131 relations: Active ingredient, Adverse effect, Aminoglycoside, Ancient Greek, Antibiotic, Anticonvulsant, Aquatic ecosystem, Avicenna, Bioassay, Biochemistry, Biological activity, Biology, Boston, British Journal of Pharmacology, Cancer, Carcinogen, Cell biology, Central dogma of molecular biology, Central nervous system, Chemical biology, China, Clinic, Clinical pharmacology, Consumer, Cosmeceutical, CRC Press, Crude drug, Dental pharmacology, Digestion, Digitalis, Distribution (pharmacology), Drug, Drug design, Drug development, Drug discovery, Drug interaction, Drug metabolism, Economic system, Efficacy, Elsevier, Endogeny (biology), Environmental degradation, Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, Environmental remediation, Environmental science, Enzyme inhibitor, Ethnomedicine, European Medicines Agency, European Pharmacopoeia, European Union, ..., Excretion, Exogeny, Food and Drug Administration, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene–environment interaction, Genetics, Half-life, Heinemann (publisher), Herbalism, History of pharmacy, Hit to lead, Human skin, Incantation, International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Inverse benefit law, John of St Amand, Liberation (pharmacology), List of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions, List of pharmaceutical companies, List of Schedule I drugs (US), List of withdrawn drugs, Loewe additivity, McGraw-Hill Education, Mechanism of action, Medical school, Medicare Part D, Medication, Medicinal chemistry, Medicine, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Molecular biology, Morphine, Neoplasm, Neuropharmacology, Neuropsychopharmacology, Nicholas Culpeper, Oral mucosa, Peripheral nervous system, Personalized medicine, Peter of Spain, Pharmaceutical formulation, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacoepidemiology, Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacognosy, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacon, Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacy, Pharmakos, Placebo, Poison, Politics, Prescription drug, Prescription Drug Marketing Act, Psyche (psychology), Psychopharmacology, Quinine, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Receptor (biochemistry), Rudolf Buchheim, Safety pharmacology, Systems pharmacology, Technical standard, The Canon of Medicine, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Therapeutic effect, Therapeutic index, Toxicity, Toxicology, Traditional Chinese medicine, United States, United States Pharmacopeia, Volume of distribution, Warfarin, William Withering. Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The British Journal of Pharmacology is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Clinical pharmacology is the science of drugs and their clinical use.
A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.
Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products with bioactive ingredients purported to have medical benefits.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Crude drugs are vegetable or animal drugs that contain natural substances that have undergone only the processes of collection and drying.
Dental pharmacology is the study of drugs used to treat conditions of the oral cavity.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials commonly called foxgloves.
Distribution in pharmacology is a branch of pharmacokinetics which describes the reversible transfer of a drug from one location to another within the body.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative.
Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Ethnomedicine is a study or comparison of the traditional medicine practiced by various ethnic groups, and especially by indigenous peoples.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
The European Pharmacopoeia (Pharmacopoeia Europaea, Ph. Eur.) is a major regional pharmacopoeia which provides common quality standards throughout the pharmaceutical industry in Europe to control the quality of medicines, and the substances used to manufacture them.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
The history of pharmacy as an independent science dates back to the first third of the 19th century.
Hit to lead (H2L) also known as lead generation is a stage in early drug discovery where small molecule hits from a high throughput screen (HTS) are evaluated and undergo limited optimization to identify promising lead compounds.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.
The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) is a voluntary, non-profit association representing the interests of scientists in pharmacology-related fields to facilitate Better Medicines through Global Education and Research around the world.
The inverse benefit law states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively a drug is marketed.
John of St Amand, Canon of Tournay (c. 1230–1303), also known as Jean de Saint-Amand and Johannes de Sancto Amando, was a Medieval author on pharmacology, teaching at the University of Paris.
Liberation is the first step in the process by which medication enters the body and liberates the active ingredient that has been administered.
This is a list of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions, including hospital orders (the patient-directed part of which is referred to as sig codes).
It is limited to those companies notable enough to have articles in Wikipedia.
This is the list of Schedule I drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
Drugs or medicines may be withdrawn from commercial markets because of risks to patients, but also because of commercial reasons (e.g. lack of demand and relatively high production costs).
In Pharmacology, Loewe Additivity (or dose additivity) is one of several common reference models used for measuring the effects of drug combinations.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Medicare Part D, also called the Medicare prescription drug benefit, is an optional United States federal-government program to help Medicare beneficiaries pay for self-administered prescription drugs through prescription drug insurance premiums (the cost of almost all professionally administered prescriptions is covered under optional Part B of United States Medicare).
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior.
Neuropsychopharmacology, an interdisciplinary science related to psychopharmacology (how drugs affect the mind) and fundamental neuroscience, is the study of the neural mechanisms that drugs act upon to influence behavior.
Nicholas Culpeper (probably born at Ockley, Surrey, 18 October 1616 – died at Spitalfields, London, 10 January 1654) was an English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer.
The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Personalized medicine, also termed precision medicine, is a medical procedure that separates patients into different groups—with medical decisions, practices, interventions and/or products being tailored to the individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease.
Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus; Portuguese and Pedro Hispano; century) was the author of the Tractatus, later known as the Summulae Logicales, an important medieval university textbook on Aristotelian logic.
Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the uses and effects of drugs in well defined populations.
Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the genome in drug response.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants or other natural sources.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
A pharmacon or pharmakon (from Greek: (φάρμακον), adapted from pharmacos) is a biologically active substance.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
A pharmakós (φαρμακός, plural pharmakoi) in Ancient Greek religion was the ritualistic sacrifice or exile of a human scapegoat or victim.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
The Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA) of 1987 (P.L. 100-293, 102 Stat. 95) is a law of the United States federal government.
In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Rudolf Buchheim (1 March 1820 – 25 December 1879) was a German pharmacologist born in Bautzen (Budziszyn).
Safety pharmacology is a branch of pharmacology specialising in detecting and investigating potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of new chemical entities (NCEs) on physiological functions in relation to exposure in the therapeutic range and above.
Systems pharmacology is the application of systems biology principles to the field of pharmacology.
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a branch of clinical chemistry and clinical pharmacology that specializes in the measurement of medication concentrations in blood.
Therapeutic effect refers to the responses(s) after a treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.
In pharmacology, the volume of distribution (VD, also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
William Withering FRS (17 March 1741 – 6 October 1799) was an English botanist, geologist, chemist, physician and the discoverer of digitalis.
Behavioral pharmacology, Biochemistry Pharmacology, Biochemistry pharmacology, Clinical pharmacologist, Drug science, Environmental Pharmacology, Ethopharmacology, Macropharmacology, Medical remedy, Pharmaceutical medications, Pharmachemical, Pharmacologic, Pharmacological, Pharmacologically, Pharmacologist, Pharmalogical, Pharmocology, Posology, Therapeutic drugs, Understanding the Value of Pharmaceuticals.