Communication
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# Phase-shift keying

Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation process which conveys data by changing (modulating) the phase of a constant frequency reference signal (the carrier wave). [1]

87 relations: Additive white Gaussian noise, American Express, Amplitude-shift keying, Analog signal, Angle, Bandwidth (signal processing), Basis function, Binary number, Binary offset carrier modulation, Biometric passport, Bit, Bit error rate, Bit rate, Bluetooth, Boole's inequality, Broadcom Inc., Carrier wave, Circle, Communication channel, Comparator, Complementary code keying, Complex conjugate, Complex plane, Constant envelope, Constellation diagram, Continuous wave, Delay line interferometer, Demodulation, Differential coding, Digital data, DVB-S2, Electronics, Error function, Exponentiation, Fading, Federal Communications Commission, Frequency, Frequency-shift keying, Gaussian noise, Gray code, Hamming distance, Hertz, Higher-order modulation, IEEE 802.11b-1999, IEEE 802.11g-2003, IEEE 802.15.4, Imaginary number, ISO/IEC 14443, Laser, Lee distance, ... Expand index (37 more) »

Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a basic noise model used in Information theory to mimic the effect of many random processes that occur in nature.

## American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City.

## Amplitude-shift keying

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of amplitude modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave.

## Analog signal

An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.

## Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

## Bandwidth (signal processing)

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

## Basis function

In mathematics, a basis function is an element of a particular basis for a function space.

## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

## Binary offset carrier modulation

Binary offset carrier modulation (BOC modulation) was developed by John Betz, PhD, in order to allow interoperability of satellite navigation systems.

## Biometric passport

A biometric passport (also known as an e-passport, ePassport or a digital passport) is a traditional passport that has an embedded electronic microprocessor chip which contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of the passport holder.

## Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

## Bit error rate

In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.

## Bit rate

In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.

## Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).

## Boole's inequality

In probability theory, Boole's inequality, also known as the union bound, says that for any finite or countable set of events, the probability that at least one of the events happens is no greater than the sum of the probabilities of the individual events.

Broadcom Inc. (formerly Avago Technologies) is a designer, developer and global supplier of products based on analog and digital semiconductor technologies within four primary markets: wired infrastructure, wireless communications, enterprise storage, and industrial & others.

## Carrier wave

In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.

## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

## Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape.

## Communication channel

A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.

## Comparator

In electronics, a comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and outputs a digital signal indicating which is larger.

## Complementary code keying

Complementary code keying (CCK) is a modulation scheme used with wireless networks (WLANs) that employ the IEEE 802.11b specification.

## Complex conjugate

In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

## Complex plane

In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the perpendicular imaginary axis.

## Constant envelope

Constant envelope is achieved when a sinusoidal waveform reaches equilibrium in a specific system.

## Constellation diagram

A constellation diagram is a representation of a signal modulated by a digital modulation scheme such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase-shift keying.

## Continuous wave

A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency, almost always a sine wave, that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration.

## Delay line interferometer

A delay line interferometer (DLI) can be a Mach-Zehnder interferometer or Michelson interferometer based on two-beam interference, in which one beam is time-delayed to the other by a desired interval.

## Demodulation

Demodulation is extracting the original information-bearing signal from a carrier wave.

## Differential coding

In digital communications, differential coding is a technique used to provide unambiguous signal reception when using some types of modulation.

## Digital data

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.

## DVB-S2

Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite - Second Generation (DVB-S2) is a digital television broadcast standard that has been designed as a successor for the popular DVB-S system.

## Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

## Error function

In mathematics, the error function (also called the Gauss error function) is a special function (non-elementary) of sigmoid shape that occurs in probability, statistics, and partial differential equations describing diffusion.

## Exponentiation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.

In wireless communications, fading is variation or the attenuation of a signal with various variables.

## Federal Communications Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.

## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

## Frequency-shift keying

Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier signal.

## Gaussian noise

Gaussian noise is statistical noise having a probability density function (PDF) equal to that of the normal distribution, which is also known as the Gaussian distribution.

## Gray code

The reflected binary code (RBC), also known just as reflected binary (RB) or Gray code after Frank Gray, is an ordering of the binary numeral system such that two successive values differ in only one bit (binary digit).

## Hamming distance

In information theory, the Hamming distance between two strings of equal length is the number of positions at which the corresponding symbols are different.

## Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

## Higher-order modulation

Higher-order modulation is a type of digital modulation usually with an order of 4 or higher.

## IEEE 802.11b-1999

IEEE 802.11b-1999 or 802.11b, is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 wireless networking specification that extends throughput up to 11 Mbit/s using the same 2.4GHz band.

## IEEE 802.11g-2003

IEEE 802.11g-2003 or 802.11g is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 specification that extended throughput to up to 54 Mbit/s using the same 2.4 GHz band as 802.11b.

## IEEE 802.15.4

IEEE 802.15.4 is a technical standard which defines the operation of low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs).

## Imaginary number

An imaginary number is a complex number that can be written as a real number multiplied by the imaginary unit,j is usually used in Engineering contexts where i has other meanings (such as electrical current) which is defined by its property.

## ISO/IEC 14443

ISO/IEC 14443 Identification cards -- Contactless integrated circuit cards -- Proximity cards is an international standard that defines proximity cards used for identification, and the transmission protocols for communicating with it.

## Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

## Lee distance

In coding theory, the Lee distance is a distance between two strings x_1 x_2 \dots x_n and y_1 y_2 \dots y_n of equal length n over the q-ary alphabet of size q ≥ 2.

## Mach–Zehnder interferometer

In physics, the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is a device used to determine the relative phase shift variations between two collimated beams derived by splitting light from a single source.

## Megabit

The megabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information.

## Minimum-shift keying

In digital modulation, minimum-shift keying (MSK) is a type of continuous-phase frequency-shift keying that was developed in the late 1950s and 1960s.

## Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

## Modem

A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

## Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).

## Modulation

In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.

## Mutual information

In probability theory and information theory, the mutual information (MI) of two random variables is a measure of the mutual dependence between the two variables.

## New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

## New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

## New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

## Noise (electronics)

In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.

## Normal distribution

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.

## Numerical integration

In numerical analysis, numerical integration constitutes a broad family of algorithms for calculating the numerical value of a definite integral, and by extension, the term is also sometimes used to describe the numerical solution of differential equations.

## Optical communication

Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.

## Optical field

The optical field is a term used in physics and vector calculus to designate the electric field shown as E in the electromagnetic wave equation which can be derived from Maxwell's Equations.

## Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

In telecommunications, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies.

## Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

## Phase modulation

Phase modulation (PM) is a modulation pattern for conditioning communication signals for transmission.

## Photodiode

A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.

## Polar modulation

Polar modulation is analogous to quadrature modulation in the same way that polar coordinates are analogous to Cartesian coordinates.

## Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

## PSK31

PSK31 or "Phase Shift Keying, 31 Baud", also BPSK31 and QPSK31, is a popular computer-sound card-generated radioteletype mode, used primarily by amateur radio operators to conduct real-time keyboard-to-keyboard chat, most often using frequencies in the high frequency amateur radio bands (near-shortwave).

## PSK63

PSK63 (meaning Phase Shift Keying at a rate of 63 baud) is a digital radio modulation mode used primarily in the amateur radio field to conduct real-time keyboard-to-keyboard informal text chat between amateur radio operators.

Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is the name of a family of digital modulation methods and a related family of analog modulation methods widely used in modern telecommunications to transmit information.

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.

## Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is a variable whose possible values are outcomes of a random phenomenon.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Shannon–Hartley theorem

In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise.

## Signal

A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

## Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

## Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

## Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

## Symbol rate

In digital communications, symbol rate, also known as baud rate and modulation rate, is the number of symbol changes, waveform changes, or signaling events, across the transmission medium per time unit using a digitally modulated signal or a line code.

## Ternary signal

In telecommunication, a ternary signal is a signal that can assume, at any given instant, one of three states or significant conditions, such as power level, phase position, pulse duration, or frequency.

## Time-division multiple access

Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared-medium networks.

## Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

## White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

## Wireless LAN

A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.

## Zigbee

Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios, such as for home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection.

## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

## References

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