209 relations: Adult, Agnes of Solms-Laubach, Alexandre Dumas, Angélique de Froissy, Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain, Anne Marie d'Orléans, Anne of Austria, Anne of Denmark, Antoine Forqueray, Antoine of Navarre, Armenia, Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, Étienne Loulié, Bankruptcy, Basilica of St Denis, Battle of Almansa, Battle of Cassel (1677), Battle of Landen, Battle of Steenkerque, Bedding ceremony, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bouillon, Brittany, Cadet branch, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Catholic Church, Censorship, Charles Auguste de la Fare, Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Charles III of Spain, Charles, Duke of Berry (1686–1714), Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans, Charlotte, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel, Château de Saint-Cloud, Château de Vincennes, Chief minister of France, Chilly-Mazarin, Codicil (will), Comédie-Française, Countess Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg, Countess Catharina Belgica of Nassau, Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau, Counts and dukes of Anjou, Counts and dukes of Valois, Court (royal), De facto, Doge of Genoa, Doorman (profession), Dowry, ..., Dreux, Duchy of Montpensier, Duke of Chartres, Duke of Nemours, Duke of Orléans, Elisabeth Farnese, Elizabeth Charlotte, Madame Palatine, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, Engraving, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, Fils de France, François Louis, Prince of Conti, François Pidou de Saint Olon, Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, Françoise Marie de Bourbon, Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart, Marquise de Montespan, Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco III d'Este, Duke of Modena, Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, Frederick V of the Palatinate, French Crown Jewels, French livre, French Revolution, Giulio Alberoni, Given name, Great power, Guillaume Dubois, Hall of Mirrors, Henri Jules, Prince of Condé, Henrietta of England, Henry IV of France, House of Orléans, Isfahan, James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, James II of England, James VI and I, Jansenism, Jean Philippe d'Orléans, Jean Racine, Jean-Baptiste Santerre, Jeanne d'Albret, Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, John Law (economist), Joinville, Haute-Marne, Joseph Sauveur, Kingdom of France, La Tour d'Auvergne, Lady-in-waiting, Legitimists, Line of hereditary succession, List of Knights of the Golden Fleece, List of lords and princes of Joinville, List of Marshals of France, List of Prime Ministers of France, Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine, Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, Louis François, Prince of Conti, Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, Louis I of Spain, Louis Philippe I, Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louis, Dauphin of France (son of Louis XV), Louis, Duke of Brittany (1707–1712), Louis, Duke of Burgundy, Louis, Duke of Orléans (1703–1752), Louis, Grand Dauphin, Louis, Prince of Condé (1668–1710), Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans, Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon, Louise Diane d'Orléans, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon, Duchess of Orléans, Louisiana, Madrid, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain, Margravine Johanna of Baden-Baden, Maria Anna of Bavaria (1551–1608), Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain, Mariana Victoria of Spain, Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, Marie Anne de Bourbon, Marie Anne Mancini, Marie de' Medici, Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, Marie Louise d’Orléans, Mary of Modena, Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Meudon, Mississippi Company, Mistress (lover), Mohammad Reza Beg, Molière, Mons, Morganatic marriage, Morocco, Natural science, Necropolis, New Orleans, Nicolas Desmares, Nine Years' War, Opera, Opera house, Order of succession, Order of the Holy Spirit, Orleans Collection, Palace of Versailles, Palais-Royal, Peerage of France, Persian embassy to Louis XIV, Peter the Great, Philip II of Spain, Philip III of Spain, Philip V of Spain, Philipp Ludwig II, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg, Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, Philippe, Chevalier de Lorraine, Philippine Élisabeth d'Orléans, Pontcallec conspiracy, Pope, Prime minister, Prime Minister of France, Prince du sang, Princes of Condé, Protestantism, Queen consort, Régence, Regent, Regent Diamond, Reims Cathedral, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cambrai, Royal Highness, Safavid dynasty, Saint-Eustache, Paris, Sicily, Siege of Namur (1692), Siege of Turin, Style (manner of address), Sultan Husayn, Thomas Pitt, Tragedy, Tuileries Palace, Unigenitus, United States, University of Paris, Val-de-Grâce, Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, Viol, War of the Quadruple Alliance, War of the Spanish Succession, Will and testament, William III of England, William V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Yerevan. Expand index (159 more) » « Shrink index
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
Agnes of Solms-Laubach (7 January 1578 – 23 November 1602) was a Countess of Solms-Laubach and, by marriage, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel from 1593 until her death.
Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.
Philippe Angélique de Froissy (1702 – 15 October 1785 in Paris) was an illegitimate daughter of Philippe d'Orléans, the nephew and son-in-law of Louis XIV of France.
Anna of Austria (2 November 1549 – 26 October 1580) was Queen of Spain by marriage to her uncle, King Philip II of Spain.
Anne Marie d'Orléans (27 August 1669 – 26 August 1728) was the first Queen consort of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy.
Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651.
Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 15 and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven.
Antoine Forqueray (September 1672 – 28 June 1745) was a French composer and virtuoso of the viola da gamba.
Antoine (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) was the King of Navarre through his marriage (jure uxoris) to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans (13 September 1676 – 23 December 1744) was a French ''petite-fille de France'', and duchess of Lorraine and Bar by marriage to Leopold, Duke of Lorraine.
Étienne Loulié, pronounced, (1654 – 16 July 1702) was a musician, pedagogue and musical theorist.
Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
The Battle of Almansa was one of the most decisive engagements of the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 25 April 1707.
The Battle of Cassel was fought on April 11, 1677, as a part of the Franco-Dutch War.
The Battle of Landen or Neerwinden was fought in present-day Belgium on 29 July 1693 during the Nine Years' War.
The Battle of Steenkerque (Steenkerque also spelled Steenkerke or Steenkirk) was fought on 3 August 1692, as a part of the Nine Years' War.
The bedding ceremony refers to the wedding custom of putting the newlywed couple together in the marital bed before numerous witnesses, thereby completing the marriage.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
Bouillon (Bouyon) is a municipality in Belgium.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets).
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Charles Auguste, Marquis de La Fare, Conte of Laugères, Baron of Balazuc (1644–1712), was a poet and French memorialist.
Charles Louis, (Karl I. Ludwig), Elector Palatine KG (22 December 1617 – 28 August 1680) was the second son of German elector Frederick V of the Palatinate, the "Winter King" of Bohemia, and his wife, Elizabeth of England.
Charles II Francis of Austria (Karl II.) (3 June 1540 – 10 July 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola and Carinthia) from 1564.
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand.
Charles of France, Duke of Berry, (31 July 1686 – 5 May 1714) was a grandson of Louis XIV of France.
Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans, (20 October 1700 – 19 January 1761) was the Duchess of Modena and Reggio by marriage.
Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel (Kassel, 20 November 1627 – Heidelberg, 26 March 1686) was the consort of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and mother of Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate.
The Château de Saint-Cloud was a palace in France, built on a site overlooking the Seine at Saint-Cloud in Hauts-de-Seine, about west of Paris.
The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.
The chief minister of France or, closer to the French term, chief minister of state (principal ministre d'État), or prime minister of France were and are informal titles given to various personages who received various degrees of power to rule the Kingdom of France on behalf of the monarch during the Ancien Régime ("Old Regime").
Chilly-Mazarin is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.
A codicil is a testamentary document similar but not necessarily identical to a will.
The Comédie-Française or Théâtre-Français is one of the few state theatres in France and is considered the oldest still-active theatre in the world.
Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg (1602–1651) was Landgravine consort and Regent of Hesse-Kassel.
Countess Catharina Belgica of Nassau (31 July 1578 – 12 April 1648) was a countess of Hanau-Münzenberg by marriage to Philip Louis II, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg, and regent of Hanau-Münzenberg from 1612 until 1626.
Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau (31 March 1576 in Delft – 15 March 1644 in Königsberg) was a countess of the Palatinate by marriage to Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, and regent during the minority of her son from 1610 until 1611.
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong.
The Valois, originally pagus valensis, was a region in the valley of the Oise river in Picardy in the north of France.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Doge of Genoa (Ligurian: Dûxe, pron. /'dy:ʒe/; Januensium dux et populi defensor, "Commander of the Genoese and Defender of the People") was the ruler of the Republic of Genoa, a communal republic, from 1339 until the state's extinction in 1797.
