249 relations: Abbott Laboratories, ALK inhibitor, Allergan, Alzheimer's disease, Amebicide, American Cyanamid, Amlodipine, Anacor, Anaerobic organism, Annals of Internal Medicine, Anti-inflammatory, Antibiotic, Antidepressant, Antihypertensive drug, Antiparasitic, Antiprotozoal, ApoA-1 Milano, Asbestos, Associated Press, AstraZeneca, AT&T, Atorvastatin, Authorized generics, Azithromycin, Bacteria, Bank of America, Bar-Ilan University, BellSouth, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bjork–Shiley valve, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg L.P., Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, Bone marrow, Bookforum, Brigham Young University, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Brooklyn, Calcium citrate, Cambridge, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cancer in dogs, Carbon Disclosure Project, Cardiology, CBS News, Celecoxib, Charles F. Erhart, Charles Pfizer, Chef Boyardee, Chicago, ..., Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Citric acid, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Companies of the United States with untaxed profits, Conglomerate (company), Connecticut, Continuing medical education, Corporate Equality Index, Corporate integrity agreement, Corporate spin-off, Corporate tax, Counterfeit, COX-2 inhibitor, Crizotinib, CTLA-4, Cytomegalovirus, Daniel L. Simmons, Democracy Now!, Detroit, Developing country, DNA nanotechnology, Donepezil, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Economic development, Eli Lilly and Company, Eminent domain, Epileptic seizure, Erectile dysfunction, Esperion Therapeutics, False Claims Act, Fermentation, Fine chemical, Fluconazole, Flushing Avenue, Food and Drug Administration, Free trade, G.D. Searle, LLC, Gabapentin, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, Generic drug, Genetics Institute, Inc., German Americans, GlaxoSmithKline, Globes, Groton, Connecticut, Growth hormone, Harper's Magazine, Harvard Business School, Health system, Helen Clark, High-density lipoprotein, HIV/AIDS, Holland, Michigan, Hospira, Human Rights Campaign, Hypercholesterolemia, Ian Read, Immunology, Immunotherapy, Initial public offering, Invasive candidiasis, Italy, John R. MacArthur, Johnson & Johnson, JPMorgan Chase, Kalamazoo, Michigan, Kelo v. City of New London, Kickback (bribery), King Pharmaceuticals, La Jolla, Latrepirdine, Lentivirus, Leukemia, Linezolid, List of biotech and pharmaceutical companies in the New York metropolitan area, List of largest pharmaceutical settlements, List of off-label promotion pharmaceutical settlements, List of pharmaceutical companies, Listerine, Los Angeles Times, Low-density lipoprotein, Ludwigsburg, Major depressive disorder, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Medical research, Medicine, Medivation, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Meningitis, Meningococcal disease, Meningococcal vaccine, Merck Group, Merrill Lynch, Metronidazole, Monsanto, Morgan Stanley, Neuropathic pain, New London, Connecticut, New York (state), New York City, New York Stock Exchange, Nicorette, Nitroimidazole, Non-governmental organization, Normandy landings, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Off-label use, Omaha, Nebraska, Oncology, Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, Oxytetracycline, Panic disorder, Parke-Davis, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Patient, Pearl River, New York, Penicillin, Pfizer, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmaceutical marketing, Pharmacia, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Philadelphia, Piroxicam, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal infection, Pregabalin, Procter & Gamble, Protein kinase, Protozoa, Public company, Puerto Rico, Reckitt Benckiser, Redwood City, California, Republic of Ireland, Reuters, Reverse takeover, Ringaskiddy, S&P 100, S&P 500 Index, Sandwich, Kent, Sanofi, Santonin, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sertraline, Signal transduction, Sildenafil, Sirolimus, Smithsonian Institution, Social anxiety disorder, Solvay S.A., South San Francisco, California, Sri Aurobindo, St. Louis, Statin, Sudafed, SUGEN, Sunitinib, Supreme Court of the United States, Tanezumab, Tax inversion, Terre Haute, Indiana, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, The New York Times, The New Zealand Herald, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Toceranib, Torcetrapib, Trademark infringement, Trovafloxacin, U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Underwriting, United States bankruptcy court, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of State, United States Department of the Treasury, United States diplomatic cables leak, United States dollar, University of Michigan, Upjohn, Vaccine, Valdecoxib, Visine, Wall Street, Warner–Lambert, Whistleblower, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, WikiLeaks, Wilkinson Sword, William E. Upjohn, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, World War II, Wyeth, Ziprasidone, Zoetis. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
Abbott Laboratories is an American health care company with headquarters in Lake Bluff, Illinois, United States.
