Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!

Philosophical skepticism

Index Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge. [1]

160 relations: A Treatise of Human Nature, Academic skepticism, Academy, Acatalepsy, Acinteyya, Adiaphora, Aenesidemus (book), Age of Enlightenment, Agrippa the Skeptic, Ajñana, Al-Ghazali, Alexander the Great, American and British English spelling differences, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Ancient Greek, Anekantavada, Anti-realism, Arcesilaus, Argument, Argument from ignorance, Arihant (Jainism), Ashʿari, Ataraxia, Atheism, Augustine of Hippo, Autobiography, Aztec philosophy, Baruch Spinoza, Benson Mates, Brain in a vat, Buddhist philosophy, Carla-Bayle, Carneades, Cartesian doubt, Celia Green, Charvaka, Christianity, Cicero, Clitomachus (philosopher), Color blindness, Computer simulation, Conceptual proliferation, Confucianism, David Hume, Dharmakirti, Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, Dignāga, Diogenes Laërtius, Discourse on the Method, Dogma, ..., Dream argument, Eduard Zeller, Elis, Empiricism, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Epicureanism, Epistemology, Essays (Montaigne), Eudaimonia, Evil demon, Fallibilism, Fictionalism, Fideism, Foundationalism, Francisco Sanches, Frederick C. Beiser, Galileo Galilei, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, George Henry Lewes, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Here is one hand, Hui Shi, Hundred Schools of Thought, Immanuel Kant, Indian religions, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Isaac La Peyrère, Islamic philosophy, Isma'ilism, John Locke, Kalam, Karma, Kevala Jnana, Local skepticism, Lucretius, Mad scientist, Mahavira, Marin Mersenne, Materialism, Münchhausen trilemma, Meditations on First Philosophy, Michael Huemer, Michel de Montaigne, Miracles of Jesus, Mosaic authorship, Nagarjuna, Naturalism (philosophy), Nihilism, Nirvana, Noumenon, Occasionalism, Omniscience, Omphalos hypothesis, Ontology, Panentheism, Peter Unger, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philosophical methodology, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Pierre Bayle, Pierre Gassendi, Pluralism (philosophy), Pragmatism, Princeton University Press, Probability, Problem of induction, Problem of the criterion, Pseudoskepticism, Pyrrho, Pyrrhonism, Radical skepticism, Rationalism, Raymond of Sabunde, Reincarnation, Religious text, Renaissance, René Descartes, Richard Popkin, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, Schools of Islamic theology, Sextus Empiricus, Simulated reality, Skepticism, Slippery slope, Socrates, Solipsism, Sophist, Sufism, Suspension of judgment, Taoism, Teotl, That Nothing Is Known, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Matrix, The unanswered questions, The Varieties of Religious Experience, Thomas Hobbes, Timon of Phlius, Torah, Trivialism, Truth value, Virtual reality, W. Montgomery Watt, Wang Chong, Western philosophy, William James, Zhuang Zhou, Zhuangzi (book). Expand index (110 more) »

A Treatise of Human Nature

A Treatise of Human Nature (1738–40) is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, considered by many to be Hume's most important work and one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and A Treatise of Human Nature · See more »

Academic skepticism

Academic skepticism refers to the skeptical period of ancient Platonism dating from around 266 BC, when Arcesilaus became head of the Platonic Academy, until around 90 BC, when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected skepticism, although individual philosophers, such as Favorinus and his teacher Plutarch continued to defend Academic skepticism after this date.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Academic skepticism · See more »


An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Academy · See more »


Acatalepsy (from the Greek α̉-, privative, and καταλαμβάνειν, to seize), in philosophy, is incomprehensibleness, or the impossibility of comprehending or conceiving a thing.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Acatalepsy · See more »


Acinteyya (Pali) is a Buddhist term that is commonly translated as imponderable or incomprehensible.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Acinteyya · See more »


Adiaphoron(plural: adiaphora from the Greek ἀδιάφορα, the negation of διάφορα - Latin differentia - meaning "not differentiable").

