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Phased array

Index Phased array

In antenna theory, a phased array usually means an electronically scanned array; a computer-controlled array of antennas which creates a beam of radio waves which can be electronically steered to point in different directions, without moving the antennas. [1]

156 relations: Acoustics, Active electronically scanned array, Active Phased Array Radar, Advanced Radar Research Center, Aegis Combat System, AM broadcasting, Amplitude, AN/SPS-48, AN/SPY-1, Antenna (radio), Antenna array, Antenna gain, Antony Hewish, Aperture synthesis, Aster (missile family), Azimuth, Beam steering, Beam tilt, Beamforming, Broadcast engineering, Broadcast range, California Institute of Technology, Cassegrain reflector, Circular polarization, City of license, Collinear antenna array, Conformal antenna, Continuous wave, Cruiser, DARPA, Destroyer, Diffraction, Diffraction formalism, Direction of arrival, Discrete Fourier transform, Doppler radar, Electronic countermeasure, Fault tolerance, Federal Aviation Administration, Filter bank, Fire-control radar, Fire-control system, FM broadcasting, France, Frequency, Frequency domain, German Navy, Gimbal, Ground-controlled approach, Herakles (radar), ..., History of smart antennas, Horizon, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hydrocarbon exploration, Integer, Interference (communication), Interferometric synthetic-aperture radar, Interferometry, Inverse synthetic-aperture radar, Ionosphere, Jane's Information Group, Karl Ferdinand Braun, Lockheed Martin, Luis Walter Alvarez, Mammut radar, Martin Ryle, Mast radiator, Medical ultrasound, Medium wave, Mercury (planet), MESSENGER, Microwave, MIM-104 Patriot, Monopulse radar, Mountain, Multi-user MIMO, Multiplexer, Multiplexing, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Severe Storms Laboratory, Near and far field, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physics, Norman, Oklahoma, Null fill, Optical fiber, Optical heterodyne detection, Parabolic reflector, Passive electronically scanned array, PAVE PAWS, Phase (waves), Phase shift module, Phased array ultrasonics, Phased-array optics, Phazotron, Photodetector, Pineapple, Pulse-Doppler radar, Radar, Radar MASINT, Radiation pattern, Radio, Radio astronomy, Radio masts and towers, Radio propagation, Radio receiver, Radio station, Radio-frequency identification, Rajendra Radar, Reflection seismology, Research and development, Royal Netherlands Navy, Russia, Semi-active radar homing, Shortwave radio, Side lobe, Side-scan sonar, Signal strength in telecommunications, Singapore, Single-frequency network, Skywave, Smart antenna, SMART-L, Sonar, Space probe, Sunrise, Sunset, Surface wave, Surface-to-air missile, Synthetic aperture sonar, Synthetic-aperture radar, Synthetically thinned aperture radar, Technology transfer, Telecommunication, The New York Times, Thinned-array curse, Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design, Time domain, Towed array sonar, Transceiver, Transducer, Transmitter, Ultra high frequency, United States Navy, University of Cambridge, University of Oklahoma, Very high frequency, Warship, Wave field synthesis, Wave interference, Waveguide, Wavelength, World War II, X band, Yttrium iron garnet, 3D NowCasting. Expand index (106 more) »


Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

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Active electronically scanned array

An active electronically scanned array (AESA), is a type of phased array antenna, that is a computer-controlled array antenna in which the beam of radio waves can be electronically steered to point in different directions without moving the antenna.

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Active Phased Array Radar

Active Phased Array Radar (APAR) is a shipborne multifunction 3D radar (MFR) developed and manufactured by Thales Nederland.

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Advanced Radar Research Center

The Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC) is a University Strategic Organization of the University of Oklahoma (OU) located at the Radar Innovation Lab (RIL) in Norman, Oklahoma.

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Aegis Combat System

The Aegis Combat System is an American integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin.

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AM broadcasting

AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions.

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The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).

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The AN/SPS-48 is a US naval electronically scanned array air search three-dimensional radar system manufactured by ITT Exelis and deployed in the 1960s as the primary air search sensor for anti-aircraft warships.

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The AN/SPY-1 is a US naval 3D radar system manufactured by Lockheed Martin.

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Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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Antenna array

An antenna array (or array antenna) is a set of multiple connected antennas which work together as a single antenna, to transmit or receive radio waves.

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Antenna gain

In electromagnetics, an antenna's power gain or simply gain is a key performance number which combines the antenna's directivity and electrical efficiency.

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Antony Hewish

Antony Hewish (born 11 May 1924) is a British radio astronomer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974 (together with fellow radio-astronomer Martin Ryle) for his role in the discovery of pulsars.

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Aperture synthesis

Aperture synthesis or synthesis imaging is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a collection of telescopes to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.

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Aster (missile family)

The Aster missile series, primarily comprising the Aster 15 and Aster 30 are a family of vertically launched surface-to-air missiles.

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An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.

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Beam steering

Beam steering (also spelled beamsteering or beam-steering) is about changing the direction of the main lobe of a radiation pattern.

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Beam tilt

Beam tilt is used in radio to aim the main lobe of the vertical plane radiation pattern of an antenna below (or above) the horizontal plane.

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Beamforming or spatial filtering is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception.

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Broadcast engineering

Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent computer engineering and information technology, which deals with radio and television broadcasting.

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Broadcast range

A broadcast range (also listening range or listening area for radio, or viewing range or viewing area for television) is the service area that a broadcast station or other transmission covers via radio waves (or possibly infrared light, which is closely related).

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Cassegrain reflector

The Cassegrain reflector is a combination of a primary concave mirror and a secondary convex mirror, often used in optical telescopes and radio antennas.

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Circular polarization

In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

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City of license

In American, Canadian and Philippine broadcasting, a city of license or community of license is the community that a radio station or television station is officially licensed to serve by that country's broadcast regulator.

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Collinear antenna array

In telecommunications, a collinear antenna array is an array of dipole antennas mounted in such a manner that the corresponding elements of each antenna are parallel and collinear, that is they are located along a common line or axis.

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Conformal antenna

In radio communication and avionics a conformal antenna or conformal array is a flat radio antenna which is designed to conform or follow some prescribed shape, for example a flat curving antenna which is mounted on or embedded in a curved surface.

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Continuous wave

A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency, almost always a sine wave, that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration.

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A cruiser is a type of warship.

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The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.

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In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Diffraction formalism

Diffraction processes affecting waves are amenable to quantitative description and analysis.

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Direction of arrival

In signal processing literature, direction of arrival (DOA) denotes the direction from which usually a propagating wave arrives at a point, where usually a set of sensors are located.

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Discrete Fourier transform

In mathematics, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) converts a finite sequence of equally-spaced samples of a function into a same-length sequence of equally-spaced samples of the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), which is a complex-valued function of frequency.

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Doppler radar

A Doppler radar is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance.

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Electronic countermeasure

An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.

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Fault tolerance

Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.

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Federal Aviation Administration

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.

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Filter bank

In signal processing, a filter bank is an array of band-pass filters that separates the input signal into multiple components, each one carrying a single frequency sub-band of the original signal.

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Fire-control radar

A fire-control radar (FCR) is a radar that is designed specifically to provide information (mainly target azimuth, elevation, range and range rate) to a fire-control system in order to direct weapons such that they hit a target.

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Fire-control system

A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.

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FM broadcasting

FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Frequency domain

In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.

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German Navy

The German Navy (Deutsche Marine or simply Marine—) is the navy of Germany and part of the unified Bundeswehr ("Federal Defense"), the German Armed Forces.

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A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.

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Ground-controlled approach

In aviation a ground-controlled approach (GCA), is a type of service provided by air-traffic controllers whereby they guide aircraft to a safe landing, including in adverse weather conditions, based on primary radar images.

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Herakles (radar)

Herakles is a passive electronically scanned array multi-function radar manufactured by Thales Group.

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History of smart antennas

The first smart antennas were developed for military communications and intelligence gathering.

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The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.

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Hughes Aircraft Company

The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes in Glendale, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company.

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Hydrocarbon exploration

Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.

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An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

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Interference (communication)

In communications and electronics, especially in telecommunications, interference is anything which modifies, or disrupts a signal as it travels along a channel between a source and a receiver.

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Interferometric synthetic-aperture radar

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar, abbreviated InSAR (or deprecated IfSAR), is a radar technique used in geodesy and remote sensing.

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Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.

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Inverse synthetic-aperture radar

Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is a radar technique using Radar imaging to generate a two-dimensional high resolution image of a target.

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The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.

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Jane's Information Group

Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.

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Karl Ferdinand Braun

Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 – 20 April 1918) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.

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Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.

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Luis Walter Alvarez

Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968.

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Mammut radar

The FuMG 41/42 Mammut was a long-range, phased array, early warning radar built by Germany in the latter days of World War II.

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Martin Ryle

Sir Martin Ryle (27 September 1918 – 14 October 1984) was an English radio astronomer who developed revolutionary radio telescope systems (see e.g. aperture synthesis) and used them for accurate location and imaging of weak radio sources.

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Mast radiator

A mast radiator (or radiating tower) is a radio mast or tower in which the entire structure functions as an antenna.

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Medium wave

Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Messenger (stylized as MESSENGER, whose backronym is "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and which is a reference to the messenger of the same name from Roman mythology) was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.

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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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MIM-104 Patriot

The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations.

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Monopulse radar

Monopulse radar is a radar system that implements the monopulse method for estimating the direction to the radar target.

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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Multi-user MIMO

Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) is a set of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) technologies for wireless communication, in which a set of users or wireless terminals, each with one or more antennas, communicate with each other.

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In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.

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In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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National Severe Storms Laboratory

The National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather research laboratory under the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research.

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Near and far field

The near field and far field are regions of the electromagnetic field (EM) around an object, such as a transmitting antenna, or the result of radiation scattering off an object.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Norman, Oklahoma

Norman is a city in the U.S. state of Oklahoma south of downtown Oklahoma City in its metropolitan area.

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Null fill

Null fill is used in radio antenna systems which are located on mountains or tall towers, to prevent too much of the signal from overshooting the nearest part of intended coverage area.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Optical heterodyne detection

Optical heterodyne detection is a method of extracting information encoded as modulation of the phase and/or frequency (wavelength) of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength band of visible or infrared light.

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Parabolic reflector

A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.

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Passive electronically scanned array

A passive electronically scanned array (PESA), also known as passive phased array, is a phased array antenna, that is an antenna in which the beam of radio waves can be electronically steered to point in different directions, in which all the antenna elements are connected to a single transmitter (such as a magnetron, a klystron or a travelling wave tube) and/or receiver.

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The PAVE PAWS (Precision Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased Array Warning System) is an elaborate Cold War early warning radar and computer system developed in 1980 to "detect and characterize a sea-launched ballistic missile attack against the United States".

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Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

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Phase shift module

A phase shift module is a microwave network module which provides a controllable phase shift of the RF signal.

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Phased array ultrasonics

Phased array ultrasonics (PA) is an advanced method of ultrasonic testing that has applications in medical imaging and industrial nondestructive testing.

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Phased-array optics

Phased array optics (PAO) is the technology of controlling the phase of light waves transmitting or reflecting from a two-dimensional surface by means of adjustable surface elements.

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JSC Phazotron (Phazotron-NIIR, ОАО «Корпорация «Фазотрон-НИИР»), is Russia's largest developer of military radars and avionics.

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Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.

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The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.

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Pulse-Doppler radar

A pulse-Doppler radar is a radar system that determines the range to a target using pulse-timing techniques, and uses the Doppler effect of the returned signal to determine the target object's velocity.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Radar MASINT is a subdiscipline of measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) and refers to intelligence gathering activities that bring together disparate elements that do not fit within the definitions of signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT), or human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Radiation pattern

In the field of antenna design the term radiation pattern (or antenna pattern or far-field pattern) refers to the directional (angular) dependence of the strength of the radio waves from the antenna or other source.

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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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Radio astronomy

Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.

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Radio masts and towers

Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television.

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Radio propagation

Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere.

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Radio receiver

In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.

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Radio station

A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.

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Radio-frequency identification

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.

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Rajendra Radar

Rajendra is a passive electronically scanned array radar developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), an agency of the Republic of India.

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Reflection seismology

Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves.

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Research and development

Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.

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Royal Netherlands Navy

The Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine, “Royal Navy”) is the navy of the Netherlands.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Semi-active radar homing

Semi-active radar homing (SARH) is a common type of missile guidance system, perhaps the most common type for longer-range air-to-air and surface-to-air missile systems.

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Shortwave radio

Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.

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Side lobe

In antenna engineering, side lobes or sidelobes are the lobes (local maxima) of the far field radiation pattern that are not the main lobe.

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Side-scan sonar

Side-scan sonar (also sometimes called side scan sonar, sidescan sonar, side imaging sonar, side-imaging sonar and bottom classification sonar) is a category of sonar system that is used to efficiently create an image of large areas of the sea floor.

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Signal strength in telecommunications

In telecommunications, particularly in radio frequency, signal strength (also referred to as field strength) refers to the transmitter power output as received by a reference antenna at a distance from the transmitting antenna.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Single-frequency network

A single-frequency network or SFN is a broadcast network where several transmitters simultaneously send the same signal over the same frequency channel.

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In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere.

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Smart antenna

Smart antennas (also known as adaptive array antennas, digital antenna arrays, multiple antennas and, recently, MIMO) are antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatial signal signatures such as the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use them to calculate beamforming vectors which are used to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target.

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SMART-L (Signaal Multibeam Acquisition Radar for Tracking, L band) is a naval long-range search radar from Thales Nederland, formerly Hollandse Signaalapparaten (Signaal).

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Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

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Space probe

A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.

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Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.

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Sunset or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation.

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Surface wave

In physics, a surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media.

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Surface-to-air missile

A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.

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Synthetic aperture sonar

Synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) is a form of sonar in which sophisticated post-processing of sonar data are used in ways closely analogous to synthetic aperture radar.

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Synthetic-aperture radar

Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar that is used to create two- or three-dimensional images of objects, such as landscapes.

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Synthetically thinned aperture radar

Synthetic thinned aperture radiometry (STAR) is a method of radar in which the coherent product (correlation) of the signal from pairs of antennas is measured at different antenna-pair spacings (baselines).

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Technology transfer

Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the places and ingroups of its origination to wider distribution among more people and places.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thinned-array curse

The thinned array curse (sometimes, sparse array curse) is a theorem in electromagnetic theory of antennas.

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Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design

JSC V.V. Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (ОАО «Научно-исследовательский институт приборостроения имени В.В.Тихомирова», НИИП, NIIP) is a joint stock company, one of the major Russian enterprises in the development of weaponry control systems for fighter planes and mobile medium range anti-aircraft SAM defense vehicles.

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Time domain

Time domain is the analysis of mathematical functions, physical signals or time series of economic or environmental data, with respect to time.

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Towed array sonar

A towed array sonar is a system of hydrophones towed behind a submarine or a surface ship on a cable.

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A transceiver is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver that are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing.

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A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.

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In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.

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Ultra high frequency

Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Oklahoma

The University of Oklahoma (OU) is a coeducational public research university in Norman, Oklahoma.

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Very high frequency

Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.

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A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.

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Wave field synthesis

Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a spatial audio rendering technique, characterized by creation of virtual acoustic environments.

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Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

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A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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X band

The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Yttrium iron garnet

Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a kind of synthetic garnet, with chemical composition 32(Fe4)3, or Y3Fe5O12.

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3D NowCasting

3D NowCasting refers to an experimental technology of nowcasting that uses a rapid phased-array radar to predict precipitation several minutes in advance.

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Redirects here:

Electronic scan, Electronical scan, Electronically Scanned Array, Electronically scanned array, Phased Array, Phased Array Radar, Phased array antenna, Phased array radar, Phased-Array Radar, Phased-array, Phased-array radar.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phased_array

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