422 relations: A. D. Godley, Abdera, Spain, Abjad, Adonis, Adra, Spain, Afroasiatic languages, Agathocles, Ahab, Ahiram sarcophagus, Akkadian language, Alexander the Great, Algarve, Algeria, Algiers, Alicante, Almuñécar, Alphabet, Altiburus, Amarna letters, American Journal of Human Genetics, Ammon, Amorites, Amulet, Amun, Anat, Anatolia, Ancient Canaanite religion, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Semitic religion, Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Angel of the Presence, Ankh, Annaba, Antigonus II Gonatas, Aphrodite, Arad, Bahrain, Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Argos, Armenia, Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren, Artaxerxes III, Artemis, Arwad, Ashdod, Asherah, Ashkelon, Asian people, Assyria, ..., Astarte, Athena, Athenian democracy, Atlantic Ocean, Attis, Augustine of Hippo, Baal, Baal Hammon, Baalshamin, Ba‘alat Gebal, Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian religion, Bahrain, Balsa (Roman town), Beirut, Bekalta, Berytus, Bible, Bizerte, Book of Exodus, Books of Chronicles, Books of Kings, Bosa, Brazier, British Museum, Brittany, Bronze Age, Byblos, Byrsa, Cadmus, Cagliari, Calama (Numidia), Canaan, Canaanite languages, Cartagena, Colombia, Cartagena, Spain, Carthage, Cassiterides, Cádiz, Cedrus libani, Celts, Ceres (mythology), Ceuta, Chalcolithic, Chaldea, Cherchell, Child sacrifice, Circumnavigation, Cirta, City-state, Classical antiquity, Consonant, Constantine, Algeria, Constitution, Cornwall, Crete, Crimson, Cyprian, Cyprus, Cyrus the Great, Dagon, Dali, Cyprus, Date palm, Demeter, Demetrius I of Macedon, Democracy, Dido, Dilmun, Dilmun Burial Mounds, Diodorus Siculus, Diogenes Laërtius, Domestication of animals, Dumuzid, Dur-Sharrukin, Dying-and-rising deity, Eastern Mediterranean, Eblaite language, Edom, Egypt, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian language, El (deity), El Kef, Elijah, Elite, Eponym, Erice, Erich Neumann (psychologist), Erythraean Sea, Eshmun, Eshmunazar II sarcophagus, Essaouira, Etruscan civilization, Euphrates, Europa (mythology), Eusebius, Fénius Farsaid, Fernand Braudel, Fertile Crescent, Fertility, Finike, Folk etymology, Fraternity, Freemasonry, Funeral, Galicia (Spain), George Rawlinson, Ghassulian, Gibraltar, Glass, Gospel of Mark, Gozo, Greek art, Guelma, Gulf of Guinea, Gustave Flaubert, Hacksilver, Hadad, Hades, Hadrumetum, Hamites, Hanno the Navigator, Haplogroup J-M172, Haplogroup U (mtDNA), Harifian, Hebrew language, Hebron, Hecataeus of Miletus, Helen of Troy, Hera, Heracles, Hercules, Hero, Herodotus, Hierarchy, Hippo Regius, Hiram Abiff, Hiram I, Hispania, Hosea, Huelva, Hypobranchial gland, Hyrax, Iberian Peninsula, Iberians, Ibiza, Icosium, Inanna, Io (mythology), Isaiah, Isis, Israelites, Ithobaal I, James B. 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P. Beekes, Roman Syria, Sabratha, Salammbô, Santorini, Sarapion, Sardinia, Sarepta, Sargon II, Second Temple period, Seleucid Empire, Seleucus I Nicator, Semitic languages, Semitic people, Septuagint, Sexi (Phoenician colony), Shalmaneser III, Shed (deity), Sherden, Sicilian Wars, Sicily, Sidon, Siege of Motya, Siege of Tyre (332 BC), Silver, Sin (mythology), Slavery, Social structure, Sociology of religion, Solomon, Solomon's Temple, Soluntum, Sousse, Sphinx, Stoicism, Strabo, Strait of Gibraltar, Sulci, Sumerian language, Syrians, Syro-Hittite states, Tabae, Tabnit sarcophagus, Tangier, Tanit, Tarout Island, Tarshish, Tartessos, Tas-Silġ, Tavira, Tell Kazel, Tenes, Tertullian, Tetragrammaton, Thalassocracy, Thapsus, Tharros, The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, The Hebrew Goddess, The New York Times, Thebes, Egypt, Theodor Mommsen, Theory of Phoenician discovery of the Americas, Thubactis, Tigranes the Great, Timgad, Tipaza, Tophet, Tripoli, Tunisia, Turkey, Tylos, Tyre, Lebanon, Tyrian purple, Ugarit, Ugaritic, Ugaritic alphabet, University of California Press, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Ur, Urban planning, Uruk, Utica, Tunisia, Utu, Venus (mythology), Volubilis, Vowel, Weather god, William Robertson Smith, Wine, Wood, Writing system, Yahweh, Yam (god), Zebulun, Zeno of Citium, Zeus, 2nd millennium BC, 8.2 kiloyear event. Expand index (372 more) » « Shrink index
Alfred Denis Godley (1856–1925) was an English classical scholar and author of humorous poems.
Abdera (τὰ Ἄβδηρα, Strabo; Ἄβδαρα, Ptol.; τὸ Ἄβδηρον, Ephor. ap. Steph. B.) was an ancient seaport town on the south coast of Spain, between Malaca (now Málaga) and Carthago Nova (now Cartagena), in the district inhabited by the Bastuli.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology.
Adra is a municipality of Almería province, Spain.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Agathocles (Greek: Ἀγαθοκλῆς) is a Greek name, the most famous of which is Agathocles of Syracuse, the tyrant of Syracuse.
Ahab (Aḫabbu; Αχααβ; Achab) was the seventh king of Israel since Jeroboam I, the son and successor of Omri, and the husband of Jezebel of Sidon, according to the Hebrew Scriptures.
The Ahiram sarcophagus (also spelled Ahirom) was the sarcophagus of a Phoenician king of Byblos (c. 1000 BC), discovered in 1923 by the French excavator Pierre Montet in tomb V of the royal necropolis of Byblos.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community.
Almuñécar is a municipality in the Spanish Autonomous Region of Andalusia on the Costa Tropical between Nerja (Málaga) and Motril.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Altiburus was a Roman–Berber town located in Africa Proconsularis.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
Ammon (ʻAmmūn) was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Anat, classically Anath (עֲנָת ʿĂnāth; 𐤏𐤍𐤕 ʿAnōt; 𐎓𐎐𐎚 ʿnt; Αναθ Anath; Egyptian Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant) is a major northwest Semitic goddess.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa.
Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples were West Asian people who lived throughout the Ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, Arabian peninsula, and Horn of Africa from the third millennium BC until the end of antiquity.
In some Judeo-Christian traditions, the Angel of the Presence / Face (lit. "faces", Hebrew: Mal'ak ha-Panim or Mal'akh ha-Panim, מלאך הפנים) or Angel of his presence / face (Hebrew: Mal'ak Panayw or Mal'akh Panav, מַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו) refers to an entity variously considered angelic or else identified with God himself.
The ankh (Egyptian ˁnḫ), also known as "crux ansata" (the Latin for "cross with a handle") is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic ideograph symbolizing "life".
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Ἀντίγονος B΄ Γονατᾶς) (c. 319–239 BC) was a powerful ruler who solidified the position of the Antigonid dynasty in Macedon after a long period defined by anarchy and chaos and acquired fame for his victory over the Gauls who had invaded the Balkans.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Arad (عراد) is a town in Bahrain, located on Muharraq Island.
Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious is Part 1 of Volume 9 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. Three essays establish Jung's theory.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren (25 October 1760, Arbergen6 March 1842, Göttingen) was a German historian.
Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā) (338 BC) was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Arwad (أرواد) – formerly known as Arados (Ἄραδος), Arvad, Arpad, Arphad, and Antiochia in Pieria (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Πιερίας), also called Ruad Island – located in the Mediterranean Sea, is the only inhabited island in Syria.
Ashdod (help; أَشْدُود or إِسْدُود) is the sixth-largest city and the largest port in Israel accounting for 60% of the country's imported goods.
