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Philosophical skepticism

Index Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge. [1]

160 relations: A Treatise of Human Nature, Academic skepticism, Academy, Acatalepsy, Acinteyya, Adiaphora, Aenesidemus (book), Age of Enlightenment, Agrippa the Skeptic, Ajñana, Al-Ghazali, Alexander the Great, American and British English spelling differences, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Ancient Greek, Anekantavada, Anti-realism, Arcesilaus, Argument, Argument from ignorance, Arihant (Jainism), Ashʿari, Ataraxia, Atheism, Augustine of Hippo, Autobiography, Aztec philosophy, Baruch Spinoza, Benson Mates, Brain in a vat, Buddhist philosophy, Carla-Bayle, Carneades, Cartesian doubt, Celia Green, Charvaka, Christianity, Cicero, Clitomachus (philosopher), Color blindness, Computer simulation, Conceptual proliferation, Confucianism, David Hume, Dharmakirti, Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, Dignāga, Diogenes Laërtius, Discourse on the Method, Dogma, ..., Dream argument, Eduard Zeller, Elis, Empiricism, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Epicureanism, Epistemology, Essays (Montaigne), Eudaimonia, Evil demon, Fallibilism, Fictionalism, Fideism, Foundationalism, Francisco Sanches, Frederick C. Beiser, Galileo Galilei, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, George Henry Lewes, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Here is one hand, Hui Shi, Hundred Schools of Thought, Immanuel Kant, Indian religions, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Isaac La Peyrère, Islamic philosophy, Isma'ilism, John Locke, Kalam, Karma, Kevala Jnana, Local skepticism, Lucretius, Mad scientist, Mahavira, Marin Mersenne, Materialism, Münchhausen trilemma, Meditations on First Philosophy, Michael Huemer, Michel de Montaigne, Miracles of Jesus, Mosaic authorship, Nagarjuna, Naturalism (philosophy), Nihilism, Nirvana, Noumenon, Occasionalism, Omniscience, Omphalos hypothesis, Ontology, Panentheism, Peter Unger, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philosophical methodology, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Pierre Bayle, Pierre Gassendi, Pluralism (philosophy), Pragmatism, Princeton University Press, Probability, Problem of induction, Problem of the criterion, Pseudoskepticism, Pyrrho, Pyrrhonism, Radical skepticism, Rationalism, Raymond of Sabunde, Reincarnation, Religious text, Renaissance, René Descartes, Richard Popkin, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, Schools of Islamic theology, Sextus Empiricus, Simulated reality, Skepticism, Slippery slope, Socrates, Solipsism, Sophist, Sufism, Suspension of judgment, Taoism, Teotl, That Nothing Is Known, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Matrix, The unanswered questions, The Varieties of Religious Experience, Thomas Hobbes, Timon of Phlius, Torah, Trivialism, Truth value, Virtual reality, W. Montgomery Watt, Wang Chong, Western philosophy, William James, Zhuang Zhou, Zhuangzi (book). Expand index (110 more) »

A Treatise of Human Nature

A Treatise of Human Nature (1738–40) is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, considered by many to be Hume's most important work and one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Academic skepticism

Academic skepticism refers to the skeptical period of ancient Platonism dating from around 266 BC, when Arcesilaus became head of the Platonic Academy, until around 90 BC, when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected skepticism, although individual philosophers, such as Favorinus and his teacher Plutarch continued to defend Academic skepticism after this date.

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Academy

An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

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Acatalepsy

Acatalepsy (from the Greek α̉-, privative, and καταλαμβάνειν, to seize), in philosophy, is incomprehensibleness, or the impossibility of comprehending or conceiving a thing.

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Acinteyya

Acinteyya (Pali) is a Buddhist term that is commonly translated as imponderable or incomprehensible.

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Adiaphora

Adiaphoron(plural: adiaphora from the Greek ἀδιάφορα, the negation of διάφορα - Latin differentia - meaning "not differentiable").

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Aenesidemus (book)

Aenesidemus is a German book published anonymously by Professor Gottlob Ernst Schulze of Helmstedt in 1792.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agrippa the Skeptic

Agrippa (Ἀγρίππας) was a Pyrrhonist philosopher who probably lived towards the end of the 1st century CE.

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Ajñana

Ajñana was one of the ''nāstika'' or "heterodox" schools of ancient Indian philosophy, and the ancient school of radical Indian skepticism.

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Al-Ghazali

Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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American and British English spelling differences

Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.

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An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by the Scottish empiricist philosopher David Hume, published in English in 1748.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Anekantavada

(अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India.

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Anti-realism

In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.

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Arcesilaus

Arcesilaus (Ἀρκεσίλαος; 316/5–241/0 BC) was a Greek philosopher and founder of the Second or Middle Academy—the phase of Academic skepticism.

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Argument

In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.

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Argument from ignorance

Argument from ignorance (from argumentum ad ignorantiam), also known as appeal to ignorance (in which ignorance represents "a lack of contrary evidence") is a fallacy in informal logic.

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Arihant (Jainism)

Arihant (italic, italic "conqueror"), is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.

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Ashʿari

Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).

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Ataraxia

Ataraxia (ἀταραξία, literally, "not perturbed", generally translated as "imperturbability", "equanimity", or "tranquillity") is a Greek philosophy term used to describe a lucid state of robust equanimity that was characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Autobiography

An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.

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Aztec philosophy

Aztec philosophy was a school of philosophy that developed out of Aztec culture.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Benson Mates

Benson Mates (May 19, 1919 in Portland, Oregon – May 14, 2009 in Berkeley, California) was an American philosopher, noted for his work in logic, the history of philosophy, and skepticism.

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Brain in a vat

In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is a scenario used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of human conceptions of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, consciousness and meaning.

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Buddhist philosophy

Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.

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Carla-Bayle

Carla-Bayle is a commune in the Ariège department in southwestern France.

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Carneades

Carneades (Καρνεάδης, Karneadēs, "of Carnea"; 214/3–129/8 BC) was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene.

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Cartesian doubt

Cartesian doubt is a form of methodological skepticism associated with the writings and methodology of René Descartes (15961650).

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Celia Green

Celia Elizabeth Green (born 26 November 1935) is a British writer on philosophical skepticism and psychology.

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Charvaka

Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Clitomachus (philosopher)

Clitomachus (also Cleitomachus; Κλειτόμαχος, Kleitomachos; 187/6–110/9 BC), originally named Hasdrubal (Greek: Ἀσδρούβας), was a Carthaginian who came to Athens in 163/2 BC and studied philosophy under Carneades.

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Color blindness

Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Conceptual proliferation

In Buddhism, conceptual proliferation(papañca) refers to conceptualization of the world through the use of ever-expanding language and concepts.

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Dharmakirti

Dharmakīrti (fl. c. 6th or 7th century) was an influential Indian Buddhist philosopher who worked at Nālandā.

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Dictionnaire Historique et Critique

The Dictionnaire Historique et Critique (in English, the Historical and Critical Dictionary) was a biographical dictionary written by Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), a Huguenot who lived and published in Holland after fleeing his native France due to religious persecution.

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Dignāga

Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).

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Diogenes Laërtius

Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.

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Discourse on the Method

The Discourse on the Method (Discours de la méthode) is a philosophical and autobiographical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637.

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Dogma

The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

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Dream argument

The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality.

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Eduard Zeller

Eduard Gottlob Zeller (22 January 1814, Kleinbottwar – 19 March 1908, Stuttgart), was a German philosopher and Protestant theologian of the Tübingen School of theology.

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Elis

Elis or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient: Ἦλις Ēlis; Doric: Ἆλις Alis; Elean: Ϝαλις Walis, ethnonym: Ϝαλειοι) is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern Elis regional unit.

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Empiricism

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences

The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (abbreviated as EPS or simply Encyclopaedia; Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, EPW, translated as Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline) by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (first published in 1817, second edition 1827, third edition 1830), is a work that presents an abbreviated version of Hegel's systematic philosophy in its entirety, and is the only form in which Hegel ever published his entire mature philosophical system.

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Epicureanism

Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.

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Epistemology

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Essays (Montaigne)

The Essays (Essais) of Michel de Montaigne are contained in three books and 107 chapters of varying length.

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Eudaimonia

Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.

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Evil demon

The evil demon, also known as malicious demon and evil genius, is a concept in Cartesian philosophy.

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Fallibilism

Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.

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Fictionalism

Fictionalism is the view in philosophy according to which statements that appear to be descriptions of the world should not be construed as such, but should instead be understood as cases of "make believe", of pretending to treat something as literally true (a "useful fiction").

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Fideism

Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).

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Foundationalism

Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.

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Francisco Sanches

Francisco Sanches or Francisco Sánchez (c. 1550 – November 16, 1623) was a Spanish-PortugueseElaine Limbrick and Douglas Thomson (ed), Quod nihil scitur, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp.

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Frederick C. Beiser

Frederick Charles Beiser (born November 27, 1949) is an American author and professor of philosophy at Syracuse University.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Berkeley

George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

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George Henry Lewes

George Henry Lewes (18 April 1817 – 30 November 1878) was an English philosopher and critic of literature and theatre.

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Gottlob Ernst Schulze

Gottlob Ernst Schulze (23 August 1761 – 14 January 1833) was a German philosopher, born in Heldrungen (modern-day Thuringia, Germany).

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Here is one hand

Here is one hand is an epistemological argument created by George Edward Moore in reaction against philosophical skepticism and in support of common sense.

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Hui Shi

Hui Shi (370–310 BCE), or Huizi ("Master Hui"), was a Chinese philosopher during the Warring States period.

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Hundred Schools of Thought

The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Isaac La Peyrère

Isaac La Peyrère, also known as Isaac de La Peyrère or Pererius (1596–1676), was a Marrano French Millenarian theologian and formulator of the Pre-Adamite hypothesis.

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Islamic philosophy

In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.

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Isma'ilism

Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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Kalam

ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.

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Karma

Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Kevala Jnana

Kevala jñāna means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge.

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Local skepticism

Local skepticism is the view that one cannot possess knowledge in some particular domain.

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Lucretius

Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.

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Mad scientist

Mad scientist (also mad doctor or mad professor) is a caricature of a scientist who is described as "mad" or "insane" owing to a combination of unusual or unsettling personality traits and the unabashedly ambitious, taboo or hubristic nature of their experiments.

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Mahavira

Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.

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Marin Mersenne

Marin Mersenne, Marin Mersennus or le Père Mersenne (8 September 1588 – 1 September 1648) was a French polymath, whose works touched a wide variety of fields.

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Materialism

Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

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Münchhausen trilemma

In epistemology, the Münchhausen trilemma is a thought experiment used to demonstrate the impossibility of proving any truth, even in the fields of logic and mathematics.

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Meditations on First Philosophy

Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.

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Michael Huemer

Michael Huemer (born 27 December 1969) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

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Michel de Montaigne

Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.

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Miracles of Jesus

The miracles of Jesus are the supernatural deeds attributed to Jesus in Christian and Islamic texts.

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Mosaic authorship

Mosaic authorship is the Jewish and Christian tradition that Moses was the author of the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.

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Nagarjuna

Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Nihilism

Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.

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Nirvana

(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.

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Noumenon

In metaphysics, the noumenon (from Greek: νούμενον) is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception.

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Occasionalism

Occasionalism is a philosophical theory about causation which says that created substances cannot be efficient causes of events.

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Omniscience

Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.

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Omphalos hypothesis

The omphalos hypothesis is one attempt to reconcile the scientific evidence that the universe is billions of years old with the Genesis creation narrative, which implies that the Earth is only a few thousand years old.

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Ontology

Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Panentheism

Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.

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Peter Unger

Peter K. Unger (born April 25, 1942) is a contemporary American philosopher and professor at New York University.

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Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

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Philosophical methodology

Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy.

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Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Pierre Bayle

Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.

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Pierre Gassendi

Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.

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Pluralism (philosophy)

Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").

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Pragmatism

Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Problem of induction

The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, highlighting the apparent lack of justification for.

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Problem of the criterion

In the field of epistemology, the problem of the criterion is an issue regarding the starting point of knowledge.

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Pseudoskepticism

Pseudoskepticism (or pseudoscepticism) is a philosophical or scientific position which appears to be that of skepticism or scientific skepticism but which in reality fails to be so.

