Peshawar.
Bagram (بگرام) is a town and seat in Bagram District in Parwan Province of Afghanistan, about 60 kilometers north of the capital Kabul.
Bahadur Shah (بہادر شاه اول—) (14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712), also known as Muhammad Muazzam and Shah Alam was the seventh Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bala Hissar (Pashto and قلعه بالا حصار), also spelt Bala Hisar, is a historic fortress located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Banū or Bannu (باني ګل / بنو, بنوں) is the principal city of the Bannu District in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Battle of Nowshera was fought in March 1823 between the forces of Pashtun tribesmen with support from Azim Khan Barakzai, Durrani governor against the Sikh Khalsa Army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Battle of Peshawar, was fought on 27 November 1001 between the Ghaznavid army of Sultan Mahmud bin Sebuktigin (Mahmud of Ghazni) and the Hindu Shahi army of Jayapala, near Peshawar.
The Battle of Peshawar took place on 8 May 1758 between Maratha Empire and the Durrani Empire.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Buner District (د بونیر ولسوالی) is a district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Bus rapid transit (BRT, BRTS, busway, transitway) is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system.
CECOS University Of IT and Emerging Sciences is a Government Chartered University in Peshawar, Pakistan.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chamkani (څمکنۍ) is the name of a village.
Charles Allen (born 1940) is a British freelance writer and popular historian who lives in London.
Charsadda (چارسده, چارسده) is a town and headquarters of Charsadda District, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The chatra (from छत्र, meaning "umbrella") is an auspicious symbol in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (پاكستان-چین اقتصادی راہداری; also known by the acronym CPEC) is a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan.
Chowk Yadgar (چوک یادگار; “Memorial Square”), formerly Hasting’s Memorial, is a famous landmark in the old walled city of Peshawar.
'City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar (CUSIT) is a private-sector university based in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Cunningham Clock Tower (کننگہام گھنٹہ گھر) in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, was built in 1900, "in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Empress".
Daewoo Pakistan Express Bus Service Ltd (DPEBSL) or Daewoo Express is an inter-city common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 60 destinations in Pakistan and is headquartered in Lahore.
Dal Khalsa was the name of the Sikh army that operated in the 18th century (1747–1780) in the Punjab region.
Daulat Khan Lodi (Pashto: دولت خان لودی) was the governor of Lahore during the reign of Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty.
Dera Ismail Khan (Urdu:, ډېره اسماعيل خان, ډېره اسماعيل خان), often abbreviated to D.I. Khan, is a city in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
Digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital computing technologies.
The Dilzak (Urdu: دلزاک) is a Pashtun tribe, primarily living in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Dost Mohammad Khan (دوست محمد خان, December 23, 1793June 9, 1863) was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
The Durand Line (د ډیورنډ کرښه) is the international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Edwardes College is the oldest higher education institution in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Faxian (337 – c. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka between 399-412 to acquire Buddhist texts.
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; قبایلي سیمې، منځنۍ پښتونخوا; وفاقی منتظم شدہ قبائیلی علاقہ جات) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in 2018.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal.
Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the higher education (HE) offered in universities and other academic institutions.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gandhara University is a private university located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
George Trebeck (1800-1825) was born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Gigyani or Gigyaani is a tribe of Pashtuns.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.
The Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated on 20 June 1887 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June 1837.
Gondophares I was the founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom in western Pakistan.
Gorakhnath (also known as Goraksanath, estimated c. early 11th century) was an influential founder of the Nath Hindu monastic movement in India.
Gorkhatri (ګورکټړۍ; Hindko and Urdu: گورکهٹڑی) (or Gor Khuttree; literally meaning "Warrior's Grave") is a caravanserai built over the site of ancient ruins in Peshawar, Pakistan.
The Governor's House in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan is a historic building and has a secret tunnel from the left side mosque to the Bala Hisar Fort it is about 1.25 km long, amidst what is now a park.
The Grand Trunk Road is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
Hari Singh Nalwa (Nalua) (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire.
Haveli is a traditional townhouse or mansion in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh, usually one with historical and architectural significance.
Hayatabad is a modern suburb on the south-western fringe of Peshawar, the capital of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Hayatabad Sports Complex is located in Hayatabad, Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. The sport complex was formally inaugurated after renovation by PTI chairman Imran Khan in October 2016.
Hazara Motorway (Hindko/ہزارہ موٹروے, د هزاره موٹروے), formerly referred to as E35 Expressway or Hazara Expressway is a 180 kilometer controlled-access motorway linking the Burhan Interchange near Hasan Abdal in Punjab province with Haripur, Havelian, Abbottabad, Mansehra, Shinkiari, Battagram, and Thakot in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
"Hīnayāna" is a Sanskrit term literally meaning the "inferior vehicle".
