247 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Adherence (medicine), Al-Biruni, Al-Zahrawi, Albarello, American Pharmacists Association, American Society for Pharmacy Law, American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Analytical chemistry, Anatomy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Apothecary, Applied mathematics, Argentina, Arsenic trioxide, Asuka period, Australia, Austria, Avicenna, Ayurveda, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Baghdad, Belgium, Biochemistry, Biology, Board of Pharmacy Specialties, Botany, Bowl of Hygieia, Brick and mortar, Caduceus, Cairo, Canada, Canadian Pharmacists Association, Cell biology, Chemical engineering, Chemical stability, Chemical synthesis, Chemist, Chemistry, Chemometrics, Christian cross variants, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Clay tablet, Clinic, Clinical pharmacy, Commission for Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy, Compounding, Confectionery, Conflict of interest in the healthcare industry, ..., Conical measure, Consultant pharmacist, Controlled substance, Copper, Cosmetics, Cuneiform script, De Materia Medica, Department store, Diocles of Carystus, Distillation, Distilled water, Doctor of Pharmacy, Drug, Drug delivery, Drug design, Durable medical equipment, Ebers Papyrus, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Emergency medicine, English language, Epidemiology, Esteve Pharmacy, Ethics, Europe, Evidence-based pharmacy in developing countries, Food and Drug Administration, France, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Gaper, German language, Germany, Government of Australia, Greek language, Greeting card, Han dynasty, Hayashi Gahō, Health, Health care, Health informatics, Health professional, Health system, Heian period, Herbalism, Heredity, History of pharmacy, Hospital, Hospital pharmacy, Human, Hydrocodone, Hydrocodone/paracetamol, Ibn al-Wafid, Incantation, India, Infection, Inorganic chemistry, Interdisciplinarity, International Pharmaceutical Federation, International Pharmaceutical Students' Federation, Internet, Ireland, Isaac Titsingh, Islamic Golden Age, Italy, Kindred Healthcare, Knowledge, Latin, Lead, Linear B, List of drugs by year of discovery, List of pharmaceutical laboratories by year of foundation, List of pharmaceutical sciences journals, List of pharmacies, List of pharmacy associations, List of pharmacy organisations in the United Kingdom, List of pharmacy schools, List of pharmacy schools in the United States, Llívia, Logos, Lollipop, Magazine, Masawaih al-Mardini, Masawaiyh, Master of Pharmacy, Mawangdui, Medical prescription, Medication, Medication therapy management, Medicinal chemistry, Medicine, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Medicine use review, Medieval Latin, Meiji Restoration, Molecular biology, Mortar and pestle, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Mycenaean Greek, Nara period, Netherlands, New Mexico, New Zealand, Nihon Ōdai Ichiran, North America, North Carolina, Nuclear pharmacy, Nurse practitioner, Nursing home care, Nutrition, Office supplies, Old French, Omnicare, Oncology, Online pharmacy, Outline of health sciences, Outsourcing, Pakistan Pharmacists Association, Parenteral nutrition, Pedanius Dioscorides, Pharmaceutical formulation, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacist, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacognosy, Pharmacoinformatics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacology, Pharmaconomist, Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacy, Pharmacy (shop), Pharmacy automation, Pharmacy in China, Pharmacy residency, Pharmacy school, Pharmacy technician, Pharmakos, PharMerica, Photographic processing, Physical chemistry, Physician, Physician assistant, Physics, Physiology, Pietro d'Abano, Poison, Potassium carbonate, Prescription drug, Professional, Professional association, Professional Further Education in Clinical Pharmacy and Public Health, Psychiatry, Puigcerdà, Pylos, Quality assurance, Raeapteek, Receptor (biochemistry), Retail, Rod of Asclepius, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Shampoo, Shennong, Show globe, Silicic acid, Small business, Small molecule, Snack, Sodium carbonate, Spain, Specialty (medicine), Statistics, Sublimation (phase transition), Supermarket, Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Symbol, Taihō Code, Tallinn, Telepharmacy, The Canon of Medicine, Toxicology, Toy, Trier, United Kingdom, United States, University of Oslo, Unnecessary health care, Veterinary medicine, Vitriol, Wellington, Texas, Western world, World Health Organization, Yōrō Code. Expand index (197 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
An albarello (plural: albarelli) is a type of maiolica earthenware jar, originally a medicinal jar designed to hold apothecaries' ointments and dry drugs.
