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Peter Kropotkin

Index Peter Kropotkin

Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism. [1]

159 relations: Activism, Aide-de-camp, AK Press, Alexander Berkman, Alexander Herzen, Alexander II of Russia, AlterNet, Amur River, Anarchist schools of thought, Anarcho-communism, Aron Baron, Artificial scarcity, Autarky, Authority, Élisée Reclus, Émile Gautier, Bob Black, Bolsheviks, Brighton, Bromley, Capitalism, Charles Darwin, Charlotte Wilson, Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai, Circle of Tchaikovsky, Cleveland Hall, London, Colin Ward, Collectivism, Competition, Cooperation, Cossacks, Creativity, Criticism of capitalism, Demanding the Impossible, Desiccation, Dmitrov, Dover Publications, Emancipation reform of 1861, Emma Goldman, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Encyclopédistes, Errico Malatesta, Evolution, February Revolution, Feudalism, Fields, Factories and Workshops, Finland, François-Noël Babeuf, Francesco Saverio Merlino, Francis Galton, ..., Franz Kafka, Freedom Press, Friedrich Nietzsche, Geneva, Geography, Geography of Asia, George Bernard Shaw, George Woodcock, Gift economy, Harrow, London, Hazing, Henry Seymour (secularist), Herbert Spencer, History of France, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Ice age, Indigenous peoples, Individualist anarchism, International Workingmen's Association, Irkutsk, Jacobin (politics), Jean-Marie Guyau, John Scott Keltie, John Stuart Mill, Joseph R. Fisher, Jura Federation, Karl Kessler, Karl Marx, Katorga, Kōtoku Shūsui, Kirkpatrick Sale, Kropotkin (Miller biography), Kropotkinskaya, L. Susan Brown, Labor relations, Labor theory of value, Leadership, Leo Tolstoy, List of Russian anarchists, List of Russian philosophers, Living My Life, Louise Michel, Luigi Galleani, Lyon, Manchuria, Marie Le Compte, Mikhail Bakunin, Military academy, Mises Institute, Moscow Metro, Murray Bookchin, Mutual aid (organization theory), Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, Nestor Makhno, Neuchâtel, Noam Chomsky, Novodevichy Cemetery, October Revolution, Organized religion, Oscar Wilde, Page Corps, Palace of the Soviets, Paris Commune, Paul Avrich, Peter and Paul Fortress, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Propaganda of the deed, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Republicanism, Revolutionary, Royal Household, Rudolf Rocker, Rurik dynasty, Russian Empire, Russian Geographical Society, Russian Provisional Government, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg State University, Serfdom, Siberia, Sigmund Freud, Smolensk, Social Darwinism, Social privilege, Songhua River, Stephen Jay Gould, Surplus value, Sweden, Switzerland, The American Conservative, The Anarchist, The Anarchist Prince, The Conquest of Bread, The Geographical Journal, The National Archives (United Kingdom), The Russian Anarchists, Thonon-les-Bains, Transbaikal, University of Chicago Press, Vladimir Lenin, Voluntary society, Wage labour, Western philosophy, William Morris, World Digital Library, 19th-century philosophy, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (109 more) »


Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.

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An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.

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AK Press

AK Press is a worker-managed, independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical left and anarchist literature.

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Alexander Berkman

Alexander Berkman (November 21, 1870June 28, 1936) was a leading member of the anarchist movement in the early 20th century, famous for both his political activism and his writing.

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Alexander Herzen

Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (also Aleksandr Ivanovič Gercen, Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party).

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Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.

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AlterNet is a progressive news magazine owned by AlterNet Media, Inc.

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Amur River

The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).

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Anarchist schools of thought

Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful, The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy: Slevin, Carl.

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Anarcho-communism (also known as anarchist communism, free communism, libertarian communism and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property (while retaining respect for personal property) in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".

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Aron Baron

Aron Baron (Аро́н Дави́дович Ба́рон; 1 July 1891 – 12 August 1937) was an Bolshevik Revolutionary and Marxist Theorist, brother of the Red Cossacks Army Ataman Mikhail Baron.

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Artificial scarcity

Artificial scarcity describes the scarcity of items even though either the technology and production, or sharing capacity exists to create a theoretically limitless abundance, as well as the use of laws to create scarcity where otherwise there wouldn't be.

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Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.

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Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

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Élisée Reclus

Jacques Élisée Reclus (15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905) was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist.

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Émile Gautier

Émile Jean-Marie Gautier (19 January 1853 – 1937) was a French anarchist and later a journalist.

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Bob Black

Robert Charles "Bob" Black Jr. (born January 4, 1951) is an American anarchist.

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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.

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Bromley is a town in the London Borough of Bromley, Greater London, England, south east of Charing Cross.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Charlotte Wilson

Charlotte M. Wilson (6 May 1854, Kemerton, Worcestershire – 28 April 1944, Irvington-on-Hudson, New York) was an English Fabian and anarchist who co-founded Freedom newspaper in 1886 with Peter Kropotkin, and edited, published, and largely financed it during its first decade.

