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Pharyngealization

Index Pharyngealization

Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound. [1]

53 relations: Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, American English, Arabic, Biblical Hebrew, Bilabial nasal, Chilcotin language, Classical Arabic, Consonant, Coronal consonant, Creaky voice, Danish language, Dash, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Emphatic consonant, Epiglottis, Glottal stop, Ian Maddieson, International Phonetic Alphabet, Khoisan, Mizrahi Hebrew, Northwest Caucasian languages, Pharyngeal consonant, Pharynx, Russia, Sahaptian languages, Salishan languages, Secondary articulation, Syriac language, Taa language, Tilde, Tsakhur language, Turkey, Tuu languages, Ubykh language, Uvularization, Velarization, Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiced dental and alveolar stops, Voiced dental fricative, Voiced labio-velar approximant, Voiced labiodental fricative, Voiced pharyngeal fricative, Voiced uvular fricative, Voiced uvular stop, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless dental and alveolar stops, Voiceless dental fricative, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless labiodental fricative, ..., Voiceless uvular fricative, Voiceless uvular stop, Vowel. Expand index (3 more) »

Alveolar and postalveolar approximants

The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Bilabial nasal

The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages.

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Chilcotin language

Chilcotin (also Tsilhqot’in, Tsilhqut’in, Tzilkotin) is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in British Columbia by the Tsilhqot’in people.

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Classical Arabic

Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

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Creaky voice

In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Dash

The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar in appearance to and, but differs from these symbols in both length and height.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Emphatic consonant

In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents.

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Epiglottis

The epiglottis is a flap in the throat that keeps food from entering the windpipe and the lungs.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Ian Maddieson

Ian Maddieson is a linguist who was at University of California, Berkeley, and is now an adjunct professor emeritus at the University of New Mexico.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Khoisan

Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).

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Mizrahi Hebrew

Mizrahi Hebrew, or Eastern Hebrew, refers to any of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews, that is, Jews from Arab countries or further east and with a background of Arabic, Persian, or other languages of the Middle East and Asia.

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Northwest Caucasian languages

The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.

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Pharyngeal consonant

A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.

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Pharynx

The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sahaptian languages

Sahaptian (also Sahaptianic, Sahaptin, Shahaptian) is a two-language branch of the Plateau Penutian family spoken by Native American peoples in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho in the northwestern United States.

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Salishan languages

The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana).

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Secondary articulation

Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant.

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Syriac language

Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.

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Taa language

Taa, also known as ǃXóõ (ǃKhong, ǃXoon – pronounced), is a Tuu language notable for its large number of phonemes, perhaps the largest in the world.

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Tilde

The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.

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Tsakhur language

Tsakhur (also spelled Tsaxur or Caxur; Saxur dili; Цахурский, Tsakhurskiy) is a language spoken by the Tsakhurs in northern Azerbaijan and southwestern Dagestan (Russia).

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Tuu languages

The Tuu languages, or Taa–ǃKwi (Taa–ǃUi, ǃUi–Taa, Kwi) languages, are a language family consisting of two language clusters spoken in Botswana and South Africa.

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Ubykh language

Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).

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Uvularization

Uvularization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the back of the tongue is constricted toward the uvula and upper pharynx during the articulation of a sound with its primary articulation elsewhere.

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Velarization

Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

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Voiced bilabial stop

The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives

The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced dental and alveolar stops

The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced dental fricative

The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced labio-velar approximant

The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English.

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Voiced labiodental fricative

The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced pharyngeal fricative

The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced uvular fricative

The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced uvular stop

The voiced uvular stop or voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless bilabial stop

The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental and alveolar stops

The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental fricative

The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless glottal fricative

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.

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Voiceless labiodental fricative

The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages.

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Voiceless uvular fricative

The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless uvular stop

The voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Pharyngealisation, Pharyngealised, Pharyngealize, Pharyngealized, Pharyngealized consonant, Pharyngealized voiced alveolar plosive, Pharyngealized voiced alveolar sibilant, Pharyngealized voiced dental fricative, Pharyngealized voiceless alveolar lateral fricative, Pharyngealized voiceless alveolar plosive, Pharyngealized voiceless alveolar sibilant, ˁ, ˤ.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharyngealization

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