212 relations: Abiogenic petroleum origin, Absheron Peninsula, Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, Africa, Alkylation, American Petroleum Institute, Amine gas treating, Amoco, Anadarko Petroleum, Asia, Astrakhan, Attribution of recent climate change, Azerbaijan, Baku, Barge, Barrel (unit), Batumi, BG Group, BHP, Big Oil, Biofuel, Black Sea, BP, Branobel, Butane, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, Caspian Sea, Catalytic reforming, Central America, Chechnya, Chevron Corporation, Chronology of world oil market events, Civilization, Climate change, Compressor, Congressional Research Service, ConocoPhillips, Contract, Daniel Yergin, DCP Midstream Partners, Diesel fuel, Downstream (petroleum industry), Drake Well, Drillship, Earth, Edward Teller, Edwin Drake, Enbridge, Energy consumption, Energy crisis, ..., Energy development, Eni, Enterprise Products, Environmental impact of the petroleum industry, Ethane, Europe, Extraction of petroleum, ExxonMobil, Faustino Piaggio, Fertilizer, Fluid catalytic cracking, Forbes, Fossil fuel, Fossil fuels lobby, Fuel oil, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Gasoline, Gibson Energy, Global warming, Glycol dehydration, Greenhouse gas, Gulf of Mexico, Heating oil, Heavy metals, Hess Corporation, History of the petroleum industry in Canada, History of the petroleum industry in the United States, History of the world, Hubbert peak theory, Human impact on the environment, Hydrocarbon exploration, Hydrodesulfurization, Ignacy Łukasiewicz, Industrial Revolution, Inergy, Instrumental temperature record, Instrumentation in petrochemical industries, Integrated operations, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Iraq National Oil Company, Isobutane, Isomerization, James Miller Williams, Jasło, Jet fuel, Kerosene, Kerr-McGee, Kinder Morgan Energy Partners, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Leak detection, List of countries by oil production, List of crude oil products, List of largest oil and gas companies by revenue, List of oil exploration and production companies, List of oil fields, Ludvig Nobel, Marathon Oil, Marius Vassiliou, Matthew Simmons, Medication, Middle East, Midstream, National Iranian Oil Company, National Oil Corporation, Natural gas, Natural gasoline, Natural-gas processing, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Nitrogen oxide, Non-renewable resource, North America, Oil and gas law in the United States, Oil depletion, Oil field, Oil imperialism theories, Oil megaprojects, Oil platform, Oil refinery, Oil reserves, Oil sands, Oil spill, Oil Springs, Ontario, Oil tanker, Oil terminal, Oil well, Oil-storage trade, OMV, ONEOK, OPEC, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Ozone, PDVSA, Peak oil, Pemex, Pennsylvania, Pesticide, Petrochemical, PetroChina, Petroleum, Petroleum geology, Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan, Petroleum politics, Petroleum refining processes, Petroleum reservoir, Petroleum transport, Phillips Petroleum Company, Physicist, Pipeline transport, Plains All American Pipeline, Plastic, Propane, Province of Canada, Pure Oil, Qatar Petroleum, Rail transport, Renewable energy, Reserves-to-production ratio, Robert Sobel, Royal Dutch Shell, Russian Empire, Samuel Kier, Saudi Aramco, Smog, Solvent, Sonatrach, South America, Standardization in oil industry, Sulfur dioxide, Superior Oil Company, Syriana, Tanker (ship), Targa Resources, TaskForceMajella, Texaco, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power, The World Factbook, There Will Be Blood, Thermal depolymerization, Titusville, Pennsylvania, Total S.A., TransCanada Corporation, Trucking industry in the United States, Tullow Oil, Twilight in the Desert, United Nations, United States, Upstream (petroleum industry), Vacuum distillation, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, Volatile organic compound, War, Water pollution, Whale oil, Williams Companies, World economy, World oil market chronology from 2003, World War II, 1973 oil crisis, 1979 energy crisis. Expand index (162 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different hypotheses which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms.
The Absheron Peninsula (Abşeron yarımadası) is a peninsula in Azerbaijan.
The Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (شركة بترول أبوظبي الوطنية) or ADNOC is the state-owned oil company of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry.
Amine gas treating, also known as amine scrubbing, gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkylamines (commonly referred to simply as amines) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases.
Amoco Corporation, originally Standard Oil Company (Indiana), is a global chemical and oil company that was founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States.
Anadarko Petroleum Corporation is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in two skyscrapers in The Woodlands, Texas: the Allison Tower and the Hackett Tower, both named after former CEOs of the company.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent climate changes on Earth, commonly known as 'global warming'.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
BG Group plc was a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Reading, United Kingdom.
BHP, formerly known as BHP Billiton, is the trading entity of BHP Billiton Limited and BHP Billiton plc, an Anglo-Australian multinational mining, metals and petroleum dual-listed public company headquartered in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Big Oil is a name used to describe the world's six or seven largest publicly traded oil and gas companies, also known as supermajors.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel (short for братьев Нобель "brat'yev Nobel" — "Nobel Brothers" in Russian), was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, mainly in Baku, Azerbaijan but also in Cheleken, Turkmenistan.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Calcasieu Parish (Paroisse de Calcasieu) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
ConocoPhillips Company is an American multinational energy corporation with its headquarters located in the Energy Corridor district of Houston, Texas in the United States.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Daniel Howard Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author, speaker, energy expert, and economic historian.
DCP Midstream Partners, LP is a Fortune 500 company for midstream petroleum services (i.e. transportation and refinery), headquartered in Denver, Colorado.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream, midstream, and downstream. The downstream sector is the refining of petroleum crude oil and the processing and purifying of raw natural gas, as well as the marketing and distribution of products derived from crude oil and natural gas.
The Drake Well is a oil well in Cherrytree Township, Venango County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, the success of which sparked the first oil boom in the United States.
A drillship is a merchant vessel designed for use in exploratory offshore drilling of new oil and gas wells or for scientific drilling purposes.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
Edwin Laurentine Drake (March 29, 1819 – November 9, 1880), also known as Colonel Drake, was an American businessman and the first American to successfully drill for oil.
Enbridge Inc. is a Canadian multinational energy transportation company based in Calgary, Alberta.
Energy consumption is the amount of energy or power used.
An energy crisis is any significant bottleneck in the supply of energy resources to an economy.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.
Eni S.p.A. is an Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome.
Enterprise Products Partners L.P. is an American natural gas and crude oil pipeline company with headquarters in Houston, Texas.
Petroleum is one of the main sources of energy in the World.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum is drawn out from beneath the earth's surface location.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
Faustino Piaggio (born 15 February 1844 in Quinto al Mare, Genoa), was an Italian industrialist who also became a pioneer of the Latin American oil industry with his businesses based in Peru.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
"Fossil fuels lobby" is the umbrella term used to name the paid representatives of large fossil fuel (oil, gas, coal) and electric utilities corporations who attempt to influence governmental policy.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gibsons is a Canada-based midstream oilfield service company in the oil and gas industry.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Glycol dehydration is a liquid desiccant system for the removal of water from natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL).
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Heating oil is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a fuel oil for furnaces or boilers in buildings.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hess Corporation (formerly Amerada Hess Corporation) is an American global independent energy company engaged in the exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas.
The Canadian petroleum industry arose in parallel with that of the United States.
The first successful oil well in North America was established in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada in 1858.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
The Hubbert peak theory says that for any given geographical area, from an individual oil-producing region to the planet as a whole, the rate of petroleum production tends to follow a bell-shaped curve.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.
Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (8 March 1822 – 7 January 1882) was a Polish pharmacist, engineer, businessman, inventor, and philanthropist.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inergy, L.P. is an American supplier of propane based in Kansas City, Missouri that claims to be the fourth-largest propane retailer in the United States.
The instrumental temperature record provides the temperature of Earth's climate system from the historical network of in situ measurements of surface air temperatures and ocean surface temperatures.
Instrumentation in petrochemical industries basically consists of flow meters, pressure transmitters, level sensors, temperature sensors, and analysis instruments.
In the Petroleum industry, Integrated operations (IO) refers to new work processes and ways of performing oil and gas exploration and production, which has been facilitated by new information and communication technology.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
The Iraq National Oil Company (INOC) was founded in 1966 by the Iraqi government.
Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH3)3.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
James Miller Williams (September 14, 1818 – November 25, 1890) was an American businessman and politician.
Jasło is a county town in south-eastern Poland with 36,641 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2012.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The Kerr-McGee Corporation, founded in 1929, was an American energy company involved in oil exploration, production of crude oil, natural gas, perchlorate and uranium mining and milling in various countries.
Kinder Morgan Energy Partners LP (KMEP) is a subsidiary of Kinder Morgan, Inc..
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (مؤسسة البترول الكويتية) is Kuwait's national oil company, headquartered in Kuwait City.
Pipeline leak detection is used to determine if and in some cases where a leak has occurred in systems which contain liquids and gases.
This is a list of countries by oil production, as compiled from the U.S. Energy Information Administration database for calendar year 2016, tabulating all countries on a comparable best-estimate basis.
In the international petroleum industry, crude oil products are traded on various oil bourses based on established chemical profiles, delivery locations, and financial terms.
The following is a list of notable companies in the petroleum industry that are engaged in petroleum exploration and production.
This list of oil fields includes some major oil fields of the past and present.
Ludvig Immanuel Nobel (Russian: Лю́двиг Эммануи́лович Нобе́ль; Swedish: Ludvig Emmanuel Nobel; 27 July 1831, Stockholm – 12 April 1888, Cannes) was a Swedish-Russian engineer, a noted businessman and a humanitarian.
Marathon Oil Corporation is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in the Marathon Oil Tower in Houston, Texas.
Marius Vassiliou (born 1957) is an American computational scientist, geophysicist, and aerospace executive.
Matthew Roy Simmons (April 7, 1943 – August 8, 2010) was founder and chairman emeritus of Simmons & Company International, and was a prominent figure in the field of peak oil.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream.
The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; شرکت ملّی نفت ایران Sherkat-e Melli-ye Naft-e Īrān), a government-owned corporation under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is a national oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran.
The National Oil Corporation (NOC; المؤسسة الوطنية للنفط) is the national oil company of Libya.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural gasoline is a natural gas liquid with a vapor pressure intermediate between natural gas condensate (drip gas) and liquefied petroleum gas and has a boiling point within the range of gasoline.
Natural-gas processing is a complex industrial process designed to clean raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas.
The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) is the oil corporation through which the federal government of Nigeria regulates and participates in the country's petroleum industry.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
A non-renewable resource (also called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Oil and gas law in the United States is the branch of law that pertains to the acquisition and ownership rights in oil and gas both under the soil before discovery and after its capture, and adjudication regarding those rights.
Oil Depletion is the decline in oil production of a well, oil field, or geographic area.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Oil imperialism theories assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics.
Oil megaprojects are large oil field projects.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Oil Springs is a village in Lambton County, Ontario, Canada, located along Former Provincial Highway 21 south of Oil City.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
An oil depot (sometimes called a tank farm, installation or oil terminal) is an industrial facility for the storage of oil and/or petrochemical products and from which these products are usually transported to end users or further storage facilities.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
The oil-storage trade, also referred to as contango, a market strategy in which large, often vertically-integrated oil companies purchase oil for immediate delivery and storage—when the price of oil is low— and hold it in storage until the price of oil increases.