Hindko (ہندکو ALA-LC) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The hippie trail (also the overland) is the name given to the overland journey taken by members of the hippie subculture and others from the mid-1950s to the late 1970s between Europe and South Asia, mainly through Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (including Jammu and Kashmir) and Nepal.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty and other rulers who were a group of ancient kings from Central Asia that ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India, during or slightly before the 1st century AD.
The Indus Highway (شاہراہ سندھ), also known as National Highway 55 (N-55) (قومی شاہراہ 55), is a 1264 km long four-lane national highway that runs along the Indus River in Pakistan connecting the port city of Karachi with the northwestern city of Peshawar via Dera Ghazi Khan.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Institute of Management Sciences (also known as IMSciences) is a degree-granting institution located in Peshawar, Pakistan.
The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
Iqra National University (INU) (Iqrā (iq-raa) Arabic-إقرا; translation: "Read") is a private university in Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Islamia College, Peshawar (اسلامیہ کالج پشاور) is a public research university located in midst of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jalozai (جلوزی, جلوزی) (also Jailozai and Jallozai) is a village located in Nowshera District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.
Jambudvīpa (जम्बुद्वीप.) is the dvīpa ("island" or "continent") of the terrestrial world, as envisioned in the cosmologies of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, which is the realm where ordinary human beings live.
Jayapala, was the ruler of the Hindu Shahi dynasty from 964 to 1001 CE.
Jinnah Park is a public park located in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called ShahiyaSehrai, Fidaullah (1979).
Kanishka I (कनिष्क), or Kanishka the Great, was the emperor of the Kushan dynasty in the second century (c. 127–150 CE).
The Kanishka casket or Kanishka reliquary, is a Buddhist reliquary made in gilded copper, and dated to the first year of the reign of the Kushan emperor Kanishka, in 127 CE.
Kanishka III was a Kushan emperor who reigned for a short period around the year 268 CE.
The Kanishka stupa was a monumental stupa established by the Kushan king Kanishka during the 2nd century CE in today's Shaji-ki-Dheri on the outskirts of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Kapoor Haveli is a residential building in the city of Peshawar, in modern-day Pakistan.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line (Urdu) (also referred to as Main Line 1 or ML-1) is one of four main railway lines in Pakistan, operated and maintained by Pakistan Railways.
The N-35 or National Highway 35 (قومی شاہراہ 35), known more popularly as the Karakoram Highway (شاہراہ قراقرم) and China-Pakistan Friendship Highway, is a 1300 km national highway in Pakistan which extends from Hasan Abdal in Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).
Khushhal Khan Khattak Express (خوشحال خان خٹک ایکسپریس) is a passenger train operated daily by Pakistan Railways between Karachi and Peshawar.
Khyber Girls Medical College (خیبر خواتین طبی کالج, د خیبر ښځو طب پوهنځی) is the first public sector medical college for girls in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which came into existence in May 2004 as a female Campus of KMC Peshawar.
Khyber Mail (خیبر میل) is a passenger train operated daily by Pakistan Railways between Karachi and Peshawar.
Khyber Medical College (خیبر طبی کالج, د خیبر طب پوهنځی) is a leading public medical institution located in the city of Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Khyber Medical University (جامعہ طبی خیبر, د خیبر طبي پوهنتون, abbreviated as KMU), is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
The Khyber train safari (خیبر بخار سفاری, د خیبر تپ صفري) is a tourist train, operated and maintained by Tourism Corporation of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Pakistan Railways between Peshawar and Attock Khurd.
The Kidarites (Chinese: 寄多羅 Jiduolo) were a dynasty of the "Ki" clan named after their ruler Kidara.
Kohat (کوهاټ, کوہاٹ), is a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan which serves as the capital of the Kohat District.
The Kohat Tunnel (کوہاٹ سرنگ, Kohat Sarang) is a highway tunnel under the Khigana Mountains between Kohat District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Frontier Region Kohat in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
Kotla Mohsin Khan (کوټلا محسن خان, کوٹلا محسن خان) is a historic gate located on Kohat Road in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, and also serves as a neighbourhood.
Kujula Kadphises (Kushan language: Κοζουλου Καδφιζου, also Κοζολα Καδαφες; Kharoṣṭhī: Kujula Kasasa; Ancient Chinese: 丘就卻, Qiujiuque; reigned 30–80 CE, or 40-90 CE according to BopearachchiOsmund Bopearachchi, 2007) was a Kushan prince who united the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century CE, and became the first Kushan emperor.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lanḍī Kōtal (لنډي کوتل; لنڈی کوتل) or Lwāṛgai (لواړګی) is a town in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, and the administrative capital of Khyber Agency.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank some area by level of "human development" and separate developed (Very High development), developing (High and Medium development), and underdeveloped (Low development) areas.
