185 relations: A View of Het Steen in the Early Morning, Adam van Noort, Albert Rubens, Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, Alexandre Dumas, Altarpiece, Angelica, Anna of Saxony, Anthony van Dyck, Antwerp, Antwerp school, Aphrodite of Knidos, Assumption of the Virgin Mary (Rubens), Balthasar I Moretus, Banqueting House, Whitehall, Baroque, Belgium, Biblioteca Museu Víctor Balaguer, Blenheim Palace, Bombardment of Brussels, Brussels, Calvinism, Canvas, Caravaggio, Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, Cathedral of Our Lady (Antwerp), Catholic Church, Charles I of England, Christie's, Christoffel Jegher, Cologne, Copyright, Cornelis Galle the Elder, Cornell University Press, Counter-Reformation, County of Nassau, Daniel in the Lions' Den (painting), Death of the Virgin (Caravaggio), Diego Velázquez, Doel, Dutch Golden Age painting, Dutch Republic, Elewijt Castle, English Civil War, Engraving, Ephemerality, Etching, Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, Flemish Baroque painting, Flemish people, ..., Florence, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval, 1st Duke of Lerma, Frans Snyders, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Genoa, Glasgow, Gout, Guild of Saint Luke, Habsburg Netherlands, Hans Holbein the Younger, HarperCollins, Helena Fourment, Hellenistic period, Henry IV of France, Het Pelsken, History painting, Holy Roman Empire, House of Habsburg, Hygieia, Icon, Inigo Jones, Isabella Brant, Isabella Clara Eugenia, Jacob Jordaens, Jan Brueghel the Elder, Jan Rubens, Joshua Reynolds, Kassel, Knight, Kunsthaus Zürich, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Laocoön and His Sons, Leonardo da Vinci, List of most expensive paintings, Lobkowicz Palace, Lost portrait of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, Louis XIII of France, Louvre, Low Countries, Lucas Vorsterman, Luxembourg Palace, Madonna of the Rosary (Caravaggio), Male gaze, Mannerism, Mantua, Marcantonio Raimondi, Maria Pypelinckx, Marie de' Medici, Marie de' Medici cycle, Massacre of the Innocents (Rubens), Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), Mauritshuis, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Michael Jaffé, Michelangelo, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux, Museo del Prado, National Gallery, National Gallery of Art, Nicolaas II Rockox, Nicolaas Rubens, Lord of Rameyen, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Oil sketch, Old Master, Old master print, Osterley Park, Otto van Veen, Palace of Whitehall, Palazzi di Genova, Panel painting, Paolo Veronese, Paul the Apostle, Paulus Pontius, Peter Paul Rubens, Phaidon Press, Philip II of Spain, Philip III of Spain, Philip IV of Spain, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Plantin Press, Polder, Pollok House, Pope Gregory I, Portrait of a Commander, Poussinists and Rubenists, Princeton University Press, Printmaking, Prometheus Bound (Rubens), Protestantism, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Raphael, Rembrandt, Renaissance humanism, Rome, Royal Collection, Royal entry, Rubenshuis, Saint Peter, Samson and Delilah (Rubens), Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Siegen, Slate, Solomon, Sotheby's, Spanish Netherlands, St. James' Church, Antwerp, St. Paul's Church, Antwerp, Still life, Suzanne Lilar, The Descent from the Cross (Rubens), The Elevation of the Cross (Rubens), The Entombment of Christ (Caravaggio), The Fall of the Damned, The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt, The Independent, The Judgement of Paris (Rubens), The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, Thomas Gainsborough, Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Tintoretto, Titian, Tobias Verhaecht, Treaty of Antwerp (1609), Twelve Years' Truce, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago Press, Venice, Venus (mythology), Venus de' Medici, Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, Willem Panneels, William the Silent, Woodcut. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
A View of Het Steen in the Early Morning, Château de Steen with Hunter or Het Steen is a landscape painting by Rubens, dating to around 1636.
Adam van Noort (1561/62 – 1641) was a Flemish painter and draughtsman and one of the teachers of Peter Paul Rubens.
Albert Rubens (1614–1657), was the eldest son of Peter Paul Rubens and Isabella Brant.
Albert VII (Albrecht VII) (13 November 1559 – 13 July 1621) was the ruling Archduke of Austria for a few months in 1619 and, jointly with his wife, Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands between 1598 and 1621.
Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.
An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing a religious subject made for placing behind the altar of a Christian church.
Angelica is a genus of about 60 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, reaching as far north as Iceland, Lapland and Greenland.
Anna of Saxony (23 December 1544 – 18 December 1577) was the heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes, eldest daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse.
Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and the Southern Netherlands.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
The Antwerp School was a school of artists active in Antwerp, first during the 16th century when the city was the economic center of the Low Countries, and then during the 17th century when it became the artistic stronghold of the Flemish Baroque under Peter Paul Rubens.
The Aphrodite of Knidos (or Cnidus) was an Ancient Greek sculpture of the goddess Aphrodite created by Praxiteles of Athens around the 4th century BCE.
The Assumption of the Virgin Mary or Assumption of the Holy Virgin, is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens, completed in 1626 as an altarpiece for the high altar of the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, where it remains.
Balthasar Moretus or Balthasar I Moretus (23 July 1574 – 8 July 1641) was a Flemish printer and head of the Officina Plantiniana, the printing company established by his grandfather Christophe Plantin in Antwerp in 1555.
The Banqueting House, Whitehall, is the grandest and best known survivor of the architectural genre of banqueting house and the only remaining component of the Palace of Whitehall.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Biblioteca Museu Víctor Balaguer (Víctor Balaguer Museum & Library) is located in Vilanova i la Geltrú and was founded in 1884 by Víctor Balaguer so as to thank the city for its support during his politician career.
Blenheim Palace (pronounced) is a monumental English country house situated in the civil parish of Blenheim near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
The bombardment of Brussels by French troops of Louis XIV on August 13, 14, and 15, 1695, and the resulting fire were together the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Canvas is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, and other items for which sturdiness is required.
Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.
Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (also known as Don Fernando de Austria, Cardenal-Infante Fernando de España and as Ferdinand von Österreich; May 1609 or 1610 – 9 November 1641) was Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, Cardinal of the Holy Catholic Church, Infante of Spain, Infante of Portugal (until 1640), Archduke of Austria, Archbishop of Toledo (1619–41), and military commander during the Thirty Years' War.
The Cathedral of Our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Antwerp, Belgium.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Christie's is a British auction house.
Christoffel Jegher (1596, Antwerp – 1652, Antwerp), was a Flemish Baroque engraver.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Cornelis Galle the Elder (1576 – 29 March 1650), a younger son of Philip Galle, was born at Antwerp in 1576, and was taught engraving by his father.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
The County of Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire and later part of the German Confederation.
Daniel in the Lions' Den is a 1615 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC.
Death of the Virgin (1606) is a painting completed by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
Doel is a subdivision of the municipality of Beveren in the Flemish province of East-Flanders.
Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Elewijt Castle, also known as "Castle of Het Steen" or "Rubenskasteel", is a castle in Elewijt, Belgium, which was owned by Peter Paul Rubens from 1635 to his death in 1640, and features in some of his paintings.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
Ephemerality (from Greek εφήμερος – ephemeros, literally "lasting only one day") is the concept of things being transitory, existing only briefly.
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.
The Feast of Saints Peter and Paul or Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul is a liturgical feast in honour of the martyrdom in Rome of the apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, which is observed on 29 June.
Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Don Francisco Gómez de Sandoval, 1st Duke of Lerma (1552/1553 – 17 May 1625), a favourite of Philip III of Spain, was the first of the validos ('most worthy') through whom the later Hapsburg monarchs ruled.
Frans Snyders or Frans Snijders (11 November 1579, Antwerp – 19 August 1657, Antwerp) was a Flemish painter of animals, hunting scenes, market scenes and still lifes.
The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Gallery) in Dresden, Germany, displays around 750 paintings from the 15th to the 18th centuries.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries.
Habsburg Netherlands is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg and later by the Spanish Empire, also known as the Spanish Netherlands.
Hans Holbein the Younger (Hans Holbein der Jüngere) (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Helena Fourment or Hélène Fourment (11 April 1614 – 15 July 1673) was the second wife of Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Het Pelsken (literally The Fur or The Pelt) is a 1638 portrait by Peter Paul Rubens of his second wife Helena Fourment getting out of the bath.
History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
In Greek as well as Roman mythology, Hygieia (also Hygiea or Hygeia; Ὑγιεία or Ὑγεία, Hygēa or Hygīa), was one of the Aeclepiadae; the sons and daughters of the god of medicine, Asclepius, and the goddess of healing, Epione.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant English architect (of Welsh ancestry) in the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings.
