In a web browser, the address bar (also location bar or URL bar) is a graphical control element that shows the current URL.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
An advanced persistent threat is a set of stealthy and continuous computer hacking processes, often orchestrated by a person or persons targeting a specific entity.
The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City.
The Anti-Phishing Act of 2005 (Long title: "A bill to criminalize Internet scams involving fraudulently obtaining personal information, commonly known as phishing.") was a United States bill to combat phishing and pharming.
The Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) is an international consortium that brings together businesses affected by phishing attacks, security products and services companies, law enforcement agencies, government agencies, trade association, regional international treaty organizations and communications companies.
AOHell was a Windows application that was used to simplify 'cracking' using AOL.
AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.
Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e.g. in a mousetrap.
Bank of America Corporation (abbreviated as BofA) is an American multinational financial services company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.
The Bank of Ireland (Banc na hÉireann) is a commercial bank operation in Ireland and one of the traditional 'Big Four' Irish banks.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.
Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.
A black hat hacker (or black-hat hacker) is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain".
In computing, a blacklist or block list is a basic access control mechanism that allows through all elements (email addresses, users, passwords, URLs, IP addresses, domain names, file hashes, etc.), except those explicitly mentioned.
Brandjacking is an activity whereby someone acquires or otherwise assumes the online identity of another entity for the purposes of acquiring that person's or business's brand equity.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography And Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act of 2003, signed into law by President George W. Bush on December 16, 2003, established the United States' first national standards for the sending of commercial e-mail and requires the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to enforce its provisions.
In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates.
Charles H. Eccleston is an American author, consultant and lecturer in US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.
Clickjacking (User Interface redress attack, UI redress attack, UI redressing) is a malicious technique of tricking a Web user into clicking on something different from what the user perceives they are clicking on, thus potentially revealing confidential information or taking control of their computer while clicking on seemingly innocuous web pages.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
A confidence trick (synonyms include con, confidence game, confidence scheme, ripoff, scam and stratagem) is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.
Cozy Bear, classified as advanced persistent threat APT29, is a Russian hacker group believed to be associated with Russian intelligence.
A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications.
The CryptoLocker ransomware attack was a cyberattack using the CryptoLocker ransomware that occurred from 5 September 2013 to late May 2014.
A cyberattack is any type of offensive maneuver that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, or personal computer devices.
cyscon GmbH is an IT consultancy with its main headquarters in Düsseldorf, Germany by Thorsten Kraft and Thomas Wolf.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
DNS hijacking or DNS redirection is the practice of subverting the resolution of Domain Name System (DNS) queries.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
Duke University School of Law (also known as Duke Law School or Duke Law) is the law school and a constituent academic unit of Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States.
An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for online transactions.
E-gold was a digital gold currency operated by Gold & Silver Reserve Inc.
EarthLink is an IT services, network and communications provider headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
Eliot Ward Higgins (born January 1979), who previously used the pseudonym Brown Moses, is a British citizen journalist and blogger, known for using open sources and social media to investigate the Syrian Civil War, 2014–15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
Email filtering is the processing of email to organize it according to specified criteria.
Email spoofing is the creation of email messages with a forged sender address.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET, after the French name "Affaires étrangères"), previously called Political Affairs, is a committee of the European Parliament.
An evil twin is a fraudulent Wi-Fi access point that appears to be legitimate but is set up to eavesdrop on wireless communications.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Fake news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate misinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media.
Fake news websites (also referred to as hoax news websites) are Internet websites that deliberately publish fake news—hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news—often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect.
Fancy Bear (also known as APT28, Pawn Storm, Sofacy Group, Sednit and STRONTIUM) is a cyber espionage group.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.
Mozilla Firefox 2 is a version of Firefox, a web browser released on October 24, 2006 by the Mozilla Corporation.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
The Fraud Act 2006 (c 35) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which affects England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
FraudWatch International is an internet security organization that was founded in 2003 that mainly specializes in online fraud protection and anti-phishing activities.
GeoTrust is a digital certificate provider.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC.
Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides are a word processor, a spreadsheet and a presentation program respectively, all part of a free, web-based software office suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service.