This is a list of the most populous cities of Pakistan according to the 2017 census.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
The M1 motorway (موٹروے 1) or M1, is an east-west motorway in Pakistan, connecting Peshawar to Islamabad–Rawalpindi.
The M-2 motorway (موٹروے 2) is a north–south motorway in Pakistan, connecting Rawalpindi/Islamabad to Lahore.
The M4 (موٹروے 4) is a north-south motorway in Pakistan, currently under construction.
The Mahabat Khan Mosque (Pashto and مہابت خان مسجد), sometimes spelt Mohabbat Khan Mosque, is a 17th-century Mughal-era mosque in Peshawar, Pakistan.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Mahavihara is the Sanskrit and Pali term for a great vihara (Buddhist monastery) and is used to describe a monastic complex of viharas.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Mahmud Shah Durrani (1769 – April 18, 1829; Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic) was born Prince and the ruler of the Durrani Empire (Afghanistan) between 1801 and 1803, and again between 1809 and 1818.
Makassar (Buginese-Makassar language: ᨀᨚᨈ ᨆᨀᨔᨑ) – sometimes spelled Macassar – is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other sciences.
Mansehra (Hindko/Urdu/Pashto) is a city located in Mansehra District in the eastern part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Mardān (Pashto,; Urdu; Pashto) is located in Mardan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Nazim-e-Peshawar (ناظم پشاور) is the Mayor who heads the Municipal Corporation of Peshawar (MCP) which controls the City District Government of Peshawar.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, (14 February 1850 – 8 June 1924) was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The Muttahida Majlis–e–Amal (MMA) (Urdu:; lit. United Council of Action), is a political alliance consisting of ultra–conservative, Islamist, religious, and far-right parties of Pakistan.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded the Mughal Empire, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739.
Nath, also called as Natha, are a Shaivism sub-tradition within Hinduism.
The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (Initials: NUCES and FAST-NU) (نيشنل يونيورسٽي آف ڪمپيوٽر اينڊ امرجنگ سائنسز) is a public research university in Pakistan.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Nowshera (Pashto: نوښار, pr. Nowkhaar) is the chief city of Nowshera District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, and is one of the largest cities in the province.
Operation Zarb-e-Azb (Pashto/آپریشن ضربِ عضب ALA-LC) was a joint military offensive conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces against various militant groups, including the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, al-Qaeda, Jundallah and the Haqqani network. The operation was launched on 15 June 2014 in North Waziristan along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border as a renewed effort against militancy in the wake of the 8 June attack on Jinnah International Airport in Karachi, for which the TTP and the IMU claimed responsibility. As of 14 July 2014, the operation internally displaced about 929,859 people belonging to 80,302 families from North Waziristan. Part of the war in North-West Pakistan, up to 30,000 Pakistani soldiers were involved in Zarb-e-Azb, described as a "comprehensive operation" to flush out all foreign and local militants hiding in North Waziristan. The operation has received widespread support from the Pakistani political, defence and civilian sectors. As a consequence, the overall security situation improved and terrorist attacks in Pakistan dropped to a six-year low since 2008. Zarb-e-Azb was followed by Operation Radd-ul-Fasaad which began in February 2017, following a resurgence in terrorist incidents.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (ادارہ شماریات پاکستان, abbreviated as PBS) is the Government of Pakistan government agency commissioned charged with the national statistical services and to provide solid and comprehensive statistical research.
Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (پاکستان سول ایوی ایشن اتھارٹی) (abbreviated as PCAA) is a public sector autonomous body, which oversees and regulates all aspects of civil aviation in Pakistan.
The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.
Pakistan Standard Time (پاکستان معیاری وقت, abbreviated as PST or sometimes PKT) is UTC+05:00 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Pakistan Super League (پاکستان سپر لیگ; PSL) is a Twenty20 cricket league, founded in Lahore on 9 September 2015 with five teams and now comprises six teams.
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) (پاکستان تحريک انصاف, English: Pakistan Movement for Justice) is a political party in Pakistan founded in 1996 by former national cricket captain Imran Khan.
General Paolo Crescenzo Martino Avitabile (Abu Tabela) (25 October 1791 – 28 March 1850) was an Italian soldier, mercenary and adventurer.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Pashto Academy (پښتو اکېډمي) is a language regulatory institution based at the University of Peshawar in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan responsible for the standardisation, advancement, and promotion of Pashto language.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pataliputra (IAST), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.