Isabella Brant (or Brandt; 1591 – 15 July 1626) was a Flemish artists' model who was the first wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens.
Isabella Clara Eugenia (Isabel Clara Eugenia; 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands in the Low Countries and the north of modern France, together with her husband Albert VII, Archduke of Austria.
Jacob (Jacques) Jordaens (19 May 1593 – 18 October 1678) was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits.
Jan Brueghel the Elder (also Breughel;; 1568 – 13 January 1625) was a Flemish painter and draughtsman.
Jan Rubens (1530–1587) was a Flemish magistrate of Antwerp, best known today as the father of Peter Paul Rubens.
Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits.
Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The Kunsthaus Zürich is an art museum in the Swiss city of Zürich.
The Kunsthistorisches Museum ("Museum of Art History", also often referred to as the "Museum of Fine Arts") is an art museum in Vienna, Austria.
The statue of Laocoön and His Sons, also called the Laocoön Group (Gruppo del Laocoonte), has been one of the most famous ancient sculptures ever since it was excavated in Rome in 1506 and placed on public display in the Vatican, where it remains.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
This is a list of the highest known prices paid for paintings.
The Lobkowicz Palace (Lobkowický palác) is a part of the Prague Castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic.
The "lost portrait" of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham is a portrait, painted around 1625 by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lucas Vorsterman (1595–1675) was a Baroque engraver.
The Luxembourg Palace (Palais du Luxembourg) is located at 15 rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris.
The Madonna of the Rosary is a painting finished in 1607 by the Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio, now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
In feminist theory, the male gaze is the act of depicting women and the world, in the visual arts and literature, from a masculine, heterosexual perspective that presents and represents women as sexual objects for the pleasure of the male viewer.
Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
Marcantonio Raimondi, often called simply Marcantonio (c. 1470-1482 – c. 1534), was an Italian engraver, known for being the first important printmaker whose body of work consists largely of prints copying paintings.
Maria Pypelinckx (20 March 1538 – 19 October 1608) was a writer from the Southern Netherlands, best known today as the mother of the painter Peter Paul Rubens.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
The Marie de' Medici Cycle is a series of twenty-four paintings by Peter Paul Rubens commissioned by Marie de' Medici, widow of Henry IV of France, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris.
The Massacre of the Innocents is the subject of two paintings by Peter Paul Rubens depicting the episode of the biblical Massacre of the Innocents of Bethlehem, as related in the Gospel of Matthew, Ch.2, vs.13-18.
In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts with Honours of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years' seniority as members of the university (including years as an undergraduate).
The Mauritshuis (Maurice House) is an art museum in The Hague, Netherlands.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
Professor Michael Jaffé (3 June 1923 – 13 July 1997) was a British art historian and curator.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux is the fine arts museum of the city of Bordeaux, France.
The Prado Museum is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid.
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.
The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW.
Nicolaas II Rockox (1560–1640), knight, was a mayor of Antwerp.
Nicolaas Peter Paul Rubens, Lord of Rameyen (1618-1655) was a son of the painter Peter Paul Rubens and Isabella Brant.
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1 December 1580 – 24 June 1637), often known simply as Peiresc, or by the Latin form of his name Peirescius, was a French astronomer, antiquary and savant, who maintained a wide correspondence with scientists, and was a successful organizer of scientific inquiry.
An Oil sketch or oil study is an artwork made primarily in oil paint in preparation for a larger, finished work.
Sleeping Venus'' (c. 1510), Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. In art history, "Old Master" (or "old master"), Christies.com.
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
Osterley Park is a large park and one of the largest open spaces in London.
Otto van Veen, also known by his Latinized name Otto Venius or Octavius Vaenius, (c.1556 – 6 May 1629) was a painter, draughtsman, and humanist active primarily in Antwerp and Brussels in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House of 1622, were destroyed by fire.
Palazzi di Genova is a 1622 book written and illustrated by Peter Paul Rubens, depicting and describing the palaces of Genoa, Italy in 72 plates.
A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together.
Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573).
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Paulus Pontius (May 1603 in Antwerp – 16 January 1658 in Antwerp) was a Flemish engraver and painter.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Phaidon is a global publisher of books on art, architecture, photography, design, performing arts, decorative arts, fashion, film, travel, and contemporary culture, as well as cookbooks and children’s books.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Philip IV of Spain (Felipe IV; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Filipe III).
Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel) the Elder (c. 1525-1530 – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting); he was a pioneer in making both types of subject the focus in large paintings.
The Plantin Press at Antwerp was one of the focal centers of the fine printed book in the 16th century.
A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by dikes that form an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices.
Pollok House is the ancestral home of the Stirling Maxwell family, located in Pollok Country Park, Glasgow, Scotland.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
Portrait of a Commander or A Commander Being Dressed for Battle is a portrait of an unknown man in plate armour, normally attributed to Peter Paul Rubens.
In 1671 an argument broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris about whether drawing or color was more important in painting.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper.
Prometheus Bound is an oil painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Collection is the art collection of the British Royal Family and the largest private art collection in the world.
The Royal Entry, also known by various names, including Triumphal Entry, Joyous Entry, consisted of the ceremonies and festivities accompanying a formal entry by a ruler or his representative into a city in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period in Europe.
The Rubenshuis ("Rubens House") is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) in Antwerp.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
Samson and Delilah is a painting by the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) which is currently on display in the National Gallery.
The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem or Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, (Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Rome, Italy.
Santa Maria in Vallicella, also called Chiesa Nuova, is a church in Rome, Italy, which today faces onto the main thoroughfare of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the corner of Via della Chiesa Nuova.
The Scuola Grande di San Rocco is a building in Venice, northern Italy.
Siegen is a city in Germany, in the south Westphalian part of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
Sotheby's is a British founded, American multinational corporation headquartered in New York City.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, etc.). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greco-Roman art, still-life painting emerged as a distinct genre and professional specialization in Western painting by the late 16th century, and has remained significant since then.
Baroness Suzanne Lilar (née Suzanne Verbist; 21 May 1901 – 12 December 1992) was a Flemish Belgian essayist, novelist, and playwright writing in French.
The Descent from the Cross is the central panel of a triptych painting by Peter Paul Rubens in 1612–1614.
The Elevation of the Cross (also called The Raising of the Cross) is the name of two paintings, a triptych painting, and an oil on paper painting, both by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens.
Caravaggio created one of his most admired altarpieces, The Entombment of Christ, in 1603–1604 for the second chapel on the right in Santa Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova), a church built for the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri.
The Fall of the Damned, conversely known as The Fall of the Rebel Angels is a monumental religious painting by Peter Paul Rubens.
The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt is an oil painting on canvas by Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577–1640).
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Judgement of Paris refers to any of the several paintings of the Judgement of Paris produced by Peter Paul Rubens, though he did not match the 22 depictions of the subject attributed to Lucas Cranach the Elder.
The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus is a 1618 painting by Peter Paul Rubens.
Thomas Gainsborough FRSA (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter, draughtsman, and printmaker.
The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum (in Spanish, the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, named after its founder), or simply the Thyssen, is an art museum in Madrid, Spain, located near the Prado Museum on one of city's main boulevards.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
Tobias Verhaecht (1561–1631) was a Flemish painter primarily of landscapes.
The Treaty of Antwerp, which initiated the Twelve Years' Truce, was an armistice signed in Antwerp on 9 April 1609 between Spain and the Netherlands, creating the major break in hostilities during the Eighty Years' War for independence conducted by the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries.
The Twelve Years' Truce was the name given to the cessation of hostilities between the Habsburg rulers of Spain and the Southern Netherlands and the Dutch Republic as agreed in Antwerp on 9 April 1609 (coinciding with the Royal Decree of Expulsion of the Moriscos).
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.
The Venus de' Medici or Medici Venus is a Hellenistic marble sculpture depicting the Greek goddess of love Aphrodite.
Vincenzo Ι Gonzaga (21 September 1562 – 9 February 1612) was ruler of the Duchy of Mantua and the Duchy of Montferrat from 1587 to 1612.
Willem Panneels (c.1600–c.1634) was a Flemish engraver who was active in the first half of the 17th century.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking.
P. P. Rubens, Peter Paul Reubens, Peter Paul Ruebens, Peter Rubens, Petrus Paulus Rubens, Pieter Paul Rubens, Pieter Pauwel Rubens, Pieter-Paul Rubens, Rubenesque, Rubens, Sir Peter Paul Rubens, Sir Peter Rubens.