Google Safe Browsing is a blacklist service provided by Google that provides lists of URLs for web resources that contain malware or phishing content.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.
The Honeynet Project is an international security research organization, "dedicated to investigating the latest attacks, developing open source security tools to improve Internet security and learning how hackers behave.".
The computer file hosts is an operating system file that maps hostnames to IP addresses.
An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML document or web page, once this has been parsed into the Document Object Model.
In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, or hovering.
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a nonprofit organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces and numericalspaces of the Internet, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.
On August 31, 2014, a collection of almost 500 private pictures of various celebrities, mostly women, and with many containing nudity, were posted on the imageboard 4chan, and later disseminated by other users on websites and social networks such as Imgur and Reddit.
Identity theft is the deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other person's name, and perhaps to the other person's disadvantage or loss.
The internationalized domain name (IDN) homograph attack is a way a malicious party may deceive computer users about what remote system they are communicating with, by exploiting the fact that many different characters look alike (i.e., they are homographs, hence the term for the attack, although technically homoglyph is the more accurate term for different characters that look alike).
In-session phishing is a form of phishing attack which relies on one web browsing session being able to detect the presence of another session (such as a visit to an online banking website) on the same web browser, and to then launch a pop-up window that pretends to have been opened from the targeted session.
Information sensitivity is the control of access to information or knowledge that might result in loss of an advantage or level of security if disclosed to others.
Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.
Intelligent Word Recognition, or IWR, is the recognition of unconstrained handwritten words.
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Tamil, Hebrew or the Latin alphabet-based characters with diacritics or ligatures, such as French.
Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
Windows Internet Explorer 7 (IE7) (codenamed Rincon) is a web browser for Windows.
Internet fraud is a type of fraud which makes use of the Internet.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
The Civil Administration (המנהל האזרחי) is the Israeli governing body that operates in the West Bank.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
"John Doe", "John Roe" or "Richard Roe" (for men), "Jane Doe" or "Jane Roe" (for women), and "Baby Doe", "Janie Doe" or "Johnny Doe" (for children), or just "Doe" or "Roe" are multiple-use names that have two distinct usages.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.
In software design, look and feel is a term used in respect of a graphical user interface and comprises aspects of its design, including elements such as colors, shapes, layout, and typefaces (the "look"), as well as the behavior of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the "feel").
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
In the United States, mail and wire fraud is any fraudulent scheme to intentionally deprive another of property or honest services via mail or wire communication.
Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH17/MAS17) was a scheduled passenger flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur that was shot down on 17 July 2014 while flying over eastern Ukraine, killing all 283 passengers and 15 crew on board.
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.
In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a method of confirming a user's claimed identity in which a user is granted access only after successfully presenting 2 or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to an authentication mechanism: knowledge (something they and only they know), possession (something they and only they have), and inherence (something they and only they are).
Mutual authentication or two-way authentication refers to two parties authenticating each other at the same time, being a default mode of authentication in some protocols (IKE, SSH) and optional in others (TLS).
Myspace (stylized as MySpace) is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos.
The Nanyang Technological University (Abbreviation: NTU) is an autonomous research university in Singapore.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Nordea Bank AB, commonly referred to as Nordea, is a Nordic financial services group operating in Northern Europe.
OAuth is an open standard for access delegation, commonly used as a way for Internet users to grant websites or applications access to their information on other websites but without giving them the passwords.
An online auction is an auction which is held over the internet.
OpenID is an open standard and decentralized authentication protocol.
Opera is a web browser for Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems developed by Opera Software AS.
Optical character recognition (also optical character reader, OCR) is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo (for example the text on signs and billboards in a landscape photo) or from subtitle text superimposed on an image (for example from a television broadcast).
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
Outbrain is an online advertiser specializing in presenting sponsored website links.
Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Vermont, a seat he was first elected to in 1974.
A payment card number, primary account number (PAN), or simply a card number, is the card identifier found on payment cards, such as credit cards and debit cards, as well as stored-value cards, gift cards and other similar cards.
PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company operating a worldwide online payments system that supports online money transfers and serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods like cheques and money orders.
A penetration test, colloquially known as a pen test, is an authorized simulated attack on a computer system, performed to evaluate the security of the system.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Petya is a family of encrypting ransomware that was first discovered in 2016.
Pharming is a cyber attack intended to redirect a website's traffic to another, fake site.
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
PhishTank is an anti-phishing site.
Phreaking is a slang term coined to describe the activity of a culture of people who study, experiment with, or explore telecommunication systems, such as equipment and systems connected to public telephone networks.
In computing, a pointer or mouse cursor (as part of a personal computer WIMP style of interaction) is a symbol or graphical image on the computer monitor or other display device that echoes movements of the pointing device, commonly a mouse, touchpad, or stylus pen.
Ransomware is a type of malicious software from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid.
RapidShare was an online file hosting service that opened in 2002.
A Remote Access Toolkit (RAT) is a specific type of malware that controls a system via a remote network connection as if by physical access.
Rock Phish refers to both the phishing toolkit and the entity that publishes the toolkit.
The Russian Business Network (commonly abbreviated as RBN) is a multi-faceted cybercrime organization, specializing in and in some cases monopolizing personal identity theft for resale.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine.
Sahra Wagenknecht (born 16 July 1969) is a German left-wing politician, economist, author and publicist.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Secureworks Inc. is a United States-based subsidiary that provides information security services, protecting its customers' computers, networks and information assets from malicious activity such as cybercrime.
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
SiteKey is a web-based security system that provides one type of mutual authentication between end-users and websites.
In computing, SMS phishing or smishing is a form of criminal activity using social engineering techniques.
Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
In the United States, a Social Security number (SSN) is a nine-digit number issued to U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents under section 205(c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified as.
In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which a person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data, to gain an illegitimate advantage.
Tabnabbing is a computer exploit and phishing attack, which persuades users to submit their login details and passwords to popular websites by impersonating those sites and convincing the user that the site is genuine.
Target Corporation is the second-largest department store retailer in the United States, behind Walmart, and is a component of the S&P 500 Index.
TD Ameritrade is a brokerage firm based in Omaha, Nebraska with a major trading center in St Louis, Missouri.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Banker is an English-language monthly international financial affairs publication owned by The Financial Times Ltd.
The Home Depot Inc. or Home Depot is an American home improvement supplies retailing company that sells tools, construction products, and services.
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
The Mercury News (formerly San Jose Mercury News, often locally known as The Merc) is a morning daily newspaper published in San Jose, California, United States.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Wichita Eagle is a daily newspaper published in Wichita, Kansas, United States.
ThreatConnect is a cyber-security firm based in Arlington, Virginia.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
Typosquatting, also called URL hijacking, a sting site, or a fake URL, is a form of cybersquatting, and possibly brandjacking which relies on mistakes such as typos made by Internet users when inputting a website address into a web browser.
The UK Payments Administration Ltd (UKPA) is a United Kingdom service company that provides people, facilities and expertise to the UK payments industry.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States District Court for the Western District of Washington (in case citations, W.D. Wash.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties of the state of Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom.
The 2016 United States elections were held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The University of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
URL redirection, also called URL forwarding, is a World Wide Web technique for making a web page available under more than one URL address.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.
Utica College (or UC) is a private university in Utica, New York.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Voice phishing is the criminal practice of using social engineering over the telephone system to gain access to private personal and financial information from the public for the purpose of financial reward.
The WannaCry ransomware attack was a May 2017 worldwide cyberattack by the WannaCry ransomware cryptoworm, which targeted computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system by encrypting data and demanding ransom payments in the Bitcoin cryptocurrency.
Warez is a common computing and broader cultural term referring to pirated software (i.e. illegally copied, often after deactivation of anti-piracy measures) that is distributed via the Internet.
The Warez scene, often referred to as The Scene, is an underground community of people that specialize in the distribution of copyrighted material, including television shows and series, movies, music, music videos, games (all platforms), applications (all platforms), ebooks, and pornography.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Website spoofing is the act of creating a website, as a hoax, with the intention of misleading readers that the website has been created by a different person or organization.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
White-collar crime refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals.
Whitelisting is the practice of identifying entities that are provided a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.
The Junge Union Deutschlands (Young Union of Germany) or JU is the joint youth organisation of the two conservative German political parties, CDU and CSU.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
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