Peshawar Cantonment (پشاور چھاؤنی, د پیښور کنډک) is a garrison located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Peshawar Cantonment railway station (پشاور اردوگاه ریلوے اسٹیشن, د پېښور اردوگاه اورګاډي سټيشن) (often abbreviated as Peshawar Cantt) is the principal railway station in the Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
On 22 September 2013, a twin suicide bomb attack took place at All Saints Church in Peshawar, Pakistan, in which 127 people were killed and over 250 injured.
Peshawar City railway station (پشاور شہر ریلوے اسٹیشن, د پېښور ښار اورګاډي سټيشن) is one of two major railway stations in the Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Peshawar Club Ground is a cricket ground in Peshawar, Pakistan, used for one Test match between India and Pakistan.
Peshawar District (ضلع پشاور, ضلع پېښور) is a district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Peshawar Gymkhana Ground is a Club cricket ground located in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Peshawar Museum (پشاور میوزیم.(colloquial); پشاور عجائب گھر (official)) is a museum located in Peshawar, capital of Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
The Peshawar Panthers are a domestic T20 and List A cricket team based in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Peshawar Ring Road (پشاور مداری سڑک, د پېښور حلقوي سړک, also known officially as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Highway 13) is a orbital highway located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan.
Peshawar Zalmi (پېښور زلمي; پشاور زلمی; Peshawar Youth) is a Pakistani franchise T20 cricket team which plays in the Pakistan Super League and represents Peshawar, the capital city of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Peshawar zoo in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, is established in 2018.
Peter Hopkirk (15 December 1930 – 22 August 2014) was a British journalist, author and historian who wrote six books about the British Empire, Russia and Central Asia.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
Pīr Bāyazīd Khān (پير بايزيد خان), more commonly known as Pīr Rōshān or Pīr Rōkhān (پیر روښان, "the enlightened Pir"; پیر روشن) (1525 – 1581/1585), was an Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, Sufi master, and freedom fighter from the Ormur tribe of Waziristan.
Preston University (Pakistan) (پرسٽن يونيورسٽي) is a university in Pakistan.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
Prithviraj Kapoor (3 November 1906– 29 May 1972) born Prithvinath Kapoor, was a pioneer of Indian theatre and of the Hindi film industry, who started his career as an actor in the silent era of Hindi cinema, associated with IPTA as one of its founding members and who founded the Prithvi Theatres, a travelling theatre company based in Mumbai, in 1944.
Pushkalavati (Pashto and) was the capital of the Gandhara kingdom.
The Qasim Ali Khan Mosque (Urdu) is a 17th-century mosque in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Qayum Stadium also known as Peshawar Sport Complex is located in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan.
The Qissa Khwani Bazaar (کيسه خوانې بازار, قصہ خوانی بازار; "Story-tellers' Bazaar") is a bazaar in Peshawar, the capital of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The massacre at the Qissa Khawani Bazaar (the Storytellers Market) in Peshawar, British India (modern day Pakistan) on 23 April 1930 was one of the defining moments of the independence movement in British India.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Qurtuba University (QU) was established in 2001.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Roshaniyya (روښاني غورځنګ, "the enlightened movement") was a populist, nonsectarian Sufi reformation movement founded in 16th-century by the Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, Pīr Bāyazīd Khān, who is more commonly known as Pīr Roshān or Pīr Rokhān ("the enlightened Pir (sufi master)").
Abu Mansur Sabuktigin (ابو منصور سبکتگین) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as Sabuktagin, Sabuktakin, Sebüktegin and Sebük Tigin, was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 367 A.H/977 A.D to 387 A.H/997A.D.C.E. Bosworth, in Encyclopaedia Iranica.
The Salang Pass (كتل سالنگ, el.) is nowadays the major mountain pass connecting northern Afghanistan with Parwan Province, with onward connections to Kabul Province, southern Afghanistan, and to the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
SAMAA TV (سماء) is a Pakistani news and entertainment television network.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology is an institute of higher education in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seleucid–Mauryan War was fought between 305 and 303 BCE.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Sethi Mohallah (سیٹھی محلہ), sometimes called Sethian Mohallah, is an old and traditionally arranged neighbourhood in the old city of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan (سردار شاه محمود خان - b:1890 d: 27 December 1959) was the Prime Minister of Afghanistan from May 1946 to 7 September 1953.
Shuja Shah Durrani Khan (also known as Shāh Shujāʻ, Shah Shuja, Shoja Shah, Shuja al-Mulk) (4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809.
Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, previously known as the Frontier Women University, is in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Shahi Bagh (شاهي باغ, شاهي باغ) is one of the oldest and largest gardens in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.
Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.
Song Yun was a Chinese Buddhist monk who was sent by the devout Buddhist Empress Hu (胡, ?-528 CE) of the Northern Wei Dynasty with some companions including the monk Hui Zheng, Fa Li and Zheng (or Wang) Fouze, to northwestern India to search for Buddhist texts.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
Swāt (Pashto, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through fresh or salt water, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival.
Syed Ahmad Taqvi bin Syed Muhammad Muttaqi KCSI (سید احمد خان.; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, was an Indian Muslim pragmatist, Islamic reformist, philosopher of nineteenth century British India and the first who named the term "Two Nation theory" to the theory of separate nation of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Born into a family with strong ties with Mughal court, Syed studied the Quran and sciences within the court. He was awarded honorary LLD from the University of Edinburgh. In 1838, Syed Ahmad entered the service of East India Company and went on to become a judge at a Small Causes Court in 1867, and retired from service in 1876. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he remained, loyal to the British Empire and was noted for his actions in saving European lives.Glasse, Cyril, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press, (2001) After the rebellion, he penned the booklet ''The Causes of the Indian Mutiny'' – a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western–style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organising Muslim entrepreneurs. In 1859, Syed established Gulshan School at Muradabad, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a scientific society for Muslims in 1864. In 1875, founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, the first Muslim university in South Asia. During his career, Syed repeatedly called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Empire and promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims. Syed heavily critiqued the Indian National Congress. Syed maintains a strong legacy in Pakistan and Indian Muslims. He strongly influenced other Muslim leaders including Allama Iqbal and Jinnah. His advocacy of Islam's rationalist (Muʿtazila) tradition, and at broader, radical reinterpretation of the Quran to make it compatible with science and modernity, continues to influence the global Islamic reformation. Many universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Sir Syed's name. Aligarh Muslim University celebrated his 200th birth centenary with much enthusiasm on 17 October 2017. Former President of India shri Pranab Mukherjee was the chief guest.
Takht-i-Bahi (تختِ باہی; "Throne of the water spring"), commonly mispronounced as Takht-i-Bhai (تخت بھائی; "Brother's throne"), is an Indo-Parthian archaeological site of an ancient Buddhist monastery in Mardan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; تحریک طالبان پاکستان; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Taliban, is a terrorist group which is an umbrella organization of various militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan.
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard.
The Great Game: On Secret Service in High Asia (published as The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia in the USA) is a book on the history of the region by Peter Hopkirk.
Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic:; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793.
TransPeshawar (ٹرانز پشاور; ټرانز پيښور) is a bus rapid transit system currently under construction by the Peshawar Development Authority (PDA) in Peshawar, capital of Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province.
A Union Council (شیروان, Sherwan) forms the second-tier of local government and fifth administrative division in Pakistan.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred after the September 11 attacks in late 2001, supported by close allies.
The University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar (UET Peshawar) is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The University of Peshawar (جامعۂ پشاور; د پېښور پوهنتون; abbreviated UoP; known more popularly as Peshawar University), is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Valley of Peshawar is a broad valley situated in northern Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
Vasudeva I (Kushano Bactrian: ΒΑΖΟΔΗΟ "Bazodeo", Chinese: 波調 "Bodiao") fl. 200 CE (AD), was a Kushan emperor, last of the "Great Kushans." Named inscriptions dating from year 64 to 98 of Kanishka's era suggest his reign extended from at least 191 to 232 CE.
War in Afghanistan, or Afghan war, may refer to.
This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the communist military coup on 27 April 1978, known as the Saur Revolution, when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power.
The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), TNSM, al-Qaeda, and their Central Asian allies such as the ISIL–Khorasan (ISIL), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkistan Movement, Emirate of Caucasus, and elements of organized crime.
Wazir Bagh (Pashto, Urdu: وزير باغ) is a historical old 18th century garden in Peshawar, Pakistan.
William Moorcroft (1767 – 27 August 1825) was an English explorer employed by the East India Company.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
A yogi (sometimes spelled jogi) is a practitioner of yoga.
The Yūsufzai, also called Yousafzai, is a tribe of Pashtun people found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan, and in some eastern parts of Afghanistan.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.
On 16 December 2014, six gunmen affiliated with the Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) conducted a terrorist attack on the Army Public School in the northwestern Pakistani city of Peshawar.
The 2017 Census of Pakistan was a detailed enumeration of the Pakistani population which began on 15 March 2017 and ended on 25 May 2017.
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