105 relations: Aegean civilizations, Akkadian language, Alexander Hamilton (linguist), Alexander McCall Smith, Allegory, American English, American Journal of Philology, Ancient Greek, Ancient literature, Ancient Near East, Anna Morpurgo Davies, Arabic, Bedřich Hrozný, Behistun Inscription, Bible, British English, Byzantine Empire, C. S. Lewis, Celtic studies, Classical language, Classics, Codicology, Comparative linguistics, Critical apparatus, Cuneiform script, Decipherment, Egyptian language, Elamite language, Elocution, Etymology, Ferdinand de Saussure, Footnote (film), Forbidden Planet, Friedrich Nietzsche, Geoffrey Chaucer, Germanic philology, Giacomo Leopardi, Greek language, Hebrew language, Hermeneutics, Historical criticism, Historical linguistics, History, Hittite language, Indo-European languages, Indo-European studies, Islamic Golden Age, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jean-François Champollion, John Lydgate, ..., Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Koine Greek, Language change, Languages of Europe, Library of Alexandria, Library of Pergamum, Linear A, Linear B, Linguistics, List of submissions to the 84th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, Literary criticism, Logogram, Logos, Luwian language, Martianus Capella, Maya script, Michael Ventris, Middle French, Middle Persian, Minoan civilization, Moritz-Maria von Igelfeld, Mycenaean Greek, New Philology, Noam Chomsky, Old Persian, Palaeography, Persian language, Philosophy, Portuguese Irregular Verbs, Proto-Indo-European language, Renaissance humanism, Richard Utz, Roman Empire, Rosetta Stone, Runet, Sanskrit, Sinology, Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet, Slavic studies, Sophist, Sound change, Structuralism, Stylistics, Sumerian language, Synchrony and diachrony, Syntax, Textual criticism, Textual scholarship, The Space Trilogy, Theoretical linguistics, Ugaritic, Vyākaraṇa, Western canon, World War I, Yuri Knorozov. Expand index (55 more) » « Shrink index
Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alexander Hamilton (1762-1824) was a British linguist who was one of the first Europeans to study the Sanskrit language.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American Journal of Philology is a quarterly academic journal established in 1880 by the classical scholar Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve, published by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
This article presents a list of the historical events and publications of literature during ancient times.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
Anna Elbina Morpurgo Davies, (21 June 1937 – 27 September 2014) was an Italian philologist who specialised in comparative Indo-European linguistics.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Bedřich (Friedrich) Hrozný (May 6, 1879 – December 12, 1952) was a Czech orientalist and linguist.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
Celtic studies or Celtology is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to the Celtic people.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Codicology (from Latin, genitive, "notebook, book"; and Greek, -logia) is the study of codices or manuscript books written on parchment (or paper) as physical objects.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
The critical apparatus (apparatus criticus) is the critical and primary source material that accompanies an edition of a text.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
In philology, decipherment is the discovery of the meaning of texts written in ancient or obscure languages or scripts.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
Elocution is the study of formal speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
Footnote (הערת שוליים, translit. He'arat Shulayim) is a 2011 Israeli drama film written and directed by Joseph Cedar, starring Shlomo Bar'aba and Lior Ashkenazi.
Forbidden Planet is a 1956 American science fiction film produced by Nicholas Nayfack, directed by Fred M. Wilcox that stars Walter Pidgeon, Anne Francis, and Leslie Nielsen.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Germanic philology is the philological study of the Germanic languages, particularly from a comparative or historical perspective.
Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
Jean-François Champollion (Champollion le jeune; 23 December 17904 March 1832) was a French scholar, philologist and orientalist, known primarily as the decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphs and a founding figure in the field of Egyptology.
John Lydgate of Bury (c. 1370 – c. 1451) was a monk and poet, born in Lidgate, near Haverhill, Suffolk, England.
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist.
Language change is variation over time in a language's phonological, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
The Library of Pergamum in Pergamum, Turkey, was one of the most important libraries in the ancient world.
Linear A is one of two currently undeciphered writing systems used in ancient Greece (Cretan hieroglyphic is the other).
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of submissions to the 84th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl. c. 410–420), one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education.
Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
Michael George Francis Ventris, OBE (12 July 1922 – 6 September 1956) was an English architect, classicist and philologist who deciphered Linear B, the ancient Mycenaean Greek script.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
Moritz-Maria von Igelfeld is the main character in a series of short, humorous novels by Scottish author Alexander McCall Smith.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Portuguese Irregular Verbs is a short comic novel by Alexander McCall Smith, and the first of McCall Smith's series of novels featuring Professor Dr von Igelfeld.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Richard Utz (born 1961) is a German-born medievalist who has spent much of his career in North America.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
Runet (Рунет), a portmanteau of ru (both code for the Russian language and Russia's top-level domain) and net/network, is the Russian-language community on the Internet and websites.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, 1st Baronet, (5 April 1810 – 5 March 1895) was a British East India Company army officer, politician and Orientalist, sometimes described as the Father of Assyriology.
Slavic studies (North America), Slavonic studies (Britain and Ireland) or Slavistics (borrowed from Russian славистика or Polish slawistyka) is the academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
Stylistics, a branch of applied linguistics, is the study and interpretation of texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.
Textual scholarship (or textual studies) is an umbrella term for disciplines that deal with describing, transcribing, editing or annotating texts and physical documents.
The Space Trilogy or Cosmic Trilogy is a series of science fiction novels by C. S. Lewis, famous for his later series The Chronicles of Narnia.
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Ugaritic is an extinct Northwest Semitic language discovered by French archaeologists in 1929.
Vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit: "explanation, analysis") refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, ancillary science connected with the Vedas, which are scriptures in Hinduism.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yuriy Valentinovich Knorozov (alternatively Knorosov; Ю́рий Валенти́нович Кноро́зов; November 19, 1922 – March 31, 1999) was a Soviet linguist epigrapher and ethnographer, who is particularly renowned for the pivotal role his research played in the decipherment of the Maya script, the writing system used by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica.