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Pesticide

Index Pesticide

Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds. [1]

192 relations: Acaricide, Acetolactate synthase, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Adsorption, Alachlor, Algae, Algaecide, Animal repellent, Ant, Antimicrobial, Arable land, Arsenic, Atrazine, Australia, Avicide, Bacteria, Bactericide, Bangladesh, BBC News, Bee, Bioaccumulation, Bioavailability, Biocide, Biodiversity, Biofouling, Biological pest control, Biomagnification, Biopesticide, Bird, Birth defect, Cameroon, Canada, Carbamate, Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, Carcinogen, Central nervous system, Ceratitis capitata, China, Chlordane, Chrysanthemum, Cochliomyia hominivorax, Codex Alimentarius, Colony collapse disorder, Crop protection, Crop rotation, Crop yield, DCMU, DDT, Disinfectant, ..., Ecological pyramid, Ecosystem, Emulsion, Endangered species, Entomopathogenic fungus, Environmental degradation, European Union, Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Fish, Flazasulfuron, Flea, Flower, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Drug Administration, Food chain, Food Quality Protection Act, Fumigation, Fungicide, Fungus, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified maize, Global distillation, Glyphosate, Groundskeeping, Halogen, Hectare, Herbicide, Honey bee, Imidacloprid, Index of pesticide articles, Indonesia, Insect, Insect growth regulator, Insect repellent, Insecticide, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Integrated pest management, Invasive species, Lead, Lipophilicity, Liver, Lymantria dispar dispar, Maize, Malaria, Mammal, Mating, Mercury (element), Metsulfuron-methyl, Mexico, Microorganism, Mite, Mode of action, Mold, Mollusca, Molluscicide, Mosquito, Mouse, Mutagen, Nectar, Nematicide, Nematode, Neonicotinoid, Nicotine, Oomycete, Orders of magnitude (currency), Organic compound, Organism, Organochloride, Organophosphate, Parasitism, Pathogen, Paul Hermann Müller, Pediculicide, Persistent organic pollutant, Pest (organism), Pest control, Pesticide drift, Pesticide misuse, Pesticide poisoning, Pesticide residue, Pesticide resistance, Pheromone, Pheromone trap, Phytoalexin, Piscicide, Plant, Poison, Pollen, Pollinator, Pollinator decline, Polyculture, Potato cyst nematode, Predation, Pyrethrin, Pyrethroid, Pyrethrum, Rachel Carson, Restricted use pesticide, Rigveda, Rodent, Rodenticide, Rotenone, Scilliroside, Silent Spring, Snail, Soil contamination, Solvent, Sterile insect technique, Stillbirth, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Strychnine, Sulfate, Sulfometuron methyl, Sulfur, Surfactant, Sweden, Synapse, Systematic review, Tobacco, Toxaphene, Toxicity class, Transgene, Trap crop, Tsetse fly, United Nations Environment Programme, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vector (epidemiology), Vegetable, Virucide, Virus, Wasp, Water pollution, Weed, West Nile virus, WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, World Health Organization, Xylem, Yellow fever, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Expand index (142 more) »

Acaricide

Acaricides are pesticides that kill members of the arachnid subclass Acari, which includes ticks and mites.

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Acetolactate synthase

The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and micro-organisms.

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Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Acetylcholinesterase

Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 3.1.1.7) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.

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Adsorption

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.

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Alachlor

Alachlor is an herbicide from the chloroacetanilide family.

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Algae

Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Algaecide

Algaecide or algicide is a biocide used for killing and preventing the growth of algae.

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Animal repellent

Animal repellents are products designed to keep certain animals away from objects, areas, people, plants, or other animals.

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Ant

Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.

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Antimicrobial

An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.

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Arable land

Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

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Arsenic

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Atrazine

Atrazine is a herbicide of the triazine class.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Avicide

An avicide is any substance (normally, a chemical) which can be used to kill birds.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bactericide

A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bee

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Bioaccumulation

Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.

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Bioavailability

In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Biocide

A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.