A doorman (also porter in British English) is an individual hired to provide courtesy and security services at a residential building or hotel.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Dreux is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France.
The French lordship of Montpensier (named after the village of Montpensier, département of Puy-de-Dôme), located in historical Auvergne, became a countship in the 14th century.
Originally, the Duchy of Chartres (duché de Chartres) was the comté de Chartres, a County.
Duke of Nemours was a title in the Peerage of France.
Duke of Orléans (Duc d'Orléans) was a title reserved for French royalty, first created in 1344 by Philip VI in favor of his son Philip of Valois.
Elisabeth Farnese (Italian: Elisabetta Farnese, Spanish: Isabel de Farnesio; 25 October 1692 – 11 July 1766) was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746.
Princess Elisabeth Charlotte (Pfalzprinzessin Elisabeth Charlotte; nicknamed "Lieselotte", 27 May 1652 – 8 December 1722) was a German princess and, as Madame, the second wife of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of Louis XIV of France, and mother of France's ruler during the Regency.
Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds is an early study of crowd psychology by Scottish journalist Charles Mackay, first published in 1841.
Fils de France (Son of France) was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France.
François Louis de Bourbon, le Grand Conti (30 April 1664 – 9 February 1709), was Prince de Conti, succeeding his brother, Louis Armand de Bourbon, in 1685.
François Pidou de Saint Olon (1640, Touraine - 1720, Paris) was a French diplomat under Louis XIV.
Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon (27 November 1635 – 15 April 1719) was the second wife of King Louis XIV of France.
Françoise Marie de Bourbon, légitimée de France (4 May 1677 – 1 February 1749) was the youngest illegitimate daughter of Louis XIV of France and his maîtresse-en-titre, Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan.
Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Marquise of Montespan (5 October 1640 – 27 May 1707), better known as Madame de Montespan, was the most celebrated maîtresse-en-titre of King Louis XIV of France, by whom she had seven children.
Francesco I (25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 until his death in 1587, a member of the House of Medici.
Francesco III d'Este (Francesco Maria; 2 July 1698 – 22 February 1780) was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1737 until his death.
Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (Kurfürst Friedrich IV.; 5 March 1574 – 19 September 1610), only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth of Hesse, called "Frederick the Righteous" (Friedrich Der Aufrichtige; French: Frédéric IV le juste).
Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.
The French Crown Jewels (Joyaux de la Couronne de France) comprise the crowns, orb, sceptres, diadems and jewels that were symbols of Royal power between 752 and 1825.
The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Giulio Alberoni (30 May 1664 OS – 26 June NS 1752) was an Italian cardinal and statesman in the service of Philip V of Spain.
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Guillaume Dubois (6 September 1656 – 10 August 1723) was a French cardinal and statesman.
The Hall of Mirrors (Grande Galerie or Galerie des Glaces) is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France.
Henri Jules de Bourbon (Paris, 29 July 1643 – Paris, 1 April 1709) was prince de Condé, from 1686 to his death.
Henrietta of England (16 June 1644 O.S. (26 June 1644 N.S.) – 30 June 1670) was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called House of Bourbon-Orléans (Maison de Bourbon-Orléans) to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname previously used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, 1st Duke of Fitz-James, 1st Duke of Liria and Jérica (21 August 1670 – 12 June 1734) was an Anglo-French military leader, illegitimate son of King James II of England by Arabella Churchill, sister of the 1st Duke of Marlborough.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jansenism was a Catholic theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination.
Jean Philippe, bâtard d'Orléans (28 August 1702 – 16 June 1748), called le chevalier d'Orléans or le Grand Prieur d'Orléans, was an illegitimate son of Philippe d'Orléans, nephew and son-in-law of Louis XIV.
Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.
Jean-Baptiste Santerre (23 March 1651 – 21 November 1717), was a French painter often associated with Jean-Honoré Fragonard but notable in his own right.
Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: Joana Albretekoa; Occitan: Joana de Labrit; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572.