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Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai

Chita (p) is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, east of Irkutsk.

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Circle of Tchaikovsky

The Circle of Tchaikovsky, also known as Tchaikovtsy, Chaikovtsy, or the Grand Propaganda Society (Чайковцы, Большое общество пропаганды in Russian) was a Russian literary society for self-education and a revolutionary organization of the Narodniks in the early 1870s.

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Cleveland Hall, London

Cleveland Hall was a meeting hall in Cleveland Street, London that was a centre of the British secularist movement between 1861 and 1878, and that was then used for various purposes before becoming a Methodist meeting hall.

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Colin Ward

Colin Ward (14 August 1924 – 11 February 2010) was a British anarchist writer.

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Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.

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Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.

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Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.

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Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.

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Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.

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Criticism of capitalism

Criticism of capitalism ranges from expressing disagreement with the principles of capitalism in its entirety to expressing disagreement with particular outcomes of capitalism.

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Demanding the Impossible

Demanding the Impossible is a book on the history of anarchism by Peter Marshall.

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Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.

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Dmitrov (p) is a town and the administrative center of Dmitrovsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located to the north of Moscow on the Yakhroma River and the Moscow Canal.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Emancipation reform of 1861

The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (translit, literally: "the peasants Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms passed during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.

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Emma Goldman

Emma Goldman (1869May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

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The Encyclopédistes were members of the Société des gens de lettres, a French writer's society, who contributed to the development of the Encyclopédie from June 1751 to December 1765 under editors Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

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Errico Malatesta

Errico Malatesta (14 December 1853 – 22 July 1932) was an Italian anarchist.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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February Revolution

The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Fields, Factories and Workshops

Fields, Factories and Workshops: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work (Поля, фабрики и мастерские) is a landmark anarchist text by Peter Kropotkin, and arguably one of the most influential and positive statements of the anarchist political philosophy.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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François-Noël Babeuf

François-Noël Babeuf (23 November 1760 – 27 May 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period.

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Francesco Saverio Merlino

Francesco Saverio Merlino (9 September 1856 – 30 June 1930) was an Italian lawyer, anarchist activist and theorist of libertarian socialism.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.

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Freedom Press

Freedom Press is an anarchist publishing house in Whitechapel, London, United Kingdom.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geography of Asia

Geography of Asia reviews geographical concepts of classifying Asia, the central and eastern part of Eurasia, comprising approximately fifty countries.

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George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.

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George Woodcock

George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 – January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer of political biography and history, an anarchist thinker, an essayist and literary critic.

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Gift economy

A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.

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Harrow, London

Harrow is a large suburban town in the London Borough of Harrow, northwest London, England.

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Hazing (US English), initiation ceremonies (British English), bastardisation (Australian English), ragging (South Asia), or deposition, refers to the practice of rituals, challenges, and other activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new fraternity, sorority, team, or club.

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Henry Seymour (secularist)

Henry Albert Seymour (1861–1938) was a British secularist, individualist anarchist, gramophone innovator and survey author, and Baconian.

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Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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History of France

The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.

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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Individualist anarchism

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems.

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International Workingmen's Association

The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.

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Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.

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Jacobin (politics)

A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).

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Jean-Marie Guyau

Jean-Marie Guyau (October 28, 1854 – March 31, 1888) was a French philosopher and poet.

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John Scott Keltie

Sir John Scott Keltie (29 March 1840 – 12 January 1927) was a Scottish geographer, best known for his work with the Royal Geographical Society.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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Joseph R. Fisher

Joseph Robert Fisher (1855 – 26 October 1939) was a barrister, a newspaper editor, and an author from Ulster.

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Jura Federation

The Jura Federation represented the anarchist, Bakuninist faction of the First International during the anti-statist split from the organization.

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Karl Kessler

Karl Fedorovich Kessler (19 November 1815 – 3 March 1881) was a German-Russian zoologist and author of zoological taxa signed Kessler, who was mostly active in Kiev, Ukraine and conducted most of his studies of birds in Ukrainian regions of the Russian Empire - Kiev Governorate, Volyn Governorate, Kherson Governorate, Poltava Governorate and Bessarabia.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Katorga (p; from medieval and modern Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union (see Katorga labor in the Soviet Union).

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Kōtoku Shūsui

, better known by the nom de plume, was a Japanese socialist and anarchist who played a leading role in introducing anarchism to Japan in the early 20th century, particularly by translating the works of contemporary European and Russian anarchists, such as Peter Kropotkin, into Japanese.

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Kirkpatrick Sale

Kirkpatrick Sale (born June 27, 1937) is an independent scholar and author who has written prolifically about political decentralism, environmentalism, luddism and technology.

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Kropotkin (Miller biography)

Kropotkin is a biography of the Russian anarchist Peter Kropotkin written by Martin A. Miller and first published in 1976 by University of Chicago Press.

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Kropotkinskaya (p) is a station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line of the Moscow Metro.

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L. Susan Brown


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Labor relations

Labor relations is a field of study that can have different meanings depending on the context in which it is used.

