101 relations: Abydos, Egypt, Akhenaten, Alan Gardiner, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Egyptian royal titulary, Anedjib, Ankh wedja seneb, Atef, Ayin, Bible, Bob Brier, Caesarion, Cartouche, Circa, Cleopatra, Commander-in-chief, Coptic language, Coronation of the pharaoh, Crook and flail, Deference, Den (pharaoh), Deshret, Djer, Djet, Djoser, Early Dynastic Period (Egypt), Egyptian biliteral signs, Egyptian chronology, Egyptian language, Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Encyclopædia Britannica, Epithet, First Dynasty of Egypt, Flail, Great Royal Wife, Ham (son of Noah), Hedjet, Hor-Aha, Horus, Hyksos, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Ka (pharaoh), Karnak, Khasekhemwy, Khat (apparel), Khepresh, Kilt, Late Latin, List of historical capitals of Egypt, ..., List of pharaohs, Lower Egypt, Maat, Menes, Merneptah, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Monarch, Naqada, Narmer, Narmer Macehead, Narmer Palette, Nebra (Pharaoh), Nekhbet, Nemes, New Kingdom of Egypt, Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Nomen (Ancient Egypt), Noun, Obelisk, Old Testament, Oxford University Press, Pharaohs in the Bible, Ponytail, Pr (hieroglyph), Prenomen (Ancient Egypt), Pschent, Ra, Roman Empire, Sacred king, Saqqara, Sceptre, Scorpion II, Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, Septuagint, Serdab, Serekh, Shoshenq I, Siamun, Sun, Thutmose III, Tutankhamun, Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt, Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt, Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt, Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt, Upper Egypt, Uraeus, Vernacular, Wadjet, Was-sceptre. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Abydos (أبيدوس.; Sahidic Ⲉⲃⲱⲧ) is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city.
Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner (29 March 1879, in Eltham – 19 December 1963, in Oxford) was an English Egyptologist, linguist, philologist, and independent scholar.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt.
Anedjib, more correctly Adjib and also known as Hor-Anedjib, Hor-Adjib and Enezib, is the Horus name of an early Egyptian king who ruled during the 1st dynasty.
Ankh wedja seneb (𓋹𓍑𓋴, ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ snb) is an ancient Egyptian phrase which often appears after the names of pharaohs, in references to their household, or at the ends of letters.
Atef is the specific feathered white crown of the Egyptian deity Osiris.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Robert Brier (born December 13, 1943) is an American Egyptologist specializing in paleopathology.
Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar "Ptolemy, Beloved of his Father, Beloved of his Mother, Caesar"; June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), better known by the nicknames Caesarion (Καισαρίων, Kaisaríōn ≈ Little Caesar; Caesariō) and Ptolemy Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaios Kaisar; Ptolemaeus Caesar), was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.
In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
A coronation was an extremely important ritual in early and ancient Egyptian history, concerning the change of power and rulership between two succeeding pharaohs.
The crook (heka) and flail (nekhakha) are symbols used in Ancient Egyptian society.
Deference (also called submission or passivity) is the condition of submitting to the espoused, legitimate influence of one's superior or superiors.
Den, also known as Hor-Den, Dewen and Udimu, is the Horus name of a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period who ruled during the First Dynasty of Egypt.
Deshret, from Ancient Egyptian, was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and for the desert Red Land on either side of Kemet (Black Land), the fertile Nile river basin.
Djer (or Zer or Sekhty) is considered the third pharaoh of the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt in current Egyptology.
Djet, also known as Wadj, Zet, and Uadji (in Greek possibly the pharaoh known as Uenephes or possibly Atothis), was the fourth pharaoh of the First Dynasty.
Djoser (also read as Djeser and Zoser) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch.
The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC.
The Biliteral Egyptian hieroglyphs are hieroglyphs which represent a specific sequence of two consonants.
The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt.
A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing, the process of separating grains from their husks.
Great Royal Wife, or alternatively, Chief King's Wife (Ancient Egyptian: ḥmt nswt wrt), is the term that was used to refer to the principal wife of the pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, who served many official functions.
Ham (Greek Χαμ, Kham; Arabic: حام, Ḥām), according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.
Hedjet (ḥḏt) is the formal name for the white crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt.
Hor-Aha (or Aha or Horus Aha) is considered the second pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt by some Egyptologists, others consider him the first one and corresponding to Menes.
Horus is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities.
The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.
The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal covering research and reviews of recent books of importance to Egyptology.
Ka, also (alternatively) Sekhen,Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1999,, see p. 36-37 was a Predynastic pharaoh of Upper Egypt belonging to Dynasty 0.
The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (from Arabic Ka-Ranak meaning "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings in Egypt.
Khasekhemwy (ca. 2690 BC; Ḫꜥj-sḫm.wj, also rendered Kha-sekhemui) was the final king of the Second dynasty of Egypt.