ALK inhibitors are potential anti-cancer drugs that act on tumours with variations of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) such as an EML4-ALK translocation.
Allergan plc is a multinational company in the pharmaceutical industry that produces branded drugs and performs pharmaceutical research and development.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
An amebicide (or amoebicide) is an agent used in the treatment of amoebozoa infections, called amoebiasis.
American Cyanamid Company was a leading American conglomerate which became one of the nation's top 100 manufacturing companies during the 1970s and 1980s, according to the Fortune 500 listings at the time.
Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.
Anacor Pharmaceuticals is a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing novel small-molecule therapeutics derived from its boron chemistry platform.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, amoeba, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, and protozoa, among others.
Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection.
Apolipoprotein A-1 Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 protein found in human HDL, the lipoprotein particle that carries cholesterol from tissues to the liver and is associated with protection against cardiovascular disease.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
Atorvastatin, marketed under the trade name Lipitor among others, is a member of the medication class known as statins, which are used primarily as a lipid-lowering agent and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease.
Authorized generics are prescription drugs produced by brand pharmaceutical companies and marketed under a private label, at generic prices.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bank of America Corporation (abbreviated as BofA) is an American multinational financial services company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Bar-Ilan University (אוניברסיטת בר-אילן Universitat Bar-Ilan) is a public research university in the city of Ramat Gan in the Tel Aviv District, Israel.
BellSouth, LLC (stylized as BELLSOUTH and formerly known as BellSouth Corporation) is an American telecommunications holding company based in Atlanta, Georgia.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.
The Björk–Shiley valve is a mechanical prosthetic heart valve.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Blue Cross Blue Shield Association (BCBSA) is a federation of 36 separate United States health insurance organizations and companies, providing health insurance in the United States to more than 106 million people.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Bookforum is an American book review magazine devoted to books and the discussion of literature.
Brigham Young University (BYU, sometimes referred to colloquially as The Y) is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, Utah, United States completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System.
Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Cancer is the leading cause of death in dogs.
The CDP (formerly the Carbon Disclosure Project) is an organisation based in the United Kingdom which supports companies and cities to disclose the environmental impact of major corporations.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
Celecoxib, sold under the brand name Celebrex among others, is a COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Charles F. Erhart (born 1821 in Ludwigsburg as Karl Erhart – 1891) was a German-born American chemist who co-founded Charles Pfizer & Company together with Charles Pfizer, his cousin and future brother-in-law.
Karl Gustav Pfizer (March 22, 1824 – October 19, 1906), known as Charles Pfizer, was a German-American chemist who founded, with his cousin and future brother-in-law Charles F. Erhart, Pfizer Inc., one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies in 1849 as Charles Pfizer & Co.
Chef Boyardee is a brand of canned pasta products sold internationally by Conagra Brands.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
Companies of the United States with untaxed profits deals with those U.S. companies whose offshore subsidiaries earn profits which are retained in foreign countries to defer paying U.S. corporate tax.
A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Continuing medical education (CME) refers to a specific form of continuing education (CE) that helps those in the medical field maintain competence and learn about new and developing areas of their field.
The Corporate Equality Index is a report published by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation as a tool to rate American businesses on their treatment of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender employees, consumers and investors.
A corporate integrity agreement (CIA) is a document outlining the obligations that a company involved in health care in the United States makes with a federal government agency or a state government as part of a civil settlement.
A corporate spin-off, also known as a spin-out, or starburst, is a type of corporate action where a company "splits off" a section as a separate business.
A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.
Crizotinib (trade name Xalkori, Pfizer) is an anti-cancer drug acting as an ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) and ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1) inhibitor, approved for treatment of some non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in the US and some other countries, and undergoing clinical trials testing its safety and efficacy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and other advanced solid tumors in both adults and children.
CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates immune responses.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.
Daniel L. Simmons is a professor of chemistry and former director of the Cancer Research Center at Brigham Young University (BYU).
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses.
Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept, is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), or simply the Dow, is a stock market index that shows how 30 large, publicly owned companies based in the United States have traded during a standard trading session in the stock market.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. is a public, American pharmaceutical company focused on the development of a first-in-class, orally available, small molecule designed to significantly lower elevated levels of LDL-C - with the reduced potential for muscle-related side effects associated with statin use.