Asherah in ancient Semitic religion, is a mother goddess who appears in a number of ancient sources.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Astarte (Ἀστάρτη, Astártē) is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Astoreth (Northwest Semitic), a form of Ishtar (East Semitic), worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Attis (Ἄττις, also Ἄτυς, Ἄττυς, Ἄττης) was the consort of Cybele in Phrygian and Greek mythology.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.
Baal Hammon, properly Baʿal Ḥammon or Ḥamon (Phoenician: baʿal ḥamūn; Punic), was the chief god of Carthage.
Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem (Aramaic: ܒܥܠ ܫܡܝܢ), lit.
Ba‘alat Gebal, 'Lady of Byblos', was the goddess of the city of Byblos, Phoenicia in ancient times.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Babylonian religion is the religious practice of Babylonia.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Balsa was a Roman coastal town in the province of Lusitania, Conventus Pacensis (capital Pax Julia).
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Bekalta, Arabic: البقالطة (al-Bikalita), is a Tunisian coastal town, around 30 km.
Berytus (Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus) was a Roman colonia that was the center of Roman presence in the eastern Mediterranean shores south of Anatolia.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bizerte (بنزرت); historically: Phoenician: Hippo Acra, Hippo Diarrhytus and Hippo Zarytus), also known in English as Bizerta, is a town of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. It is the northernmost city in Africa, located 65 km (40mil) north of the capital Tunis. The city had 142,966 inhabitants in 2014.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles (commonly referred to as 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles, or First Chronicles and Second Chronicles) generally follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament, often referred to as the Deuteronomistic history.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
Bosa is a town and comune in the province of Oristano (until May 2005 it was in the province of Nuoro), part of the Sardinia region of Italy.
A brazier is a container for hot coals, generally taking the form of an upright standing or hanging metal bowl or box.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
Byrsa was a walled citadel above the Phoenician harbour in ancient Carthage, Tunisia, as well as the name of the hill it rested on.
In Greek mythology, Cadmus (Κάδμος Kadmos), was the founder and first king of Thebes.
Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
Calama was a colonia in the Roman province of Numidia situated where Guelma in Algeria now stands.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.
Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Cassiterides (“Tin Islands”, from Greek κασσίτερος, kassíteros “tin”), are an ancient geographical name of islands that were regarded as situated somewhere near the west coasts of Europe.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Cedrus libani, commonly known as the Cedar of Lebanon or Lebanon cedar, is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
Cherchell (older Cherchel, شرشال) is a seaport town in the Province of Tipaza, Algeria, 55 miles west of Algiers.
Child sacrifice is the ritualistic killing of children in order to please or appease a god or supernatural beings in order to achieve a desired result.
Circumnavigation is navigation completely around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body (e.g. a planet or moon).
Cirta (from Berber: KRTN or Kirthan, Tzirta) was the capital city of the Berber Kingdom of Numidia in northern Africa (modern Algeria).
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Not to be confused with Constantinople, the historical city from 330 to 1453 in Thrace, now Istanbul, Turkey. Constantine (قسنطينة, ⵇⵙⴻⵏⵟⵉⵏⴰ), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crimson is a strong, red color, inclining to purple.
Saint Cyprian (Thaschus Cæcilius Cyprianus; 200 – September 14, 258 AD) was bishop of Carthage and a notable Early Christian writer of Berber descent, many of whose Latin works are extant.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Dagon (Dāgūn; דָּגוֹן, Tib.) or Dagan (𒀭𒁕𒃶) is an ancient Mesopotamian (Assyro-Babylonian) and Levantine (Canaanite) deity.
Dali (or Dhali; Δάλι; Dali) is a large village in Cyprus, located south east of the capital Nicosia and close to the ancient city of Idalion.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
Demetrius I (Δημήτριος; 337–283 BC), called Poliorcetes (Πολιορκητής, "The Besieger"), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a Macedonian Greek nobleman, military leader, and finally king of Macedon (294–288 BC).
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage.
Dilmun, or Telmun, (Arabic: دلمون, Sumerian: 𒆠, ni.tukki.
The Dilmun Burial Mounds are a number of necropolis areas on the main island of Bahrain dating back to the Dilmun, the Umm an-Nar Culture and later eras.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.