OMV (formerly abbreviation for Österreichische Mineralölverwaltung (Austrian Mineral Oil Administration)) is an Austrian integrated oil and gas company which is headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
ONEOK, Inc. is a diversified Fortune 200 corporation based in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) is a multi-governmental organization headquartered in Kuwait which coordinates energy policies among oil-producing Arab nations.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) (Petroleum of Venezuela) is the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
Petróleos Mexicanos, which translates to Mexican Petroleum, but is trademarked and better known as Pemex, is the Mexican state-owned petroleum company, created in 1938 by nationalization or expropriation of all private, foreign, and domestic oil companies at that time.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
PetroChina Company Limited is a Chinese oil and gas company and is the listed arm of state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.
The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013.
Petroleum politics have been an increasingly important aspect of diplomacy since the rise of the petroleum industry in the Middle East in the early 20th century.
Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils.
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations.
Petroleum transport is the transportation of petroleum and derivatives such as gasoline (petrol).
Phillips Petroleum Company was an American oil company incorporated in 1917 that expanded into petroleum refining, marketing and transportation, natural gas gathering and the chemicals sectors.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Plains All American Pipeline is a publicly traded Master limited partnership in the oil pipeline transportation, marketing, and storage business in the United States, liquefied petroleum gas business in Canada, and natural gas storage business in Michigan and Louisiana.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.
Pure Oil Company was an American petroleum company founded in 1914 and sold to what is now Union Oil Company of California in 1965.
Qatar Petroleum (QP) is a state owned petroleum company in Qatar.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
The Reserves-to-production ratio (RPR or R/P) is the remaining amount of a non-renewable resource, expressed in time.
Robert Sobel (February 19, 1931 – June 2, 1999) was an American professor of history at Hofstra University and a well-known and prolific writer of business histories.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Samuel Martin Kier (July 19, 1813 – October 6, 1874) was an American inventor and businessman who is credited with founding the American petroleum refining industry.
Saudi Aramco (أرامكو السعودية), officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Company, most popularly known just as Aramco (formerly Arabian-American Oil Company), is a Saudi Arabian national petroleum and natural gas company based in Dhahran.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sonatrach (arabic:سوناطراك) (Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures) is an Algerian government-owned company formed to explore the hydrocarbon resources of the country.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Purpose This site seeks to promote deeper standardization within the oil and energy industry by highlighting areas where standardization has worked very well and where it has not and why, and provoking discussions on the path forward for better standardization. The overall purpose of the document is to issue a guideline on the application of IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 in the Norwegian Petroleum Industry, and thereby simplify the use of the standards.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Superior Oil Company (1921–1984) was an independent American oil company that is now part of ExxonMobil.
Syriana is a 2005 American geopolitical thriller film written and directed by Stephen Gaghan, and executive produced by George Clooney, who also stars in the film with an ensemble cast.
A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
Targa Resources is a Fortune 500 company based at 811 Louisiana, formerly known as Two Shell Plaza, in Houston, Texas.
The TaskForceMajella (TFM) is an industry-funded geoscientific research project conducted between the years 1998 and 2005.
Texaco, Inc. ("The Texas Company") is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power is Daniel Yergin's history of the global petroleum industry from the 1850s through 1990.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
There Will Be Blood is a 2007 American drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson.
Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a depolymerization process using hydrous pyrolysis for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often biomass and plastic) into light crude oil.
Titusville is a city in Crawford County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Total S.A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world.
TransCanada Corporation is a major North American energy company, based in Calgary, Alberta in Canada, that develops and operates energy infrastructure in North America.
The trucking industry serves the American economy by transporting large quantities of raw materials, works in process, and finished goods over land—typically from manufacturing plants to retail distribution centers.
Tullow Oil plc is a multinational oil and gas exploration company founded in Tullow, Ireland with its headquarters in London, United Kingdom.
Twilight in the Desert: The Coming Saudi Oil Shock and the World Economy is a book by American investment banker Matthew Simmons.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream (or exploration and production- E&P), midstream and downstream.
Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation performed under reduced pressure.
Vermilion Parish (Paroisse de Vermillion) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Whale oil is oil obtained from the blubber of whales.
The Williams Companies, Inc. is an energy company based in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.
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