The American Pharmacists Association (APhA, previously known as the American Pharmaceutical Association), founded in 1852, is the first-established professional society of pharmacists within the United States.
The American Society of Pharmacy Law (ASPL) is a professional organization of pharmacist-attorneys, pharmacists, attorneys, and students in schools of pharmacy or law who are interested in the law as it applies to pharmacy.
The American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) is an international professional association that provides education, advocacy, and resources to advance the practice of senior care pharmacy, and that represents the interests of consultant pharmacists who work with elderly patients.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Apothecary is one term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons, and patients.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arsenic trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula.
The was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592 to 645), although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
A Bachelor of Pharmacy (abbreviated B Pharm or BS Pharm) is an undergraduate academic degree in the field of pharmacy.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) is a division of the American Pharmacists Association that grants recognition to appropriate pharmacy practice specialities and establishes standards for certification of pharmacists in these specialities.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Bowl of Hygieia is one of the symbols of pharmacy.
Brick and mortar (also bricks and mortar or B&M) refers to a physical presence of an organization or business in a building or other structure.
The caduceus (☤;; Latin cādūceus, from Greek κηρύκειον kērū́keion "herald's wand, or staff") is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology and consequently by Hermes Trismegistus in Greco-Egyptian mythology.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Pharmacists Association, previously known as the Canadian Pharmaceutical Association, was founded in 1907 in Toronto, Ontario.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
Chemical stability when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chemometrics is the science of extracting information from chemical systems by data-driven means.
This is a list of Christian cross variants.
The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals (CPR) is a taxonomy focused to define and group together situations requiring a referral from pharmacists to physicians (and vice versa) regarding the pharmacotherapy used by the patients.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which doctor of pharmacy provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.
The Commission for Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy (CCGP) is a non-profit organization which has established a voluntary professional certification program for pharmacists.
Pharmaceutical compounding (done in compounding pharmacies) is the creation of a particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
Conflict of interest in the health care industry occurs when the primary goal of protecting and increasing the health of patients comes into conflict with any other secondary goal, especially personal gain to healthcare professionals, and increasing revenue to a healthcare organization from selling health care products and services.
A conical measure is a type of laboratory glassware which consists of a conical cup with a notch on the top to allow for the easy pouring of liquids, and graduated markings on the side to allow easy and accurate measurement of volumes of liquid.
A consultant pharmacist is a pharmacist who works as a consultant providing expert advice on the use of medications or on the provision of pharmacy services to medical institutions, medical practices and individual patients.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
De Materia Medica (Latin name for the Greek work Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, Peri hulēs iatrikēs, both meaning "On Medical Material") is a pharmacopoeia of herbs and the medicines that can be obtained from them.
A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments".
Diocles of Carystus (Διοκλῆς ὁ Καρύστιος; Diocles Carystius; also known by the Latin name Diocles Medicus, i.e. "Diocles the physician"; c. 375 BC – c. 295 BC) was a well regarded Greek physician, born in Carystus, a city on Euboea, Greece.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Distilled water is water that has been boiled into steam and condensed back into liquid in a separate container.
A Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.; New Latin Pharmaciae Doctor) is a professional doctorate in pharmacy.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Durable Medical Equipment (DME) is any equipment that provides therapeutic benefits to a patient in need because of certain medical conditions and/or illnesses.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The Esteve Pharmacy (Farmàcia Esteve) is a medieval pharmacy and museum located in the town of Llívia, in the comarca of Cerdanya, Catalonia, Spain.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Many developing nations have developed national drug policies, a concept that has been actively promoted by the WHO.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
A gaper is a stone or wooden head, often depicting a Moor, on the front of a building in the Netherlands.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A greeting card is an illustrated piece of card or high quality paper featuring an expression of friendship or other sentiment.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
, also known as Hayashi Shunsai, was a Japanese Neo-Confucian scholar, teacher and administrator in the system of higher education maintained by the Tokugawa ''bakufu'' during the Edo period.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
The history of pharmacy as an independent science dates back to the first third of the 19th century.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Hospital pharmacies are pharmacies usually found within the premises of a hospital.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hydrocodone/paracetamol, also known as hydrocodone/acetaminophen or hydrocodone/APAP and marketed under the trade name Vicodin and Norco among others, is the combination of an opioid pain medication, hydrocodone, with paracetamol (acetaminophen).
Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn al-Wafid al-Lakhmi (Circa 997– 1074), known in Latin Europe as Abenguefit, was an Arab pharmacologist and physician from Toledo.
An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The International Pharmaceutical Federation or Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique, abbreviated as FIP, is an international federation of national organisations that represent pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists.
The International Pharmaceutical Students' Federation (IPSF) is a non-governmental, non-political and non-religious organisation that represents pharmaceutical students, pharmacy students and recent graduates from all over the world.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Isaac Titsingh FRS (10 January 1745 in Amsterdam – 2 February 1812 in Paris) was a Dutch scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Kindred Healthcare Incorporated is a healthcare services company that operates hospitals, nursing centers, and contract rehabilitation services across the United States.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
The following is a table with drugs organized by year of discovery and begins with firs drugs formed in the universe; Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium that were formed during the first three minutes after the big bang, bigger elements and molecules were formed by stellar nucleosynthesis and other forms of nucleosynthesis thousands and millions of years after the Big Bang, such as water, sodium chloride, after it, more complex molecules were formed and evolved into self-replicating molecules.
The following is a table with laboratories organized by year of creation.
This is a list of scientific journals that publish articles in pharmaceutical sciences.
This article is a list of major pharmacies (also known as chemists and drugstores) by country.
The following is a list of organizations for professionals involved in the practice of pharmacy.
This article is a list of pharmacy organisations in the United Kingdom.
This article is a list of pharmacy schools by country.
This is a list of schools of pharmacy in the United States.
Llívia (Llivia) is a town in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
A lollipop is a type of sugar candy usually consisting of hard candy mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking.
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
Masawaih al-Mardini (Yahyā ibn Masawaih al-Mardini; known as Mesue the Younger) was a Syrian physician.
Yuhanna ibn Masawaih (circa 777–857), (يوحنا بن ماسويه), also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in Latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was a Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur.
The Master of Sciences of Pharmacy (MPharm) is the standard master's degree program in Pharmacy.
Mawangdui is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medication Therapy Management (MTM) is medical care provided by pharmacists whose aim is to optimize drug therapy and improve therapeutic outcomes for patients.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
A Medicine Use Review (MUR) is an advanced service offered by pharmacies in the United Kingdom.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A mortar and pestle is a kitchen implement used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
The of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
, The Table of the Rulers of Japan, is a 17th-century chronicle of the serial reigns of Japanese emperors with brief notes about some of the noteworthy events or other happenings.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Nuclear pharmacy, also known as radiopharmacy, involves preparation of radioactive materials for patient administration that will be used to diagnose and treat specific diseases in nuclear medicine.
Nurse practitioners are healthcare professionals educated and trained to provide health promotion and maintenance through the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness and chronic conditions.
Nursing homes are a type of residential care that provide around-the-clock nursing care for elderly people.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Office supplies are consumables and equipment regularly used in offices by businesses and other organizations, by individuals engaged in written communications, recordkeeping or bookkeeping, janitorial and cleaning, and for storage of supplies or data.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Omnicare was an American company working in the health care industry, established in April 1981 as a spinoff of healthcare businesses from Chemed and W. R. Grace and Company.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
An online pharmacy, Internet pharmacy, or mail-order pharmacy is a pharmacy that operates over the Internet and sends the orders to customers through the mail or shipping companies.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.
In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.
The Pakistan Pharmacists Association (PPA) is the national organization of pharmacists and student pharmacists.
Total parenteral nutrition (PN) is the feeding of a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia or PSA is a professional organisation of Australian pharmacists.
Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the genome in drug response.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants or other natural sources.
Drug discovery and development requires the integration of multiple scientific and technological disciplines.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
In Denmark (including Greenland and Faroe Islands), pharmaconomists (farmakonom) are experts in pharmaceuticals (lægemiddelkyndig) who have trained with a 3-year tertiary degree.
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
A pharmacy (also called "drugstore" in American English or "community pharmacy" or "chemist's" in Commonwealth English) is a retail shop which provides prescription drugs, among other products.
Pharmacy automation involves the mechanical processes of handling and distributing medications.
There are three universities in mainland China specializes in the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmaceutical industry.
Pharmacy residency is education a pharmacist can pursue beyond the degree required for licensing as a pharmacist (in the United States of America: PharmD).
The basic requirement for pharmacists to be considered for registration is an undergraduate or postgraduate pharmacy degree from a recognized university.
A pharmacy technician is a health care provider who performs pharmacy-related functions, generally working under the direct supervision of a licensed pharmacist.
A pharmakós (φαρμακός, plural pharmakoi) in Ancient Greek religion was the ritualistic sacrifice or exile of a human scapegoat or victim.
PharMerica is a Fortune 1000 company formed in January 2007 from the merger of Kindred Healthcare's pharmacy business with a subsidiary of AmerisourceBergen.
Photographic processing or development is the chemical means by which photographic film or paper is treated after photographic exposure to produce a negative or positive image.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
A physician assistant (US/Canada) or physician associate (UK) is a healthcare professional who practices medicine as a part of a healthcare team with collaborating physicians and other providers.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pietro d'Abano, also known as Petrus de Apono, Petrus Aponensis or Peter of Abano (Premuda, Loris. "Abano, Pietro D'." in Dictionary of Scientific Biography. (1970). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Vol. 1: p.4-5.1316), was an Italian philosopher, astrologer, and professor of medicine in Padua.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity.
A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest.
Professional Further Education in Clinical Pharmacy and Public Health (Faglig videreuddannelse i Klinisk farmaci og Folkesundhed) is a Danish professional postgraduate higher further education for Danish pharmaconomists (experts in pharmaceuticals).
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Puigcerdà (informally:,; Puigcerdá) is the capital of the Catalan comarca of Cerdanya, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, northern Spain, near the Segre River and on the border with France (it abuts directly onto the French town of Bourg-Madame).
Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.
Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers; which ISO 9000 defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled".
The Raeapteek (Town Hall Pharmacy; Ratsapotheke) is in the center of Tallinn city, Estonia.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius (Greek: Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού Rábdos tou Asklipioú; Unicode symbol: ⚕), also known as the Staff of Asclepius (sometimes also spelled Asklepios or Aesculapius) and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine.
The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, commonly known as the Royal Asiatic Society (RAS), was established, according to its Royal Charter of 11 August 1824, to further "the investigation of subjects connected with and for the encouragement of science, literature and the arts in relation to Asia." From its incorporation the Society has been a forum, through lectures, its journal, and other publications, for scholarship relating to Asian culture and society of the highest level.
The Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPharmS or RPS) is the body responsible for the leadership and support of the pharmacy profession within England, Scotland and Wales.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
A show globe is a glass vessel of various shapes and sizes containing a colorful liquid.
Silicic acid is the general name for a family of chemical compounds containing the element silicon attached to oxide and hydroxyl groups, with the general formula n or,equivalently, n. They are generally colorless and sparingly soluble in water.
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
A snack is a portion of food, smaller than a regular meal, generally eaten between meals.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
The Sushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता, IAST: Suśrutasaṃhitā, literally "Suśruta's Compendium") is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery, and one of the most important such treatises on this subject to survive from the ancient world.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
The was an administrative reorganization enacted in 703 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Telepharmacy is the delivery of pharmaceutical care via telecommunications to patients in locations where they may not have direct contact with a pharmacist.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
A toy is an item that is used in play, especially one designed for such use.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.
Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
In chemistry, vitriol is an archaic name for a sulfate, and vitriol names have the obvious meaning: for example, vitriol of lead is lead sulfate, and so on.
Wellington is a city and county seat of Collingsworth County, Texas, United States.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The was one iteration of several codes or governing rules compiled in early Nara period in Classical Japan.
Chemist's, Chemist's shop, Drug stores, Drug-store, Druggist's shop, Drugstore (pharmacy), Pharmaceutical Research, Pharmaceutical Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmaceutical practice, Pharmaceutical research, Pharmaceutical science, Pharmaceutical sciences, Pharmaci, Pharmacies, Pharmacy Practice, Pharmacy practice, Pharmeceutical.