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Biodiversity

Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biofouling

Biofouling or biological fouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or animals on wetted surfaces.

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Biological pest control

Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.

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Biomagnification

Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.

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Biopesticide

Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships.

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Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Cameroon

No description.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carbamate

A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH).

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Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio

A carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio or C:N ratio) is a ratio of the mass of carbon to the mass of nitrogen in a substance.

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Carcinogen

A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Ceratitis capitata

Ceratitis capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, or medfly for short, is a species of fruit fly capable of causing extensive damage to a wide range of fruit crops.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chlordane

Chlordane is a chemical compound and also part of a similarly named pesticide mixture resulting from synthesis (main components- heptachlor, chlordane, and nonachlor).

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Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemums, sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae.

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Cochliomyia hominivorax

Cochliomyia hominivorax, the New World screw-worm fly, or screw-worm for short, is a species of parasitic fly that is well known for the way in which its larvae (maggots) eat the living tissue of warm-blooded animals.

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Codex Alimentarius

The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.

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Colony collapse disorder

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is the phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees.

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Crop protection

Crop protection is the science and practice of managing plant diseases, weeds and other pests (both vertebrate and invertebrate)that damage agricultural crops and forestry.

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Crop rotation

Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.

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Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).

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DCMU

DCMU (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is an algicide and herbicide of the arylurea class that inhibits photosynthesis.

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DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.

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Disinfectant

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.

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Ecological pyramid

An ecological pyramid (also trophic pyramid, eltonian pyramid, energy pyramid, or sometimes food pyramid) is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or bio productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Emulsion

An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).

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Endangered species

An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.

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Entomopathogenic fungus

An entomopathogenic fungus is a fungus that can act as a parasite of insects and kills or seriously disables them.

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Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is a United States federal law that set up the basic U.S. system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment.

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Fish

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Flazasulfuron

Flazasulfuron is an organic compound that is used as a herbicide.

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Flea

Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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Flower

A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Food Quality Protection Act

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), or H.R.1627, was passed unanimously by Congress in 1996 and was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on August 3, 1996.

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Fumigation

Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.

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Fungicide

Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

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Genetically modified maize

Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.

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Global distillation

Global distillation or the grasshopper effect is the geochemical process by which certain chemicals, most notably persistent organic pollutants (POPs), are transported from warmer to colder regions of the Earth, particularly the poles and mountain tops.

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Glyphosate

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.

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Groundskeeping

Groundskeeping is the activity of tending an area of land for aesthetic or functional purposes; typically in an institutional setting.

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Halogen

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Hectare

The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.

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Herbicide

Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Honey bee

A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.

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Imidacloprid

Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects.

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Index of pesticide articles

This is an index of articles relating to pesticides.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Insect

Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Insect growth regulator

An insect growth regulator (IGR) is a substance (chemical) that inhibits the life cycle of an insect.

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Insect repellent

An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface.

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Insecticide

Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.

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Institute of Occupational Medicine

The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) was founded in 1969 by the National Coal Board (NCB) as an independent charity in the UK and retains this charitable purpose and status today.

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Integrated pest management

Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.

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Invasive species

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lipophilicity

Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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Liver

The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lymantria dispar dispar

Lymantria dispar dispar, commonly known as the gypsy moth, European gypsy moth, or North American gypsy moth, is a moth in the family Erebidae that is of Eurasian origin.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mating

In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Metsulfuron-methyl

Metsulfuron-methyl is an organic compound classified as a sulfonylurea herbicide, which kills broadleaf weeds and some annual grasses.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Mite

Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).

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Mode of action

A mode of action (MoA) describes a functional or anatomical change, at the cellular level, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance.

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Mold

A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

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Mollusca

Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Molluscicide

(), also known as snail baits and snail pellets, are pesticides against molluscs, which are usually used in agriculture or gardening, in order to control gastropod pests specifically slugs and snails which damage crops or other valued plants by feeding on them.

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Mosquito

Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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Mouse

A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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Mutagen

In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

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Nectar

Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.

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Nematicide

A nematicide is a type of chemical pesticide used to kill plant-parasitic nematodes.

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Nematode

The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Neonicotinoid

Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine.

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Nicotine

Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.

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Oomycete

Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.

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Orders of magnitude (currency)

This page is a progressive list of currency orders of magnitude, with examples.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Organochloride

An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.

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Organophosphate

Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.

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Parasitism

In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Paul Hermann Müller

Paul Hermann Müller also known as Pauly Mueller (12 January 1899 – 13 October 1965) was a Swiss chemist who received the 1948 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for his 1939 discovery of insecticidal qualities and use of DDT in the control of vector diseases such as malaria and yellow fever.

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Pediculicide

Pediculicides are substances used to treat lice (Pediculus humanus capitus).

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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Pest (organism)

A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.

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Pest control

Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.

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Pesticide drift

Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.

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Pesticide misuse

Under United States laws, pesticide misuse is the use of a pesticide in a way that violates laws regulating their use or endangers humans or the environment; many of these regulations are laid out in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).

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Pesticide poisoning

A pesticide poisoning occurs when chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as humans, wildlife, or bees.

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Pesticide residue

Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain on or in food after they are applied to food crops.

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Pesticide resistance

Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.

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Pheromone

A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Pheromone trap

A pheromone trap is a type of insect trap that uses pheromones to lure insects.

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Phytoalexin

Phytoalexins are antimicrobial and often antioxidative substances synthesized de novo by plants that accumulate rapidly at areas of pathogen infection.

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Piscicide

A piscicide is a chemical substance which is poisonous to fish.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Poison

In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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Pollen

Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).

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Pollinator

A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.

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Pollinator decline

The term pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide beginning at the end of the 20th century, and continuing into the present.

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Polyculture

Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, providing crop diversity in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture.

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Potato cyst nematode

Potato root nematodes or potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are 1-mm long roundworms belonging to the genus Globodera, which comprises around 12 species.

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Predation

Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Pyrethrin

The pyrethrins are a class of organic compounds normally derived from Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium that have potent insecticidal activity by targeting the nervous systems of insects.

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Pyrethroid

A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).

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Pyrethrum

Pyrethrum was a genus of several Old World plants now classified as Chrysanthemum or Tanacetum (e.g., C. coccineum) which are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads.

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Rachel Carson

Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.

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Restricted use pesticide

Restricted use pesticides or "RUP" are pesticides not available to the general public in the United States.

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Rigveda

The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Rodent

Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Rodenticide

Rodenticides, colloquially rat poison, are typically non-specific pest control chemicals made and sold for the purpose of killing rodents.

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Rotenone

Rotenone is an odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide.

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Scilliroside

Scilliroside is a toxic compound derived from the plant Drimia maritima (syn. Urginea maritima), which is sometimes used as a rodenticide.

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Silent Spring

Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson.

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Snail

Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.

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Soil contamination

Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Sterile insect technique

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological insect control, whereby overwhelming numbers of sterile insects are released into the wild.

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Stillbirth

Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.

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Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

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Strychnine

Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.

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Sulfate

The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Sulfometuron methyl

Sulfometuron methyl is an organic compound used as a herbicide.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Surfactant

Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Synapse

In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Systematic review

Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.

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Tobacco

Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Toxaphene

Toxaphene was an insecticide used primarily for cotton in the southern United States during the late 1960s and 1970s.

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Toxicity class

Toxicity class refers to a classification system for pesticides that has been created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization.

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Transgene

A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.

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Trap crop

A trap crop is a plant that attracts agricultural pests, usually insects, away from nearby crops.

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Tsetse fly

Tsetse, sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of tropical Africa.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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Vector (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.

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Vegetable

Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.

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Virucide

A virucide (pronounced /ˈvī-rə-ˌsīd/ and alternatively spelled viricide and viruscide) is an agent (physical or chemical) that deactivates or destroys viruses.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Wasp

A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.

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Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.

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Weed

A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".

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West Nile virus

West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes West Nile fever.

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WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme

The World Health Organization (WHO) Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) was established in 1960 for setting norms and standards for public health pesticides.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Xylem

Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.

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2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticide

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