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Pyrrho

Pyrrho of Elis (Pyrron ho Eleios) was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher.

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Pyrrhonism

Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BC.

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Radical skepticism

Radical skepticism or radical scepticism is the philosophical position that knowledge is most likely impossible.

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Rationalism

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Raymond of Sabunde

Raymond of Sabunde (born Ramon Sibiuda; also known as Sabiende, Sabond, Sabonde, Sebon, Sebond, Sebonde, or Sebeyde; c. 1385 – 29 April 1436) was a Catalan scholar, teacher of medicine and philosophy and finally regius professor of theology at Toulouse.

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Reincarnation

Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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Religious text

Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Richard Popkin

Richard Henry Popkin (December 27, 1923 – April 14, 2005) was an academic philosopher who specialized in the history of enlightenment philosophy and early modern anti-dogmatism.

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Sanjaya Belatthiputta

Sanjaya Belatthiputta (literally, "Sanjaya of the Belattha clan"), also referred as Sanjaya Vairatiputra was an Indian ascetic teacher who lived around the 6th century BCE in the region of Magadha.

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Schools of Islamic theology

Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).

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Sextus Empiricus

Sextus Empiricus (Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens.

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Simulated reality

Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by quantum computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.

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Skepticism

Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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Slippery slope

A slippery slope argument (SSA), in logic, critical thinking, political rhetoric, and caselaw, is a consequentialist logical device in which a party asserts that a relatively small first step leads to a chain of related events culminating in some significant (usually negative) effect.

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Socrates

Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Solipsism

Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.

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Sophist

A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Suspension of judgment

Suspended judgment is a cognitive process and a rational state of mind in which one withholds judgments, particularly on the drawing of moral or ethical conclusions.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Teotl

Teotl is a central idea of Aztec religion.

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That Nothing Is Known

That Nothing Is Known (Quod nihil scitur) is a 1581 book by the philosopher Francisco Sanches.

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The Incoherence of the Philosophers

The Incoherence of the Philosophers (تهافت الفلاسفة Tahāfut al-Falāsifaʰ in Arabic) is the title of a landmark 11th-century work by the Persian theologian Al-Ghazali and a student of the Asharite school of Islamic theology criticizing the Avicennian school of early Islamic philosophy.

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The Matrix

The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis (credited as The Wachowski Brothers) and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano.

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The unanswered questions

The phrase unanswered questions or undeclared questions (Sanskrit avyākṛta, Pali: avyākata - "unfathomable, unexpounded"), in Buddhism, refers to a set of common philosophical questions that Buddha refused to answer, according to Buddhist texts.

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The Varieties of Religious Experience

The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a book by Harvard University psychologist and philosopher William James.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Timon of Phlius

Timon of Phlius (Τίμων ὁ Φλιάσιος, gen.: Τίμωνος; c. 320 BC – c. 235 BC) was a Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher, a pupil of Pyrrho, and a celebrated writer of satirical poems called Silloi (Σίλλοι).

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Torah

Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Trivialism

Trivialism is the logical theory that all statements (also known as propositions) are true and that all contradictions of the form "p and not p" (e.g. the ball is red and not red) are true.

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Truth value

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

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Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.

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W. Montgomery Watt

William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.

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Wang Chong

Wang Chong (27–c. 100 AD), courtesy name Zhongren (仲任), was a Chinese meteorologist, astronomer, and philosopher active during the Han Dynasty.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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Zhuang Zhou

Zhuang Zhou, often known as Zhuangzi ("Master Zhuang"), was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought.

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Zhuangzi (book)

The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.

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Ancient skepticism, Anti skepticism, Anti-skepticism, Antiskepticism, Criticism of philosophical skepticism, Epistemological nihilism, Epistemological skepticism, External world scepticism, External world skepticism, German scepticism, German skepticism, Nihilistic sceptic, Philisophical skeptic, Philosophic scepticism, Philosophic skepticism, Philosophical scepticism, Philosophical skeptic, Problem of external world, Problem of the external world, Renaissance skepticism, Sceptical Philosophy, Scepticism (philosophy), Skeptical argument, Skeptical hypotheses, Skeptical hypothesis.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_skepticism

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