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Labor theory of value

The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).

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Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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List of Russian anarchists

This is a list of Russian anarchists.

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List of Russian philosophers

Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements.

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Living My Life

Living My Life is the autobiography of Lithuanian-born anarchist Emma Goldman, published in two volumes in 1931 (Alfred A. Knopf) and 1934 (Garden City Publishing Company).

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Louise Michel

Louise Michel (29 May 1830– 9 January 1905) was a teacher and important figure in the Paris Commune.

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Luigi Galleani

Luigi Galleani (August 12, 1861 – November 4, 1931) was an Italian anarchist active in the United States from 1901 to 1919, viewed by historians as an insurrectionary anarchist.

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Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Marie Le Compte

Marie Le Compte was an American journal editor and anarchist who was active during the early 1880s.

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Mikhail Bakunin

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.

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Military academy

A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.

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Mises Institute

The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama, United States.

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Moscow Metro

The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki.

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Murray Bookchin

Murray Bookchin (January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006)was an American social theorist, author, orator, historian, and political philosopher.

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Mutual aid (organization theory)

In organization theory, mutual aid is a voluntary reciprocal exchange of resources and services for mutual benefit.

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Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a 1902 essay collection by Russian naturalist and anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin.

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Nestor Makhno

Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Father") Makhno (Не́стор Івáнович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S. November 7) – July 25, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine in 1917–22.

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Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel; (neu(f) "new" and chatel "castle" (château); Neuenburg; Neuchâtel; Neuchâtel or Neufchâtel)The city was also called Neuchâtel-outre-Joux (Neuchâtel beyond Joux) to distinguish it from another Neuchâtel in Burgundy, now Neuchâtel-Urtière.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Novodevichy Cemetery

Novodevichy Cemetery (Новоде́вичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Organized religion

Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.

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Page Corps

The Page Corps (Пажеский корпус; Corps des Pages) was a military academy in Imperial Russia, which prepared sons of the nobility and of senior officers for military service.

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Palace of the Soviets

The Palace of the Soviets (Дворец Советов, Dvorets Sovetov) was a project to construct an administrative center and a congress hall in Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (present-day Russian Federation) near the Kremlin, on the site of the demolished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.

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Paris Commune

The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.

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Paul Avrich

Paul Avrich (1931–2006) was a historian of the 19th and early 20th century anarchist movement in Russia and the United States.

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Peter and Paul Fortress

The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.

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Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.

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Propaganda of the deed

Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is specific political action meant to be exemplary to others and serve as a catalyst for revolution.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.

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A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.

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Royal Household

A royal household or imperial household in ancient and medieval monarchies, and papal household for popes, formed the basis for the general government of the country as well as providing for the needs of the sovereign and his relations.

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Rudolf Rocker

Johann Rudolf Rocker (March 25, 1873 – September 19, 1958) was an anarchist writer and activist.

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Rurik dynasty

The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Geographical Society

The Russian Geographical Society (Russian: Ру́сское географи́ческое о́бщество «РГО») (RGO) is a learned society based in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Russian Provisional Government

The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Saint Petersburg State University

Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.

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Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.

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Social Darwinism

The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.

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Social privilege

In sociology, privilege is a concept used for certain rights or advantages that are available only to a particular person or group of people.

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Songhua River

The Songhua River (also Haixi or Xingal, formerly Sunggari) is one of the primary rivers of China, and the largest tributary of the Amur River.

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Stephen Jay Gould

Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.

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Surplus value

Surplus value is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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The American Conservative

The American Conservative (TAC) is a bi-monthly magazine founded in 2002 and published by the American Ideas Institute, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, 501(c)(3) organization based in Washington, D.C., which states that it exists to promote a conservatism that opposes unchecked power in government and business; promotes the flourishing of families and communities through vibrant markets and free people; and embraces realism and restraint in foreign affairs based on America's vital national interests.

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The Anarchist

The Anarchist was a monthly newspaper produced in London, England between 1885–1888.

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The Anarchist Prince

The Anarchist Prince is a biography of Peter Kropotkin by George Woodcock and Ivan Avakumović.

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The Conquest of Bread

The Conquest of Bread (La Conquête du Pain; Хлеб и воля) is an 1892 book by the Russian anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin.

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The Geographical Journal

The Geographical Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).

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The National Archives (United Kingdom)

The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.

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The Russian Anarchists

The Russian Anarchists is a history book by Paul Avrich about the Russian anarchist movement from the 19th century to the Bolshevik revolution.

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Thonon-les-Bains (Tonon) is a town (commune) in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France.

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Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia (p), or Dauria (Даурия, Dauriya) is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) Lake Baikal in Russia.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Voluntary society

A voluntary society, voluntary community or voluntary city is one in which all property (including streets, parks, etc.) and all services (including courts, police, etc.) are provided through voluntary means, such as private or cooperative ownership.

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Wage labour

Wage labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour under a formal or informal employment contract.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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William Morris

William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.

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World Digital Library

The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.

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19th-century philosophy

In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.

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20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Kropotkin

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