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Adiaphora · See more »

Aenesidemus (book)

Aenesidemus is a German book published anonymously by Professor Gottlob Ernst Schulze of Helmstedt in 1792.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Aenesidemus (book) · See more »

Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Age of Enlightenment · See more »

Agrippa the Skeptic

Agrippa (Ἀγρίππας) was a Pyrrhonist philosopher who probably lived towards the end of the 1st century CE.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Agrippa the Skeptic · See more »


Ajñana was one of the ''nāstika'' or "heterodox" schools of ancient Indian philosophy, and the ancient school of radical Indian skepticism.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Ajñana · See more »


Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Al-Ghazali · See more »

Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Alexander the Great · See more »

American and British English spelling differences

Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and American and British English spelling differences · See more »

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by the Scottish empiricist philosopher David Hume, published in English in 1748.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding · See more »

Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Ancient Greek · See more »


(अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Anekantavada · See more »


In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Anti-realism · See more »


Arcesilaus (Ἀρκεσίλαος; 316/5–241/0 BC) was a Greek philosopher and founder of the Second or Middle Academy—the phase of Academic skepticism.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Arcesilaus · See more »


In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Argument · See more »

Argument from ignorance

Argument from ignorance (from argumentum ad ignorantiam), also known as appeal to ignorance (in which ignorance represents "a lack of contrary evidence") is a fallacy in informal logic.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Argument from ignorance · See more »

Arihant (Jainism)

Arihant (italic, italic "conqueror"), is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Arihant (Jainism) · See more »


Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Ashʿari · See more »


Ataraxia (ἀταραξία, literally, "not perturbed", generally translated as "imperturbability", "equanimity", or "tranquillity") is a Greek philosophy term used to describe a lucid state of robust equanimity that was characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Ataraxia · See more »


Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Atheism · See more »

Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Augustine of Hippo · See more »


An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Autobiography · See more »

Aztec philosophy

Aztec philosophy was a school of philosophy that developed out of Aztec culture.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Aztec philosophy · See more »

Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Baruch Spinoza · See more »

Benson Mates

Benson Mates (May 19, 1919 in Portland, Oregon – May 14, 2009 in Berkeley, California) was an American philosopher, noted for his work in logic, the history of philosophy, and skepticism.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Benson Mates · See more »

Brain in a vat

In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is a scenario used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of human conceptions of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, consciousness and meaning.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Brain in a vat · See more »

Buddhist philosophy

Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Buddhist philosophy · See more »


Carla-Bayle is a commune in the Ariège department in southwestern France.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Carla-Bayle · See more »


Carneades (Καρνεάδης, Karneadēs, "of Carnea"; 214/3–129/8 BC) was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Carneades · See more »

Cartesian doubt

Cartesian doubt is a form of methodological skepticism associated with the writings and methodology of René Descartes (15961650).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Cartesian doubt · See more »

Celia Green

Celia Elizabeth Green (born 26 November 1935) is a British writer on philosophical skepticism and psychology.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Celia Green · See more »


Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Charvaka · See more »


ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Christianity · See more »


Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Cicero · See more »

Clitomachus (philosopher)

Clitomachus (also Cleitomachus; Κλειτόμαχος, Kleitomachos; 187/6–110/9 BC), originally named Hasdrubal (Greek: Ἀσδρούβας), was a Carthaginian who came to Athens in 163/2 BC and studied philosophy under Carneades.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Clitomachus (philosopher) · See more »

Color blindness

Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Color blindness · See more »

Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Computer simulation · See more »

Conceptual proliferation

In Buddhism, conceptual proliferation(papañca) refers to conceptualization of the world through the use of ever-expanding language and concepts.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Conceptual proliferation · See more »


Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Confucianism · See more »

David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and David Hume · See more »


Dharmakīrti (fl. c. 6th or 7th century) was an influential Indian Buddhist philosopher who worked at Nālandā.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Dharmakirti · See more »

Dictionnaire Historique et Critique

The Dictionnaire Historique et Critique (in English, the Historical and Critical Dictionary) was a biographical dictionary written by Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), a Huguenot who lived and published in Holland after fleeing his native France due to religious persecution.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Dictionnaire Historique et Critique · See more »


Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Dignāga · See more »

Diogenes Laërtius

Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Diogenes Laërtius · See more »

Discourse on the Method

The Discourse on the Method (Discours de la méthode) is a philosophical and autobiographical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Discourse on the Method · See more »


The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Dogma · See more »

Dream argument

The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Dream argument · See more »

Eduard Zeller

Eduard Gottlob Zeller (22 January 1814, Kleinbottwar – 19 March 1908, Stuttgart), was a German philosopher and Protestant theologian of the Tübingen School of theology.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Eduard Zeller · See more »


Elis or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient: Ἦλις Ēlis; Doric: Ἆλις Alis; Elean: Ϝαλις Walis, ethnonym: Ϝαλειοι) is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern Elis regional unit.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Elis · See more »


In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Empiricism · See more »

Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences

The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (abbreviated as EPS or simply Encyclopaedia; Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, EPW, translated as Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline) by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (first published in 1817, second edition 1827, third edition 1830), is a work that presents an abbreviated version of Hegel's systematic philosophy in its entirety, and is the only form in which Hegel ever published his entire mature philosophical system.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences · See more »


Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Epicureanism · See more »


Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Epistemology · See more »

Essays (Montaigne)

The Essays (Essais) of Michel de Montaigne are contained in three books and 107 chapters of varying length.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Essays (Montaigne) · See more »


Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Eudaimonia · See more »

Evil demon

The evil demon, also known as malicious demon and evil genius, is a concept in Cartesian philosophy.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Evil demon · See more »


Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Fallibilism · See more »


Fictionalism is the view in philosophy according to which statements that appear to be descriptions of the world should not be construed as such, but should instead be understood as cases of "make believe", of pretending to treat something as literally true (a "useful fiction").

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Fictionalism · See more »


Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Fideism · See more »


Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Foundationalism · See more »

Francisco Sanches

Francisco Sanches or Francisco Sánchez (c. 1550 – November 16, 1623) was a Spanish-PortugueseElaine Limbrick and Douglas Thomson (ed), Quod nihil scitur, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Francisco Sanches · See more »

Frederick C. Beiser

Frederick Charles Beiser (born November 27, 1949) is an American author and professor of philosophy at Syracuse University.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Frederick C. Beiser · See more »

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Galileo Galilei · See more »

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel · See more »

George Berkeley

George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and George Berkeley · See more »

George Henry Lewes

George Henry Lewes (18 April 1817 – 30 November 1878) was an English philosopher and critic of literature and theatre.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and George Henry Lewes · See more »

Gottlob Ernst Schulze

Gottlob Ernst Schulze (23 August 1761 – 14 January 1833) was a German philosopher, born in Heldrungen (modern-day Thuringia, Germany).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Gottlob Ernst Schulze · See more »

Here is one hand

Here is one hand is an epistemological argument created by George Edward Moore in reaction against philosophical skepticism and in support of common sense.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Here is one hand · See more »

Hui Shi

Hui Shi (370–310 BCE), or Huizi ("Master Hui"), was a Chinese philosopher during the Warring States period.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Hui Shi · See more »

Hundred Schools of Thought

The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Hundred Schools of Thought · See more »

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Immanuel Kant · See more »

Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Indian religions · See more »

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy · See more »

Isaac La Peyrère

Isaac La Peyrère, also known as Isaac de La Peyrère or Pererius (1596–1676), was a Marrano French Millenarian theologian and formulator of the Pre-Adamite hypothesis.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Isaac La Peyrère · See more »

Islamic philosophy

In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Islamic philosophy · See more »


Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Isma'ilism · See more »

John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and John Locke · See more »


ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Kalam · See more »


Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Karma · See more »

Kevala Jnana

Kevala jñāna means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Kevala Jnana · See more »

Local skepticism

Local skepticism is the view that one cannot possess knowledge in some particular domain.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Local skepticism · See more »


Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Lucretius · See more »

