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Phineas Gage

Index Phineas Gage

Phineas P. Gage (18231860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage". [1]

137 relations: Abscess, Agnosia, Air embolism, Alexander Luria, Alexis St. Martin, Ambroise Paré, Amygdala, Anatoli Bugorski, Anterograde amnesia, Antonio Damasio, Aphasia, Barnum's American Museum, Barouche, Battlefield medicine, Bloodletting, Boston Society for Medical Improvement, British Psychological Society, Broca's area, California, Canthus, Cavendish, Vermont, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cerebrum, Charged particle beam, Chile, Cognitive neuropsychology, Cognitive rehabilitation therapy, Colma, California, Coma, Convulsion, Crowbar (tool), CT scan, Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Daguerreotype, Danville, Vermont, David Ferrier, Death mask, Doubting Thomas, Drilling and blasting, Dura mater, Eadweard Muybridge, Edward Elisha Phelps, Edward H. Williams, Enfield, New Hampshire, Epileptic seizure, Fistula, Frontal bone, Frontal lobe, ..., Frontalis muscle, Functional specialization (brain), Globe (human eye), Goulstonian Lecture, Grafton County, New Hampshire, Grafton, New Hampshire, Granulation tissue, Gunpowder, Hanna Damasio, Hanover, New Hampshire, Harpoon, Harvard Medical School, Henry Jacob Bigelow, Henry Molaison, Henry Pickering Bowditch, History of photography, Index case, J. B. S. Jackson, James Earle, Javelin, John Martyn Harlow, Joseph Pancoast, Laxative, Lebanon, New Hampshire, Lev Zasetsky, Lobotomy, Lone Mountain (California), Mandible, Maxilla, Medulla oblongata, Mind–body dualism, MIT Press, Motor control, Neural pathway, Neurology, Neuroplasticity, Neurorehabilitation, Neuroscience, New England, New York Central Railroad, Norman Williams (politician), Oakland, California, Occipital lobe, Occupational therapy, Oliver Sacks, Orbitofrontal cortex, Parietal lobe, Percivall Pott, Phrenology, Physiology, Prognosis, Pseudoscience, Psychology, Psychopathy, Psychosurgery, Ptosis (eyelid), Pus, Rehabilitation (neuropsychology), Rorschach test, Rutland Railroad, San Francisco, San Francisco Bay, Santa Clara County, California, Santiago, Sensory processing, Silver nitrate, Smithsonian (magazine), Somatic marker hypothesis, Sphenoidal sinus, Stable, Stagecoach, Status epilepticus, Superior sagittal sinus, The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, The New England Journal of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Traumatic brain injury, Trepanning, Valparaíso, Vomiting, Waistcoat, Warren Anatomical Museum, White matter, Woburn, Massachusetts, Woodstock, Vermont, Yankee, Zygomatic arch. Expand index (87 more) »


An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.

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Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information.

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Air embolism

An air embolism, also known as a gas embolism, is a blood vessel blockage caused by one or more bubbles of air or other gas in the circulatory system.

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Alexander Luria

Alexander Romanovich Luria (p; 16 July 1902 – 14 August 1977) was a notable neuropsychologist, often credited as a father of modern neuropsychological assessment.

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Alexis St. Martin

Alexis Bidagan St.

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Ambroise Paré

Ambroise Paré (c. 1510 – 20 December 1590) was a French barber surgeon who served in that role for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Anatoli Bugorski

Anatoli Petrovich Bugorski (Анатолий Петрович Бугорский Anatoly Petrovich Bugorsky), (born 25 June 1942) is a Russian scientist who was struck by a particle accelerator beam in 1978.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Antonio Damasio

Antonio Damasio (António Damásio) is a Portuguese-American neuroscientist.

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Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.

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Barnum's American Museum

Barnum's American Museum was located at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street in New York City, United States, from 1841 to 1865.

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A barouche is a large, open, four-wheeled carriage, both heavy and luxurious, drawn by two horses.

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Battlefield medicine

Battlefield medicine, also called field surgery and later combat casualty care, is the treatment of wounded combatants and non-combatants in or near an area of combat.

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Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.

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Boston Society for Medical Improvement

The Boston Society for Medical Improvement was an elite society of Boston physicians, established in 1828 for "the cultivation of confidence and good feeling between members of the profession; the eliciting and imparting of information upon the different branches of medical science; and the establishment of a Museum and Library of Pathological Anatomy".

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British Psychological Society

The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom.

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Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Canthus (pl. canthi, palpebral commissures) is either corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet.

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Cavendish, Vermont

Cavendish is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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Charged particle beam

A charged particle beam is a spatially localized group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same position, kinetic energy (resulting in the same velocity), and direction.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Cognitive neuropsychology

Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes.

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Cognitive rehabilitation therapy

Cognitive rehabilitation is a program to help brain-injured or otherwise cognitively impaired individuals to restore normal functioning, or to compensate for cognitive deficits.

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Colma, California

Colma is a small incorporated town in San Mateo County, California, near the northern end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.

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Crowbar (tool)

A crowbar, also called a wrecking bar, pry bar or prybar, pinch-bar, or occasionally a prise bar or prisebar, colloquially, in Britain and Australia sometimes called a jimmy (also called jimmy bar or jemmy), gooseneck, or pig foot, is a tool consisting of a metal bar with a single curved end and flattened points, often with a small fissure on one or both ends for removing nails.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cypress Lawn Memorial Park

Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, established by Hamden Holmes Noble in 1892, is a cemetery located in Colma, California, a place known as the "City of the Silent".

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The Daguerreotype (daguerréotype) process, or daguerreotypy, was the first publicly available photographic process, and for nearly twenty years it was the one most commonly used.

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Danville, Vermont

Danville is a town in Caledonia County, Vermont, United States.

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David Ferrier

Sir David Ferrier FRS (13 January 1843 – 19 March 1928) was a pioneering Scottish neurologist and psychologist.

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Death mask

A death mask is an image, typically in wax or plaster cast made of a person's face following death, often by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse.

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Doubting Thomas

A doubting Thomas is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience—a reference to the Apostle Thomas, who refused to believe that the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles, until he could see and feel the wounds received by Jesus on the cross.

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Drilling and blasting

Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation.

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Dura mater

Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

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Eadweard Muybridge

Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.

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Edward Elisha Phelps

Edward Elisha Phelps (April 24, 1803November 26, 1880) was a prominent American physician.

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Edward H. Williams

Edward Higginson Williams (June 1, 1824 – December 21, 1899) was an American physician and railroad executive noted for his philanthropy.

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Enfield, New Hampshire

Enfield is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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A fistula is an abnormal connection between two hollow spaces (technically, two epithelialized surfaces), such as blood vessels, intestines, or other hollow organs.

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Frontal bone

The frontal bone is a bone in the human skull.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Frontalis muscle

The frontalis muscle is muscle which covers parts of forehead of the skull.

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Functional specialization (brain)

Functional specialization suggests that different areas in the brain are specialized for different functions.

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Globe (human eye)

The globe of the eye, or bulbus oculi, is the eyeball apart from its appendages.

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Goulstonian Lecture

The Goulstonian Lectures are an annual lecture series given on behalf of the Royal College of Physicians in London.

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Grafton County, New Hampshire

Grafton County is a county located in the state of New Hampshire, in the United States.

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Grafton, New Hampshire

Grafton is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States.

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Granulation tissue

Granulation tissue is new connective tissue and microscopic blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Hanna Damasio

Hanna Damasio is a leading scientist in the field of Cognitive Neuroscience.

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Hanover, New Hampshire

Hanover is a town along the Connecticut River in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States.

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A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.

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Harvard Medical School

Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University.

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Henry Jacob Bigelow

Henry Jacob Bigelow (March 11, 1818October 30, 1890) was an American surgeon and Professor of Surgery at Harvard University.

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Henry Molaison

Henry Gustav Molaison (February 26, 1926 – December 2, 2008), known widely as H.M., was an American memory disorder patient who had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to surgically resect the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi, parahippocampal cortices, entorhinal cortices, piriform cortices, and amygdalae in an attempt to cure his epilepsy.

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Henry Pickering Bowditch

Henry Pickering Bowditch (April 4, 1840 – March 13, 1911) was an American soldier, physician, physiologist, and dean of the Harvard Medical School.

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History of photography

The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of two critical principles, that of the camera obscura image projection and the fact that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light, as discovered by observation.

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Index case

The index case is the first documented patient in the onset of an epidemiological investigation, or more generally, the first case of a condition or syndrome (not necessarily contagious) to be described in the medical literature, whether or not the patient is thought to be the first person affected.

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J. B. S. Jackson

John Barnard Swett Jackson (June 5, 1806 – January 6, 1879) was an American physician and anatomist.

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James Earle

Sir James Earle (1755–1817) was a celebrated British surgeon, renowned for his skill in lithotomy.

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A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.

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John Martyn Harlow

John Martyn Harlow (1819–1907) was an American physician primarily remembered for his attendance on brain-injury survivor Phineas Gage, and for his published reports on Gage's accident and subsequent history.

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Joseph Pancoast

Joseph Pancoast (November 23, 1805 – March 6, 1882) was an American surgeon.

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Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.

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Lebanon, New Hampshire

Lebanon is a city in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States.

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Lev Zasetsky

Lev Zasetsky (9 August 1920 – 9 September 1993) was a patient who was treated by Russian neuropsychologist Alexander Luria.

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Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.

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Lone Mountain (California)

Lone Mountain is a historic hill in west-central San Francisco, California and the site of the private University of San Francisco (USF) – Lone Mountain Campus, which in turn was previously the San Francisco Lone Mountain College for Women.

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The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.

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The maxilla (plural: maxillae) in animals is the upper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones.

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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Mind–body dualism

Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Motor control

Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.

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Neural pathway

A neural pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.

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Neurorehabilitation is a complex medical process which aims to aid recovery from a nervous system injury, and to minimize and/or compensate for any functional alterations resulting from it.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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New England

New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

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New York Central Railroad

The New York Central Railroad was a railroad operating in the Northeastern United States.

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Norman Williams (politician)

Norman Williams (October 6, 1791 – January 12, 1868) was a Vermont attorney and politician.

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Oakland, California

Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.

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Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.

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Oliver Sacks

Oliver Wolf Sacks, (9 July 1933 – 30 August 2015) was a British neurologist, naturalist, historian of science, and author.

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Orbitofrontal cortex

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Percivall Pott

Percivall Pott (6 January 1714 in London – 22 December 1788) was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedics, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.

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Phrenology is a pseudomedicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.

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Psychosurgery, also called neurosurgery for mental disorder (NMD), is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder.

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Ptosis (eyelid)

Ptosis (/ˈtoʊsɪs/) is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.

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Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.

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Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)

Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma.

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Rorschach test

The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.

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Rutland Railroad

The Rutland Railroad was a railroad in the northeastern United States, located primarily in the state of Vermont but extending into the state of New York at both its northernmost and southernmost ends.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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San Francisco Bay

San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California.

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Santa Clara County, California

Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's 6th most populous county, with a population was 1,781,642, as of the 2010 census.

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Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.

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Sensory processing

Sensory processing is the process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment.

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Silver nitrate

Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.

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Smithsonian (magazine)

Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.

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Somatic marker hypothesis

The somatic marker hypothesis, formulated by Antonio Damasio, proposes that emotional processes guide (or bias) behavior, particularly decision-making.

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Sphenoidal sinus

Each of the paired sphenoidal sinuses (components of the paranasal sinuses) is contained within the body of the sphenoid.

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A stable is a building in which livestock, especially horses, are kept.

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A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses.

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Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

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Superior sagittal sinus

The superior sagittal sinus (also known as the superior longitudinal sinus), within the human head, is an unpaired area along the attached margin of the falx cerebri.

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The American Journal of the Medical Sciences

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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Thomas Jefferson University

Thomas Jefferson University is a private university in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

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Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.

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Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.

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Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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A waistcoat (or; often called a vest in American English, and colloquially a weskit) is a sleeveless upper-body garment.

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Warren Anatomical Museum

The Warren Anatomical Museum, housed within Harvard Medical School's Countway Library of Medicine, was founded in 1847 by Harvard professor John Collins Warren, whose personal collection comprised 160 unusual and instructive anatomical and pathological specimens which now form the nucleus of the museum's 15,000-item collection.

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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Woburn, Massachusetts

Woburn is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Woodstock, Vermont

Woodstock is the shire town (county seat) of Windsor County, Vermont, United States.

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The term "Yankee" and its contracted form "Yank" have several interrelated meanings, all referring to people from the United States; its various senses depend on the context.

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Zygomatic arch

The zygomatic arch, or cheek bone, is formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone (a bone extending forward from the side of the skull, over the opening of the ear) and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (the side of the cheekbone), the two being united by an oblique suture (zygomaticotemporal suture); the tendon of the temporalis passes medial to the arch to gain insertion into the coronoid process of the mandible.

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Redirects here:

Phineas Gauge, Phineas P. Gage, Phinehas Gage, Phinnaeus Gage, Phinneus Gage, The American Crowbar Case.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phineas_Gage

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