The khat was a head cloth worn by the nobility of Ancient Egypt.
The khepresh was an ancient Egyptian royal headdress.
A kilt (fèileadh) is a knee-length non-bifurcated skirt-type garment, with pleats at the back, originating in the traditional dress of Gaelic men and boys in the Scottish Highlands.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
The current capital of Egypt is Cairo.
This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3100 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
Maat or Ma'at (Egyptian '''mꜣꜥt''' /ˈmuʀʕat/) refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice.
Menes (mnj, probably pronounced *; Μήνης) was a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt and as the founder of the First Dynasty.
Merneptah or Merenptah was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
Naqada is a town on the west bank of the Nile in the Egyptian governorate of Qena.
Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period.
The Narmer macehead is an ancient Egyptian decorative stone mace head.
The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC.
Nebra or Raneb is the Horus name of the second early Egyptian king of the 2nd dynasty.
Nekhbet (also spelt Nekhebit) was an early predynastic local goddess in Egyptian mythology, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name meaning of Nekheb).
The nemes is the striped headcloth worn by pharaohs in ancient Egypt.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX, alternatively 19th Dynasty or Dynasty 19) is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC.
The nomen of Ancient Egyptian pharaohs was one of the "Great five names".
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
An obelisk (from ὀβελίσκος obeliskos; diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Bible makes reference to various pharaohs of Egypt.
A ponytail is a hairstyle in which some, most or all of the hair on the head is pulled away from the face, gathered and secured at the back of the head with a hair tie, clip, or other similar device and allowed to hang freely from that point.
Pr (𓉐 Gardiner sign listed no. O1) is the hieroglyph for 'house', the floor-plan of a walled building with an open doorway.
The prenomen (alternatively written praenomen) of Ancient Egyptian pharaohs was one of the five royal names of Egyptian rulers.
The Pschent (Greek ψχεντ) was the name of the Double Crown worn by rulers in ancient Egypt.
Ra (rꜥ or rˤ; also transliterated rˤw; cuneiform: ri-a or ri-ia) or Re (ⲣⲏ, Rē) is the ancient Egyptian sun god.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and of judge.
Saqqara (سقارة), also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis.
A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English; see spelling differences) is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia.
Scorpion II (Ancient Egyptian: possibly Selk or Weha), also known as King Scorpion, refers to the second of two kings or chieftains of that name during the Protodynastic Period of Upper Egypt.
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
A serdab (d), literally meaning "cold water", which became a loanword in Arabic for 'cellar') is an ancient Egyptian tomb structure that served as a chamber for the Ka statue of a deceased individual. Used during the Old Kingdom, the serdab was a sealed chamber with a small slit or hole to allow the soul of the deceased to move about freely. These holes also let in the smells of the offerings presented to the statue. The word serdab is also used for a type of undecorated chamber found in many pyramids. Due to the lack of inscriptions, it has been impossible to determine the ritual function of this chamber, but many egyptologists view it as a storage space, akin with the underground storehouses in private and royal tombs of the second dynasty. It is easiest recognized by its position in the east end of the pyramid's internal chamber system and the three niches in its outer wall. The earliest serdab of this type is found in the pyramid of Menkaure, but it was during the reign of Djedkare Isesi that it became a part of the standard pyramid layout.
A serekh was a specific important type of heraldic crest used in ancient Egypt.
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq, Tamazight: ⵛⵉⵛⵓⵏⵇ cicunq), (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq)—was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt.
Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXV, alternatively 25th Dynasty or Dynasty 25), also known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period that occurred after the Nubian invasion of Ancient Egypt.
The Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXI, alternatively 21st Dynasty or Dynasty 21) is usually classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, lasting from 1069 BC to 945 BC.
The Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis.
The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIII, alternatively 23rd Dynasty or Dynasty 23) is usually classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
The Uraeus (plural Uraei or Uraeuses; from the Greek οὐραῖος, ouraîos, "on its tail"; from Egyptian jʿr.t (iaret), "rearing cobra") is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra (asp, serpent, or snake), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Wadjet (or; Egyptian wꜢḏyt "green one"), known to the Greek world as Uto (Οὐτώ/) or Buto (Βουτώ/) among other names including Wedjat, Uadjet, and Udjo was originally the ancient local goddess of the city of Dep (Buto).
The was (Egyptian w3s "power, dominion") sceptre is a symbol that appeared often in relics, art, and hieroglyphics associated with the ancient Egyptian religion.
Builder pharaoh, Egyptian Pharaoh, Egyptian Pharaohs, Egyptian pharaohs, Farao, Nisut, Par'o, Par'oh, Paraoh, Paroh, Pharaoah, Pharaoh of Egypt, Pharaohs, Pharaohs of Egypt, Pharaoh’s, Pharaonic, Pharoah, Pharoahs, Pharoh, Phoarohs of egypt, Sedge and Bee.