Joanna of Austria (German Johanna von Österreich, Italian Giovanna d'Austria) (24 January 1547 – 11 April 1578) was born an Archduchess of Austria as the youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
John Law (baptised 21 April 1671 – 21 March 1729) was a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade.
Joinville is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France.
Joseph Sauveur (24 March 1653 – 9 July 1716) was a French mathematician and physicist.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
La Tour d'Auvergne was a noble French dynasty.
A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman.
The Legitimists (Légitimistes) are royalists who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession to the French crown of the descendants of the eldest branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution.
Successor to hereditary title, office or like, in case of the heritage being indivisible, goes to one person at a time.
This page contains a list of Knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
The first known lord of Joinville (French Sire or Seigneur de Joinville) in the county of Champagne appears in the middle of the eleventh century.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
The Prime Minister of France is the head of the Government of France.
Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse (1681), duc de Penthièvre (1697), (1711), (6 June 1678 – 1 December 1737), a legitimated prince of the blood royal, was the son of Louis XIV and of his mistress Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan.
Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine (31 March 1670 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye – 14 May 1736 in Sceaux) was a legitimised son of the French king Louis XIV and his official mistress, Madame de Montespan.
Louis de Rouvroy, Duke of Saint-Simon (16 January 16752 March 1755), was a French soldier, diplomat and memoirist.
Louis François de Bourbon, or Louis François I, Prince of Conti (13 August 1717 – 2 August 1776), was a French nobleman, who was the Prince of Conti from 1727 to his death, following his father, Louis Armand II de Bourbon.
Louis Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, or Louis Henri I, Prince of Condé (18 August 1692 – 27 January 1740), was head of the Bourbon-Condé cadet branch of the France's reigning House of Bourbon from 1710 to his death, and served as prime minister to his kinsman Louis XV from 1723 to 1726.
Louis I (Luis Felipe; 25 August 1707 – 31 August 1724) was King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans (13 April 17476 November 1793), most commonly known as Philippe, was born at the Château de Saint-Cloud.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis, Dauphin of France (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765) was the elder and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska.
Louis, Duke of Brittany (8 January 1707 – 8 March 1712), was the first son of Louis of France, Duke of Burgundy, and Marie Adélaïde of Savoy.
Louis, Duke of Burgundy and later Dauphin of France (16 August 1682 – 18 February 1712) was the eldest son of Louis, Grand Dauphin, and father of Louis XV, and briefly heir to the throne from his father's death in April 1711 to his own death 10 months later.
Louis, Duke of Orléans (4 August 1703 – 4 February 1752) was a member of the royal family of France, the House of Bourbon, and as such was a prince du sang.
Louis of France (1 November 1661 – 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of Louis XIV, King of France, and his spouse, Maria Theresa of Spain.
Louis de Bourbon, or Louis III, Prince of Condé (10 November 1668 - 4 March 1710), was a prince du sang as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon at the French court of Louis XIV.
Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans (Marie Louise Adélaïde; 13 August 1698 – 10 February 1743) was the third daughter of Philippe d'Orléans, and Françoise Marie de Bourbon, a legitimised daughter of Louis XIV of France and his mistress, Madame de Montespan.
Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans (Luisa Isabel; 11 December 1709 – 16 June 1742) was Queen of Spain from January to August 1724 as the wife of King Louis I.
Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon (Anne Louise Bénédicte; 8 November 167623 January 1753), was the daughter of Henri Jules de Bourbon, Prince of Condé and Anne Henriette of Bavaria.
Louise Diane d'Orléans (27 June 1716 – 26 September 1736) was the sixth daughter and last child of Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans (Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723) and his wife, Françoise Marie de Bourbon, the youngest legitimised daughter of King Louis XIV of France and his mistress, Madame de Montespan.
Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre, Duchess of Orléans (13 March 1753 – 23 June 1821), was the daughter of Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre and of Princess Maria Theresa Felicitas of Modena.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 – 24 February 1704) was a French composer of the Baroque era.
Margaret of Austria (25 December 1584 – 3 October 1611) was Queen consort of Spain and Portugal by her marriage to King Philip III and II.
Auguste of Baden-Baden (Auguste Marie Johanna; 10 November 1704 – 8 August 1726) was born a member of the ruling family of Baden-Baden and was later the Duchess of Orléans by marriage to Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans.
Maria Anna of Bavaria (21 March 1551, Munich – 29 April 1608, Graz) was a politically active Archduchess of Austria by marriage to Archduke Charles II of Austria.
Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain (María Teresa Antonia Rafaela; 11 June 1726 – 22 July 1746) was an Infanta of Spain by birth and Dauphine of France by marriage to Louis, Dauphin of France, son of Louis XV of France.
Mariana Victoria of Spain (Mariana Vitória; 31 March 1718 – 15 January 1781) was an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the Queen of Portugal as wife of King Joseph I. The eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, she was engaged to the young Louis XV of France at the age of seven.
Marie Adélaïde of Savoy (6 December 1685 – 12 February 1712) was the wife of Louis, Dauphin of France, Duke of Burgundy.
Marie Anne de Bourbon, Légitimée de France (2 October 1666 – 3 May 1739) was the eldest legitimised daughter (fille légitimée de France) of King Louis XIV of France and his mistress Louise de La Vallière.
Marie Anne Mancini, duchesse de Bouillon (1649 – 20 June 1714), was an Italian-French aristocrat and culture mecenate, the youngest of the five famous Mancini sisters, who along with two of their female Martinozzi cousins, were known at the court of King Louis XIV of France as the Mazarinettes, because their uncle was the king's chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, Duchess of Berry (20 August 1695 in Palace of Versailles – 21 July 1719 in Paris), known affectionally with the moniker Joufflotte, was a member of the House of Orléans who married Charles, Duke of Berry.
Marie Louise of Orléans (26 March 1662 – 12 February 1689) was Queen consort of Spain from 1679 to 1689 as the first wife of King Charles II of Spain.
Mary of Modena (Maria di Modena) (Maria Beatrice Anna Margherita Isabella d'Este; –) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII (1633–1701).
Maurice of Hesse-Kassel (Moritz) (25 May 1572 – 15 March 1632), also called Maurice the Learned, was the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1592 to 1627.
Meudon is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
The Mississippi Company (Compagnie du Mississippi; founded 1684, named the Company of the West from 1717, and the Company of the Indies from 1719) was a corporation holding a business monopoly in French colonies in North America and the West Indies.
A mistress is a relatively long-term female lover and companion who is not married to her partner, especially when her partner is married to someone else.
Mohammad Reza Beg (Persian: محمدرضا بیگ, in French-language sources; Méhémet Riza Beg), was the Safavid mayor (kalantar) of Erivan (Yerevan), and the ambassador to France during the reign of king Sultan Husayn (1694-1722).
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
Nicolas Desmares (Rouen, 1650 – Paris, 3 November 1714) was a French comedian.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.
An order of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.
The Order of the Holy Spirit, also known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit (Ordre du Saint-Esprit or Ordre des chevaliers du Saint-Esprit; sometimes translated into English as the Order of the Holy Ghost), is a French order of chivalry founded by Henry III of France in 1578.
The Orleans Collection was a very important collection of over 500 paintings formed by Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans, mostly acquired between about 1700 and his death in 1723.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
The Palais-Royal, originally called the Palais-Cardinal, is a former royal palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.
The Peerage of France (Pairie de France) was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers.
The Persian embassy to Louis XIV caused a dramatic flurry at the court of Louis XIV in 1715, the year of the Sun King's death.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
Philipp Ludwig II of Hanau-Münzenberg (18 November 1576, in Hanau – 9 August 1612, in Hanau), was one of the most notable counts of Hanau of the early modern period, his policies bringing about sweeping changes.
Philippe Charles d'Orléans, petit-fils de France, Duke of Valois (16 July 1664 – 8 December 1666) was a French prince and Grandson of France.
Philippe, Duke of Orléans (21 September 1640 – 9 June 1701) was the younger son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria.
Philippe of Lorraine (1643 – 8 December 1702), known as the Chevalier de Lorraine, was a French nobleman and member of the House of Guise, cadet of the Ducal House of Lorraine.
Philippine Élisabeth d'Orléans known as Mademoiselle de Beaujolais (Philippine Élisabeth Charlotte; 18 December 1714 – 21 May 1734) was the daughter of Philippe d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans (Regent from 1715 to 1723) and his wife, Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, the youngest legitimised daughter of King Louis XIV and his mistress, Madame de Montespan.
The Pontcallec conspiracy was a rebellion that arose from an anti-tax movement in Brittany between 1718 and 1720.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
A prince du sang (Prince of the Blood) is a person legitimately descended in dynastic line from any of a realm's hereditary monarchs.
The Most Serene House of Condé (named after Condé-en-Brie, now in the Aisne département) was a French princely house and a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
The Régence (Regency) was the period in French history between 1715 and 1723, when King Louis XV was a minor and the land was governed by Philippe d'Orléans, a nephew of Louis XIV of France, as prince regent.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The Regent Diamond is a diamond owned by the French state and on display in the Louvre, worth £48,000,000.
Reims Cathedral (Our Lady of Reims, Notre-Dame de Reims) is a Roman Catholic church in Reims, France, built in the High Gothic style.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cambrai (Archdiocesis Cameracensis; French: Archidiocèse de Cambrai) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France, comprising the arrondissements of Avesnes-sur-Helpe, Cambrai, Douai, and Valenciennes within the département of Nord, in the region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
Royal Highness (abbreviated HRH for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness) is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The Church of St Eustache, Paris (L’église Saint-Eustache) is a church in the 1st arrondissement of Paris.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Namur, 25 May–30 June 1692, was a major engagement of the Nine Years' War, and was part of the French grand plan (devised over the winter of 1691–92) to defeat the forces of the Grand Alliance and bring a swift conclusion to the war.
The Siege of Turin lasted from June to September 1706 when a French-led force besieged the Savoyard capital of Turin during the War of the Spanish Succession. The siege was broken when a combined Savoyard/Imperial army relieved the city in September; this was a major turning point for the war in Italy.
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.
Sultan Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn and Soltan Hosein), (October 1668 – November 1726) (شاه سلطان حسین) reigned 1694–1722; was a Safavid Shah of Iran (Persia).
Thomas "Diamond" Pitt (5 July 1653 – 28 April 1726) was an English merchant involved in trade with India.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
The Tuileries Palace (Palais des Tuileries) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine.
Unigenitus (named for its Latin opening words Unigenitus dei filius, or "Only-begotten son of God"), an apostolic constitution in the form of a papal bull promulgated by Pope Clement XI in 1713, opened the final phase of the Jansenist controversy in France.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
The Val-de-Grâce (Hôpital d'instruction des armées du Val-de-Grâce or HIA Val-de-Grâce) is a military hospital located at 74 boulevard de Port-Royal in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.
Victor Amadeus II (Vittorio Amedeo Francesco; 14 May 1666 – 31 October 1732) was Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730.
The viol, viola da gamba, or (informally) gamba, is any one of a family of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings.
The War of the Quadruple Alliance (1717–1720) was a result of the ambitions of Bourbon King Philip V of Spain, his wife, Elisabeth Farnese, and his chief minister Giulio Alberoni to retake territories in Italy lost to the Habsburgs in Vienna, and perhaps even to claim the French throne.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William V (Wilhelm) (13 February 1602 – 21 September 1637), a member of the House of Hesse, was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1627 to 1637.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Orleans, Philippe II, Duc d', Orléans, Philippe II, Duc d', Philip II of Orleans, Philip II of Orléans, Philip II, Duke of Orleans, Philip II, Duke of Orléans, Philip II, duke of Orleans, Philip, duke of Orleans, Philippe II Duc D'Orleans, Philippe II d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans, Philippe II d’Orléans, Philippe II of Orleans, Philippe II of Orléans, Philippe II, Duc D'Orleans, Philippe II, Duc d' Orleans, Philippe II, Duc d' Orléans, Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, Philippe II, duc d'Orleans, Philippe II, duc d'Orléans, Philippe d'Orléans (1674-1723), Phillipe II, duc d'Orleans, Phillipe II, duc d'Orléans, Regent Orleans, Regent Orléans.