97 relations: Adrenaline, Alanine, Amino acid, AMPA receptor, Analgesic, Antidepressant, Aromatic amino acid, Aspartame, Bacteria, Benzyl group, Biological activity, Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase, Biosynthesis, Blood–brain barrier, Breast milk, Carboxypeptidase A, Catecholamine, Cerebral cortex, Chemical decomposition, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Cinnamic acid, Circulatory system, Coding strand, Cofactor (biochemistry), Convenience food, De novo synthesis, Dietary supplement, DNA, Dopamine, Emil Erlenmeyer, Empirical formula, Enantiomer, Enkephalin, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Essential amino acid, Flavonoid, Gene, Genetic code, Genetic engineering, Genome, Glutamatergic, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Hippocampus, Hydrophobe, Hyperphenylalaninemia, IC50, Iron, ..., J. Heinrich Matthaei, L-DOPA, Lignan, Lupinus luteus, Macaque, Mammal, Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Melanin, Messenger RNA, Methyl group, Monoamine neurotransmitter, National Academy of Medicine, Neuromodulation, Neurotransmitter, Neutron capture therapy of cancer, Niacin receptor 2, Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide synthase, NMDA receptor, Norepinephrine, Organic synthesis, Peptide, Phenethylamine, Phenyl group, Phenylacetaldehyde, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Phenylketonuria, Pigment, Portal venous system, Promoter (genetics), Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein precursor, Proteome, Racemic mixture, Receptor antagonist, Schild regression, Serotonin, Stereoisomerism, Substituent, Synapse, Tetrahydrobiopterin, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Uracil, Urine. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An aromatic amino acid (AAA) is an amino acid that includes an aromatic ring.
Aspartame (APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
In organic chemistry, benzyl is the substituent or molecular fragment possessing the structure C6H5CH2–.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) are a family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes which includes phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase, tyrosine 3-hydroxylase, and tryptophan 5-hydroxylase.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Carboxypeptidase A usually refers to the pancreatic exopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide bonds of C-terminal residues with aromatic or aliphatic side-chains.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Cinnamic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CHCHCO2H.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
When referring to DNA transcription, the coding strand is the DNA strand whose base sequence corresponds to the base sequence of the RNA transcript produced (although with thymine replaced by uracil).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially prepared (often through processing) to optimise ease of consumption.
De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Richard August Carl Emil Erlenmeyer, known in his own day and subsequently simply as Emil Erlenmeyer (28 June 1825 – 22 January 1909), was a German chemist known for contributing to the early development of the theory of structure, formulating the Erlenmeyer rule, and designing the Erlenmeyer flask, a type of chemical flask, which is named after him.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
An enkephalin (occasionally spelled encephalin) is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Glutamatergic means "related to glutamate".
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hyperphenylalaninemia is a medical condition characterized by mildly or strongly elevated concentrations of the amino acid phenylalanine in the blood.
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
The lignans are a large group of polyphenols found in plants.
Lupinus luteus is known as annual yellow-lupin, European yellow lupin or yellow lupin.
The macaques (or pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marshall Warren Nirenberg (April 10, 1927 – January 15, 2010) was a Jewish American biochemist and geneticist.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a noninvasive therapeutic modality for treating locally invasive malignant tumors such as primary brain tumors and recurrent head and neck cancer.
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3 (HCA3), also known as niacin receptor 2 (NIACR2) and GPR109B, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HCAR3 gene.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5.
Phenylacetaldehyde is an organic compound used in the synthesis of fragrances and polymers.
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction converting L-phenylalanine to ammonia and ''trans''-cinnamic acid.
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of phenylalanine to generate tyrosine.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
In the circulatory system of animals, a portal venous system occurs when a capillary bed pools into another capillary bed through veins, without first going through the heart.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by post-translational modification, such as breaking off a piece of the molecule or adding on another molecule.
The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Schild regression analysis, named for Heinz Otto Schild, is a useful tool for studying the effects of agonists and antagonists on the cellular response caused by the receptor or on ligand-receptor binding.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, THB), also known as sapropterin, is a naturally occurring essential cofactor of the three aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes, used in the degradation of amino acid phenylalanine and in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), melatonin, dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and is a cofactor for the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide synthases.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Boronophenylalanine, C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH, D-Phenylalanine, D-phenylalanine, DL-Phenylalanine, DLPA, L-Phenylalanine, L-phenylalanine, Phenilalanine, Phenyl alanine, Phenylalanin, Phenylalanine metabolism, Phenylalanyl, Phenylalmine, Phenylanine.