Mad scientist

Mad scientist (also mad doctor or mad professor) is a caricature of a scientist who is described as "mad" or "insane" owing to a combination of unusual or unsettling personality traits and the unabashedly ambitious, taboo or hubristic nature of their experiments.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Mad scientist · See more »


Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Mahavira · See more »

Marin Mersenne

Marin Mersenne, Marin Mersennus or le Père Mersenne (8 September 1588 – 1 September 1648) was a French polymath, whose works touched a wide variety of fields.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Marin Mersenne · See more »


Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Materialism · See more »

Münchhausen trilemma

In epistemology, the Münchhausen trilemma is a thought experiment used to demonstrate the impossibility of proving any truth, even in the fields of logic and mathematics.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Münchhausen trilemma · See more »

Meditations on First Philosophy

Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Meditations on First Philosophy · See more »

Michael Huemer

Michael Huemer (born 27 December 1969) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Michael Huemer · See more »

Michel de Montaigne

Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Michel de Montaigne · See more »

Miracles of Jesus

The miracles of Jesus are the supernatural deeds attributed to Jesus in Christian and Islamic texts.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Miracles of Jesus · See more »

Mosaic authorship

Mosaic authorship is the Jewish and Christian tradition that Moses was the author of the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Mosaic authorship · See more »


Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Nagarjuna · See more »

Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Naturalism (philosophy) · See more »


Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Nihilism · See more »


(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Nirvana · See more »


In metaphysics, the noumenon (from Greek: νούμενον) is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Noumenon · See more »


Occasionalism is a philosophical theory about causation which says that created substances cannot be efficient causes of events.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Occasionalism · See more »


Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Omniscience · See more »

Omphalos hypothesis

The omphalos hypothesis is one attempt to reconcile the scientific evidence that the universe is billions of years old with the Genesis creation narrative, which implies that the Earth is only a few thousand years old.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Omphalos hypothesis · See more »


Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Ontology · See more »


Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Panentheism · See more »

Peter Unger

Peter K. Unger (born April 25, 1942) is a contemporary American philosopher and professor at New York University.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Peter Unger · See more »

Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Phenomenology (philosophy) · See more »

Philosophical methodology

Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Philosophical methodology · See more »

Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Philosophical skepticism · See more »


Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Philosophy · See more »

Pierre Bayle

Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Pierre Bayle · See more »

Pierre Gassendi

Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Pierre Gassendi · See more »

Pluralism (philosophy)

Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Pluralism (philosophy) · See more »


Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Pragmatism · See more »

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Princeton University Press · See more »


Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Probability · See more »

Problem of induction

The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, highlighting the apparent lack of justification for.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Problem of induction · See more »

Problem of the criterion

In the field of epistemology, the problem of the criterion is an issue regarding the starting point of knowledge.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Problem of the criterion · See more »


Pseudoskepticism (or pseudoscepticism) is a philosophical or scientific position which appears to be that of skepticism or scientific skepticism but which in reality fails to be so.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Pseudoskepticism · See more »


Pyrrho of Elis (Pyrron ho Eleios) was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Pyrrho · See more »


Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BC.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Pyrrhonism · See more »

Radical skepticism

Radical skepticism or radical scepticism is the philosophical position that knowledge is most likely impossible.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Radical skepticism · See more »


In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Rationalism · See more »

Raymond of Sabunde

Raymond of Sabunde (born Ramon Sibiuda; also known as Sabiende, Sabond, Sabonde, Sebon, Sebond, Sebonde, or Sebeyde; c. 1385 – 29 April 1436) was a Catalan scholar, teacher of medicine and philosophy and finally regius professor of theology at Toulouse.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Raymond of Sabunde · See more »


Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Reincarnation · See more »

Religious text

Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Religious text · See more »


The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Renaissance · See more »

René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and René Descartes · See more »

Richard Popkin

Richard Henry Popkin (December 27, 1923 – April 14, 2005) was an academic philosopher who specialized in the history of enlightenment philosophy and early modern anti-dogmatism.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Richard Popkin · See more »

Sanjaya Belatthiputta

Sanjaya Belatthiputta (literally, "Sanjaya of the Belattha clan"), also referred as Sanjaya Vairatiputra was an Indian ascetic teacher who lived around the 6th century BCE in the region of Magadha.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Sanjaya Belatthiputta · See more »

Schools of Islamic theology

Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Schools of Islamic theology · See more »

Sextus Empiricus

Sextus Empiricus (Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Sextus Empiricus · See more »

Simulated reality

Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by quantum computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Simulated reality · See more »


Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Skepticism · See more »

Slippery slope

A slippery slope argument (SSA), in logic, critical thinking, political rhetoric, and caselaw, is a consequentialist logical device in which a party asserts that a relatively small first step leads to a chain of related events culminating in some significant (usually negative) effect.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Slippery slope · See more »


Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Socrates · See more »


Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Solipsism · See more »


A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Sophist · See more »


Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Sufism · See more »

Suspension of judgment

Suspended judgment is a cognitive process and a rational state of mind in which one withholds judgments, particularly on the drawing of moral or ethical conclusions.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Suspension of judgment · See more »


Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Taoism · See more »


Teotl is a central idea of Aztec religion.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Teotl · See more »

That Nothing Is Known

That Nothing Is Known (Quod nihil scitur) is a 1581 book by the philosopher Francisco Sanches.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and That Nothing Is Known · See more »

The Incoherence of the Philosophers

The Incoherence of the Philosophers (تهافت الفلاسفة Tahāfut al-Falāsifaʰ in Arabic) is the title of a landmark 11th-century work by the Persian theologian Al-Ghazali and a student of the Asharite school of Islamic theology criticizing the Avicennian school of early Islamic philosophy.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and The Incoherence of the Philosophers · See more »

The Matrix

The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis (credited as The Wachowski Brothers) and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and The Matrix · See more »

The unanswered questions

The phrase unanswered questions or undeclared questions (Sanskrit avyākṛta, Pali: avyākata - "unfathomable, unexpounded"), in Buddhism, refers to a set of common philosophical questions that Buddha refused to answer, according to Buddhist texts.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and The unanswered questions · See more »

The Varieties of Religious Experience

The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a book by Harvard University psychologist and philosopher William James.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and The Varieties of Religious Experience · See more »

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Thomas Hobbes · See more »

Timon of Phlius

Timon of Phlius (Τίμων ὁ Φλιάσιος, gen.: Τίμωνος; c. 320 BC – c. 235 BC) was a Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher, a pupil of Pyrrho, and a celebrated writer of satirical poems called Silloi (Σίλλοι).

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Timon of Phlius · See more »


Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Torah · See more »


Trivialism is the logical theory that all statements (also known as propositions) are true and that all contradictions of the form "p and not p" (e.g. the ball is red and not red) are true.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Trivialism · See more »

Truth value

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Truth value · See more »

Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Virtual reality · See more »

W. Montgomery Watt

William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and W. Montgomery Watt · See more »

Wang Chong

Wang Chong (27–c. 100 AD), courtesy name Zhongren (仲任), was a Chinese meteorologist, astronomer, and philosopher active during the Han Dynasty.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Wang Chong · See more »

Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Western philosophy · See more »

William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and William James · See more »

Zhuang Zhou

Zhuang Zhou, often known as Zhuangzi ("Master Zhuang"), was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Zhuang Zhou · See more »

Zhuangzi (book)

The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.

New!!: Philosophical skepticism and Zhuangzi (book) · See more »

Redirects here:

Ancient skepticism, Anti skepticism, Anti-skepticism, Antiskepticism, Criticism of philosophical skepticism, Epistemological nihilism, Epistemological skepticism, External world scepticism, External world skepticism, German scepticism, German skepticism, Nihilistic sceptic, Philisophical skeptic, Philosophic scepticism, Philosophic skepticism, Philosophical scepticism, Philosophical skeptic, Problem of external world, Problem of the external world, Renaissance skepticism, Sceptical Philosophy, Scepticism (philosophy), Skeptical argument, Skeptical hypotheses, Skeptical hypothesis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical_skepticism

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »