189 relations: Adiaphora, Albrecht Dürer, All Saints' Church, Wittenberg, Andreas Osiander, Apostasy, Archaeology, Aristotle, Astrology, Astronomy, Augsburg Confession, Augsburg Interim, Augustine of Hippo, Bachelor of Theology, Bad Wimpfen, Basel, Bible, Book of Daniel, Book of Genesis, Book of Proverbs, Bretten, Calendar of saints (Lutheran), Calvinism, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Caspar Peucer, Catechism, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Chewing, Christian humanism, Christianity, Church Fathers, Church history, Cicero, Colloquy of Worms (1557), Comet, Conservatism, Consistory (Protestantism), Council of Florence, De Officiis, Devil, Dialectic, Dictionary of Literary Biography, Diet of Augsburg, Diet of Speyer (1529), Dignity, Dimitrije Ljubavić, Divine grace, Divine providence, Dogma, Dresden, ..., Ecclesiology, Eclipse, Education, Electoral Palatinate, Electorate of Saxony, Elijah, Emperor, Epistle to the Colossians, Epistle to the Romans, Erasmus, Ethics, Eucharist, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Evil, Faith, Francesco Stancaro, Free will, Friedrich Nietzsche, Geography, Georg Major, German language, Germany, Gnesio-Lutherans, God, Gospel of John, Gospel of Matthew, Gottlob Frege, Grammar, Greek language, Greek mathematics, Hanover, Hans Holbein the Younger, Heidelberg University, Heresy, Hermeneutics, Hesse, History, Holy Roman Empire, Holy Spirit, Huldrych Zwingli, Humanities, Hungary, Immaculate Conception, Irenicism, Jakob Wimpfeling, Jesus, Joachim Camerarius, Johann Eck, Johann Reuchlin, Johannes Oecolampadius, Johannes Stöffler, John Calvin, Jurisprudence, Justification (theology), Kassel, Konrad Cordatus, Landgraf, Latin, Leipzig, Leipzig Debate, Leipzig Interim, Leipzig University, Leonhard Hutter, Liberal arts education, List of Erasmus's correspondents, Livy, Loci Communes, Lorenzo Campeggio, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, Lutheran scholasticism, Lutheranism, Maccabees, Magnificat, Marburg, Marriage at Cana, Martin Bucer, Martin Chemnitz, Martin Luther, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Master's degree, Mathematics, Matthias Flacius, Matthias Hafenreffer, Maurice, Elector of Saxony, Mayor, Medicine, Melanchthonhaus (Bretten), New International Encyclopedia, New Testament, Niemegk, Nine Years' War, Nuremberg, Papal legate, Patience, Paul the Apostle, Peace of Augsburg, Pforzheim, Philip, Elector Palatine, Philippists, Philology, Philosophy, Political history, Pope, Preacher, Prince-elector, Psalms, Ptolemy, Reformation, Renaissance humanism, Rhetoric, Rhetoric (Aristotle), Rodolphus Agricola, Saint, Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Scholasticism, Schwabach, Self-control, Sin, Sola fide, Swabia, Switzerland, Syllogism, Synergism (theology), Synod, Terence, Tetrabiblos, Theology, Theology of Huldrych Zwingli, Transubstantiation, Trento, Trinity, Ubiquitarians, University of Tübingen, Virgil, Wartburg, Wittenberg, Wittenberg Concord, Zwickau prophets. Expand index (139 more) » « Shrink index
Adiaphoron(plural: adiaphora from the Greek ἀδιάφορα, the negation of διάφορα - Latin differentia - meaning "not differentiable").
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
All Saints' Church, commonly referred to as Schlosskirche (Castle Church) to distinguish it from the Stadtkirche (Town Church) of St.
Andreas Osiander (19 December 1498 – 17 October 1552) was a German Lutheran theologian and Protestant reformer.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran Reformation.
The Augsburg Interim ("Declaration of His Roman Imperial Majesty on the Observance of Religion Within the Holy Empire Until the Decision of the General Council") was an imperial decree ordered on 15 May 1548 at the 1548 Diet of Augsburg by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who had just defeated the forces of the Protestant Schmalkaldic League in the Schmalkaldic War of 1546/47.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
The Bachelor of Theology degree (BTh, ThB, or BTheol) is a three- to five-year undergraduate degree in theological disciplines.
is a historic spa town in the district of Heilbronn in the Baden-Württemberg region of southern Germany.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
(South Franconian: Bredde) is a town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which specifies the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by some Lutheran Churches in the United States.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Caspar Peucer (pronounced,; January 6, 1525 – September 25, 1602) was a German reformer, physician, and scholar of Sorbian origin.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Chewing or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.
Christian humanism is a philosophy that combines Christian ethics and humanist principles.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Church history or ecclesiastical history as an academic discipline studies the history of Christianity and the way the Christian Church has developed since its inception.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The Colloquy of Worms was the last colloquy in the 16th century on an imperial level, held in Worms from September 11 to October 8, 1557.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
In Protestant usage, a consistory designates certain ruling bodies in various churches.
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
De Officiis (On Duties or On Obligations) is a treatise by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, in which Cicero expounds his conception of the best way to live, behave, and observe moral obligations.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
The Dictionary of Literary Biography is a specialist biographical dictionary dedicated to literature.
The Diet of Augsburg were the meetings of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in the German city of Augsburg.
The Diet of Speyer or the Diet of Spires (sometimes referred to as Speyer II) was a Diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in 1529 in the Imperial City of Speyer (located in present-day Germany).
Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.
Dimitrije Ljubavić (Venice, January 1519 - Brașov, 1564) was a Serbian Orthodox deacon, humanist, writer and printer who, together with Philip Melanchthon, the German reformer, initiated the first formal contact between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Lutherans in 1559 when Ljubavić took a copy of the Augsburg Confession to Patriarch Joasaph II of Constantinople.
Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions.
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians, usually referred to simply as Colossians, is the twelfth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
Francesco Stancaro (also Latin: Franciscus Stancarus) (1501 in Mantua – 1574 in Stopnica) was an Italian Catholic priest, theologian, Protestant convert, and Protestant reformer who became professor of Hebrew at the University of Königsberg.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
George Major (April 25, 1502 – November 28, 1574) was a Lutheran theologian of the Protestant Reformation.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gnesio-Lutherans (from Greek γνήσιος: genuine, authentic) is a modern name for a theological party in the Lutheran churches, in opposition to the Philippists after the death of Martin Luther and before the Formula of Concord.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts and advances written in Greek, developed from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Hans Holbein the Younger (Hans Holbein der Jüngere) (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century.
Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus Christ.
Irenicism in Christian theology refers to attempts to unify Christian apologetical systems by using reason as an essential attribute.
Jakob Wimpfeling (25 July 1450 – 17 November 1528) was a Renaissance humanist and theologian.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Joachim Camerarius (April 12, 1500 – April 17, 1574), the Elder, was a German classical scholar.
Johann Maier von Eck (13 November 1486 – 13 February 1543), often Anglicized as John Eck, was a German Scholastic theologian, Catholic prelate, and early counterreformer who was among Martin Luther's most important interlocutors and theological opponents.
Johann Reuchlin (sometimes called Johannes; 29 January 1455 – 30 June 1522) was a German-born humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, whose work also took him to modern-day Austria, Switzerland, and Italy and France.
Johannes Oecolampadius (also Œcolampadius, in German also Oekolampadius, Oekolampad; 1482 in Weinsberg, Electoral Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire – 24 November 1531 in Basel, Canton of Basel in the Old Swiss Confederacy) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition from the Electoral Palatinate.
Johannes Stöffler (also Stöfler, Stoffler, Stoeffler; 10 December 1452 – 16 February 1531) was a German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, priest, maker of astronomical instruments and professor at the University of Tübingen.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
In Christian theology, justification is God's act of removing the guilt and penalty of sin while at the same time making a sinner righteous through Christ's atoning sacrifice.
Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.
Konrad Cordatus or Conrad Cordatus (1480-1546) was a preacher and Protestant reformer in Niemegk who severely attacked Philipp Melanchthon, German reformer and collaborator with Martin Luther, during his sojourn in Tübingen in 1536.
Landgraf is a surname.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
The Leipzig Debate (Leipziger Disputation) was a theological disputation originally between Andreas Karlstadt, Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, and Johann Eck.
The Leipzig Interim was one of several temporary settlements between the Emperor Charles V and German Lutherans following the Schmalkaldic War.
Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.
Leonhard Hutter (also Hütter, Latinized as Hutterus; 19 January 1563 – 23 October 1616) was a German Lutheran theologian.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
One of the best sources for the world of European Renaissance Humanism in the early 16th century is the correspondence of Erasmus.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Loci Communes or Loci communes rerum theologicarum seu hypotyposes theologicae (Latin for Common Places in Theology or Fundamental Doctrinal Themes) was a work by the Lutheran theologian Philipp Melanchthon published in 1521 (other, modified editions produced in the life of the author occurred in: 1535, 1543 and 1559).
Lorenzo Campeggio (1474–1539) was an Italian cardinal and politician.
Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, c. 1472 – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving.
The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), often referred to simply as the Missouri Synod, is a traditional, confessional Lutheran denomination in the United States.
Lutheran scholasticism was a theological method that gradually developed during the era of Lutheran Orthodoxy.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
The Magnificat (Latin for " magnifies ") is a canticle, also known as the Song of Mary, the Canticle of Mary and, in the Byzantine tradition, the Ode of the Theotokos.
Marburg is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis).
The transformation of water into wine at the Marriage at Cana or Wedding at Cana is the first miracle attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John.
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
Martin Chemnitz (9 November 1522 – 8 April 1586) was an eminent second-generation German Lutheran theologian, reformer, churchman, and confessor.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg), also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matthias Flacius Illyricus (Latin; Matija Vlačić Ilirik) (3 March 1520 – 11 March 1575) was a Lutheran reformer from Istria, present day Croatia.
Matthias Hafenreffer (24 June 1561 22 October 1619) was a German orthodox Lutheran theologian in the Lutheran scholastic tradition.
Maurice (21 March 1521 – 9 July 1553) was Duke (1541–47) and later Elector (1547–53) of Saxony.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The Melanchthonhaus is a museum and research facility of the Protestant Reformation in Bretten, particularly on the life of Philipp Melanchthon.
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd, Mead and Company.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Niemegk is a town in the Potsdam-Mittelmark district, in Brandenburg, Germany.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
Patience (or forbearance) is the ability to endure difficult circumstances such as perseverance in the face of delay; tolerating provocation without responding in annoyance/anger; or exhibiting forbearance when under strain, especially when faced with longer-term difficulties.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (the predecessor of Ferdinand I) and the Schmalkaldic League, signed in September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg.
Pforzheim is a city of nearly 120,000 inhabitants in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, in the southwest of Germany.
Philip the Upright (Philipp der Aufrichtige) (14 July 1448 – 28 February 1508) was an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach from 1476 to 1508.
The Philippists formed a party in early Lutheranism.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
A preacher is a person who delivers sermons or homilies on religious topics to an assembly of people.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Aristotle's Rhetoric (Rhētorikḗ; Ars Rhetorica) is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, dating from the 4th century BC.
Rodolphus Agricola (Rudolphus Agricola Phrisius; August 28, 1443 or February 17, 1444 – October 27, 1485) was a pre-Erasmian humanist of the northern Low Countries, famous for his supple Latin and one of the first north of the Alps to know Greek well.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
The Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a religious encyclopedia.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Schwabach is a German town of about 40,000 inhabitants near Nuremberg in the centre of the region of Franconia in the north of Bavaria.
Self-control, an aspect of inhibitory control, is the ability to regulate one's emotions, thoughts, and behavior in the face of temptations and impulses.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also known as justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine commonly held to distinguish many Protestant churches from the Catholic Church, as well as the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
In Christian theology, synergism is the position of those who hold that salvation involves some form of cooperation between divine grace and human freedom.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.
Tetrabiblos (Τετράβιβλος) 'four books', also known in Greek as Apotelesmatiká (Ἀποτελεσματικά) "Effects", and in Latin as Quadripartitum "Four Parts", is a text on the philosophy and practice of astrology, written in the 2nd century AD by the Alexandrian scholar Claudius Ptolemy (AD 90– AD 168).
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The theology of Huldrych Zwingli was based on the Bible, taking scripture as the inspired word of God and placing its authority higher than what he saw as human sources such as the ecumenical councils and the church fathers.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
Trento (anglicized as Trent; local dialects: Trènt; Trient) is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
The Ubiquitarians, also called Ubiquists, were a Protestant sect that held that body of Christ was everywhere, including the Eucharist. The sect was started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 December 1559, by Johannes Brenz (1499–1570), a Swabian. Its profession, made under the name of Duke Christopher of Württemberg and entitled the "Württemberg Confession," was sent to the Council of Trent in 1552, but had not been formally accepted as the Ubiquitarian creed until the synod at Stuttgart.
The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a German public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The Wartburg is a castle originally built in the Middle Ages.
Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Wittenberg Concord, is a religious concordat signed by Reformed and Lutheran theologians and churchmen on 29 May 1536 as an attempted resolution of their differences with respect to the Real Presence of Christ's body and blood in the Eucharist.
The Zwickau prophets were three men of the Radical Reformation from Zwickau, Electorate of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire, who were possibly involved in a disturbance in nearby Wittenberg and its evolving Reformation in early 1522.
Melanchthon, Melanchthon, Philipp, Melanchton, Melancthon, Melancthon, Philipp, Philip Melancthon, Philip Schwartzerd, Philip Schwartzerdt, Philip Schwarzerd, Philipp Melanchthon, Philipp Melancthon, Philipp Schwartzerd, Philipp Schwartzerdt, Philippus Melanchthon, Phillip Melanchthon, Phillip Melancthon, Phillip Schwartzerd, Phillip Schwartzerdt, Phillipp Melanchthon, Phillipp Melancthon, Phillipp Schwartzerd, Phillipp Schwartzerdt.