The False Claims Act, also called the "Lincoln Law") is an American federal law that imposes liability on persons and companies (typically federal contractors) who defraud governmental programs. It is the federal Government's primary litigation tool in combating fraud against the Government. The law includes a qui tam provision that allows people who are not affiliated with the government, called "relators" under the law, to file actions on behalf of the government (informally called "whistleblowing" especially when the relator is employed by the organization accused in the suit). Persons filing under the Act stand to receive a portion (usually about 15–25 percent) of any recovered damages. As of 2012, over 70 percent of all federal Government FCA actions were initiated by whistleblowers. Claims under the law have typically involved health care, military, or other government spending programs, and dominate the list of largest pharmaceutical settlements. The government recovered $38.9 billion under the False Claims Act between 1987 and 2013 and of this amount, $27.2 billion or 70% was from qui tam cases brought by relators.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fine chemicals are complex, single, pure chemical substances, produced in limited quantities in multipurpose plants by multistep batch chemical or biotechnological processes.
Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used for a number of fungal infections.
Flushing Avenue is a street running through northern Brooklyn and western Queens, beginning at Nassau Street in Fort Greene, Brooklyn, and ending at Grand Avenue in Maspeth.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
G.D. Searle, LLC is a wholly owned trademark of Pfizer.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi for short; previously the GAVI Alliance, and before that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization) is a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunisation in poor countries.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Genetics Institute, Inc. was a biotechnology research and development company founded by Thomas Maniatis and Mark Ptashne, two Harvard molecular biologists, in 1980 in Massachusetts.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
Globes (גלובס) is a Hebrew-language daily evening financial newspaper, the largest and the oldest of its kind in Israel.
Groton is a town in New London County, Connecticut located on the Thames River.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.
Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Helen Elizabeth Clark (born 26 February 1950) is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Holland is a city in the western region of the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Hospira was an American global pharmaceutical and medical device company with headquarters in Lake Forest, Illinois.
The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is the largest LGBT civil rights advocacy group and political lobbying organization in the United States.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Ian C. Read (born 1953) is a Scottish-born American businessman, a chartered accountant, and since 2010 the chief executive officer (CEO) of Pfizer.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges.
Invasive candidiasis is an infection (candidiasis) that can be caused by various species of ''Candida'' yeast.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John R. "Rick" MacArthur (born June 4, 1956) is an American journalist and author of books about US politics.
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886.
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Kalamazoo is a city in the southwest region of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Kelo v. City of New London, 545 U.S. 469 (2005),.
A kickback is a form of negotiated bribery in which a commission is paid to the bribe-taker in exchange for services rendered.
King Pharmaceuticals, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pfizer based in Bristol, Tennessee.
La Jolla is a hilly seaside and affluent community within the city of San Diego, California, United States occupying 7 miles (11 km) of curving coastline along the Pacific Ocean within the northern city limits.
Latrepirdine (INN, also known as dimebolin and sold as Dimebon), is an antihistamine drug which has been used clinically in Russia since 1983.
Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow") is a genus of retroviruses that cause chronic and deadly diseases characterized by long incubation periods, in the human and other mammalian species.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.
Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in the New York metropolitan area represent a significant and growing economic component of the New York metropolitan area, the most populous combined statistical area in the United States and one of the most populous megacities in the world.
The following is a list of the 20 largest settlements reached between the United States Department of Justice and pharmaceutical companies from 1991 to 2012, ordered by the size of the total settlement.
The following are settlements reached with US authorities against pharmaceutical companies to resolve allegations of "off-label" promotion of drugs.
It is limited to those companies notable enough to have articles in Wikipedia.
Listerine is a brand of antiseptic mouthwash product.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Ludwigsburg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about north of Stuttgart city centre, near the river Neckar.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a privately held independent publishing company founded by its president, Mary Ann Liebert, in 1980.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medivation is an American biopharmaceutical company focused on rapid development of novel therapies to treat serious diseases for which there are limited treatment options.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus).
Meningococcal vaccine refers to any of the vaccines used to prevent infection by Neisseria meningitidis.
Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.
Merrill Lynch Wealth Management is a wealth management division of Bank of America.
Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
Morgan Stanley is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered at 1585 Broadway in the Morgan Stanley Building, Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
Nicorette is the brand name of a number of products for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) that contain nicotine.
5-Nitroimidazole is an organic compound with the formula O2NC3H2N2H.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited is an Indian pharmaceutical company based in Chennai, founded on 1 July 1992, by Kailasam Raghavendra Rao, an alumnus of IIM Ahmedabad (PGP '79).
Oxytetracycline was the second of the broad-spectrum tetracycline group of antibiotics to be discovered.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Pearl River is a hamlet and census-designated place in the town of Orangetown, Rockland County, New York, United States.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmaceutical marketing, sometimes called medico-marketing or pharma marketing in some countries, is the business of advertising or otherwise promoting the sale of pharmaceutical drugs.
Pharmacia was a pharmaceutical and biotechnological company in Sweden that merged with the American pharmaceutical company Upjohn in 1995.
Pharmacia & Upjohn was a global pharmaceutical company formed by the merger of Sweden-based Pharmacia AB and the American company Upjohn in 1995.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Piroxicam (INN, BAN, USAN, AAN; in some countries it is spelled piroksikam or piroxikam) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the oxicam class used to relieve the symptoms of painful, inflammatory conditions like arthritis.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and adults against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus).
Pneumococcal infection is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by British American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Reckitt Benckiser Group plc (RB) is a British multinational consumer goods company headquartered in Slough, England.
Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's Bay Area, approximately south of San Francisco, and northwest of San Jose.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A reverse takeover or reverse merger takeover (reverse IPO) is the acquisition of a public company by a private company so that the private company can bypass the lengthy and complex process of going public.
Ringaskiddy is a village in County Cork, Ireland.
The S&P 100 Index is a stock market index of United States stocks maintained by Standard & Poor's.
The Standard & Poor's 500, often abbreviated as the S&P 500, or just the S&P, is an American stock market index based on the market capitalizations of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the NYSE or NASDAQ.
Sandwich is a historic town and civil parish on the River Stour in the non-metropolitan district of Dover, within the ceremonial county of Kent, south-east England.
Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Gentilly, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.
Santonin is a drug which was widely used in the past as an anthelminthic, a drug that expels parasitic worms (helminths) by paralyzing them, which allows them to be passed out of the body.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Solvay S.A. is a Belgian chemical company founded in 1863, with its head office in Neder-Over-Heembeek, Brussels, Belgium.
South San Francisco is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States, located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Sri Aurobindo (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Sudafed is a brand name and registered trademark for over the counter (OTC) decongestants manufactured by McNeil Laboratories (a division of Johnson & Johnson) for sale in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Ireland, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
SUGEN (Sugen) was a drug discovery company focused on development of protein kinase inhibitors.
Sunitinib (marketed as Sutent by Pfizer, and previously known as SU11248) is an oral, small-molecule, multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor that was approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) on January 26, 2006.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tanezumab (INN, codenamed RN624) is a monoclonal antibody against nerve growth factor.
Tax inversion, or corporate inversion, is the practice of relocating a corporation's legal domicile to a lower-tax country, while retaining its material operations (including management, functional headquarters and majority shareholders) in its higher-tax country of origin.
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, Indiana, United States, near the state's western border with Illinois.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (טבע תעשיות פרמצבטיות בע"מ) is an Israeli multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Petah Tikva, Israel.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Toceranib is a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is used in the treatment of canine mast cell tumor also called mastocytoma.
Torcetrapib (CP-529,414, Pfizer) was a drug being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) and prevent cardiovascular disease.
Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights attached to a trademark without the authorization of the trademark owner or any licensees (provided that such authorization was within the scope of the licence).
Trovafloxacin (sold as Trovan by Pfizer and Turvel by Laboratorios Almirall) was a broad spectrum antibiotic that inhibits the uncoiling of supercoiled DNA in various bacteria by blocking the activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV.
The U.S. Global Leadership Coalition (USGLC) is a nonprofit organization formed by a coalition of American businesses and NGOs, senior national security and foreign policy experts, faith-based and community leaders from across the United States who promote increased support for the United States’ diplomatic and development efforts among both politicians and the public.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
Underwriting services are provided by some large specialist financial institutions, such as banks, insurance or investment houses, whereby they guarantee payment in case of damage or financial loss and accept the financial risk for liability arising from such guarantee.
United States bankruptcy courts are courts created under Article I of the United States Constitution.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks—a non-profit organization that publishes submissions from anonymous whistleblowers—began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michigan by Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michigan medical school.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Valdecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms.
Visine is a brand of eye drops produced by Johnson & Johnson.
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
Warner–Lambert was an American pharmaceutical company.
A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
Wilkinson Sword is a brand owned by Edgewell Personal Care for razors and other personal care products sold in Europe.
William Erastus Upjohn (June 15, 1853 – October 18, 1932) was an American medical doctor, founder and president of The Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company.
Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordering Greenpoint to the north; Bedford–Stuyvesant to the south; Bushwick, East Williamsburg, and Ridgewood, Queens to the east; and Fort Greene and the East River to the west.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyeth was a pharmaceutical company purchased by Pfizer in 2009.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder.
Zoetis, Inc. (/zō-EH-tis/) is the world's largest producer of medicine and vaccinations for pets and livestock.
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