The domestication of animals is the mutual relationship between animals and the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction.
Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).
Dur-Sharrukin ("Fortress of Sargon"; دور شروكين), present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria.
A dying-and-rising, death-rebirth, or resurrection deity is a religious motif in which a god or goddess dies and is resurrected.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Eblaite (also known as Eblan ISO 639-3), or Paleo Syrian, is an extinct Semitic language which was used during the third millennium BCE by the populations of Northern Syria.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
(or ’Il, written aleph-lamed, e.g. 𐎛𐎍; 𐤀𐤋; אל; ܐܠ; إل or rtl; cognate to ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities.
Kef Ouest --> El Kef (الكاف), also known as Le Kef, is a city in northwestern Tunisia.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Erice (Èrici) is a historic town and comune in the province of Trapani in Sicily, Italy.
Erich Neumann (אריך נוימן; 23 January 1905 – 5 November 1960), was a psychologist, philosopher, writer, and student of Carl Jung.
The Erythraean Sea (Greek: Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa, "Red Sea") is the name in ancient cartography for a body of water located between the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula.
Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun; Phoenician) was a Phoenician god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon.
The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II (Phoenician), a Phoenician king of Sidon and the son of King Tabnit (possibly the Greek Tenes), was created in the early 5th century BCE.
Essaouira (الصويرة; ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴹⵓⵔ, Mugadur), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic coast.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
In Greek mythology, Europa (Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē) was the mother of King Minos of Crete, a woman with Phoenician origin of high lineage, and after whom the continent Europe was named.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Fénius Farsaid (also Phoeniusa, Phenius, Féinius; Farsa, Farsaidh, many variant spellings) is a legendary king of Scythia who shows up in different versions of Irish mythology.
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Finike, the ancient Phoenicus (Φοινικοῦς), also formerly Phineka, is a district on the Mediterranean coast of Antalya Province in Turkey, to the west of the city of Antalya, along the Turkish Riviera.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
A fraternity (from Latin frater: "brother"; "brotherhood"), fraternal order or fraternal organization is an organization, a society or a club of men associated together for various religious or secular aims.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
George Rawlinson (23 November 1812 – 7 October 1902) was a 19th-century English scholar, historian, and Christian theologian.
Ghassulian refers to a culture and an archaeological stage dating to the Middle and Late Chalcolithic Period in the Southern Levant (c. 4400 – c. 3500 BC).
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Gozo (Għawdex,, formerly Gaulos) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Greek art began in the Cycladic and Minoan civilization, and gave birth to Western classical art in the subsequent Geometric, Archaic and Classical periods (with further developments during the Hellenistic Period).
Guelma (ڨالمة;; Algerian pronunciation) is the capital of Guelma Province and Guelma District, located in north-eastern Algeria, about 65 kilometers from the Mediterranean coast.
The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia.
Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.
Hacksilver (sometimes referred to as hacksilber) consists of fragments of cut and bent silver items that were used as bullion or as currency by weight in antiquity.
Hadad (𐎅𐎄), Adad, Haddad (Akkadian) or Iškur (Sumerian) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
Hadrume(n)tum (sometimes called Adrametum or Adrametus) was a Phoenician colony that pre-dated Carthage and stood on the site of modern-day Sousse, Tunisia.
Hamites (from the biblical Ham) is a historical term in ethnology and linguistics for a division of the Caucasian race and the group of related languages these populations spoke.
Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer of the sixth or fifth century BC, best known for his supposed naval exploration of the western coast of Africa.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.
Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA).
The Harifian is a specialized regional cultural development of the Epipalaeolithic of the Negev Desert.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος;Named after the Greek goddess Hecate--> c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
Hippo Regius (also known as Hippo or Hippone) is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba, in Algeria.
Hiram Abiff (also Hiram Abif or the Widow's son) is the central character of an allegory presented to all candidates during the third degree in Freemasonry.
Hiram I (Hebrew: חִירָם, "high-born"; Standard Hebrew Ḥiram, Tiberian vocalization Ḥîrām, Modern Arabic: حيرام, also called Hirom or Huram) was the Phoenician king of Tyre according to the Hebrew Bible.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea (or;; Greek Ὠσηέ, Ōsēe), son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name.
Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia.
The hypobranchial gland is a glandular structure which is part of the anatomy of many mollusks, including several different families of gastropods, and also many protobranch bivalves.
Hyraxes (from the Greek ὕραξ, hýrax, "shrewmouse"), also called dassies, are small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
Ibiza (Eivissa) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain.
Icosium was a Phoenician, Berber and Roman city and bishopric (now a Latin titular see) in the casbah area of Algiers.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
Io (Ἰώ) was, in Greek mythology, one of the mortal lovers of Zeus.
Isaiah (or;; ܐܹܫܲܥܝܵܐ ˀēšaˁyā; Greek: Ἠσαΐας, Ēsaïās; Latin: Isaias; Arabic: إشعيا Ašaʿyāʾ or šaʿyā; "Yah is salvation") was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet for whom the Book of Isaiah is named.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Ithobaal I was a king of Tyre who founded a new dynasty.
James Bennett Pritchard (October 4, 1909 – January 1, 1997) was an American archeologist whose work explicated the interrelationships of the religions of ancient Palestine, Canaan, Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon.
Jean-Pierre Thiollet (born December 9, 1956 in Poitiers) is a French writer and journalist.
Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern:, Tiberian:; Ἰερεμίας; إرميا meaning "Yah Exalts"), also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jezebel is described in the Book of Kings (1 Kings 16:31) as a queen who was the daughter of Ithobaal I of Sidon and the wife of Ahab, King of Israel.
Jijel (جيجل, or Djidjelli) is the capital of Jijel Province in north-eastern Algeria.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
In Jungian psychology, archetypes are highly developed elements of the collective unconscious.
Juno (Latin: IVNO, Iūnō) is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.
Kerkouane or Kerkuane (كركوان, Karkwān) is the site of an ancient Punic city in north-eastern Tunisia, near Cape Bon.
Kothar-wa-Khasis (Ugaritic: 𐎋𐎘𐎗𐎆𐎃𐎒𐎒 Kothar-wa-Khasis כושר וחסיס) is an Ugaritic god whose name means "Skillful-and-Wise" or "Adroit-and-Perceptive" or "Deft-and-Clever".
Laomedon (in Greek Λαoμέδων ὁ Μυτιληναῖος; lived during the 4th century BC), was a native of Mytilene and son of Larichus.
Larache (also El Araich; Arabic: العرايش; Berber: Leɛrayec or Aɛrich: the attic or shed) is an important harbour town in the region of Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima in northern Morocco.
Larnaca (Λάρνακα; Larnaka or İskele) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district.
Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Leptis Magna (also Lepcis, Berber: Lubta, Neo-Punic: lpqy) was a prominent city in Roman Libya.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
A water deity is a deity in mythology associated with water or various bodies of water.
Lixus is the site of an ancient Roman-Berber-Punic city located in Morocco, just north of the modern seaport of Larache on the bank of the Loukkos River.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Malao was an ancient Somali port city in present-day Somalia.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
Marion (Μάριον) was one of the Ten city-kingdoms of Cyprus.
Maritime history of Somalia refers to the seafaring tradition of the Somali people.
Mark A. S. McMenamin is an American paleontologist and professor of geology at Mount Holyoke College.
Marsala (Maissala; Lilybaeum) is an Italian town located in the Province of Trapani in the westernmost part of Sicily.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Masinissa, or Masensen, (Berber: Masensen, ⵎⵙⵏⵙⵏ; c.238 BC – 148 BC)—also spelled Massinissa and Massena—was the first King of Numidia.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
Mdina (L-Imdina; 𐤌𐤋𐤉𐤈𐤄, Melitta, Μελίττη Melíttē, مدينة Madinah), also known by its titles Città Vecchia or Città Notabile, is a fortified city in the Northern Region of Malta, which served as the island's capital from antiquity to the medieval period.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
Melite or Melita (Μελίτη) was an ancient city located on the site of present-day Mdina and Rabat, Malta.
Melqart (Phoenician:, lit. milik-qurt, "King of the City"; Akkadian: Milqartu) was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre.
Mining in Cornwall and Devon, in the south west of England, began in the early Bronze Age, around 2150 BC, and ended (at least temporarily) with the closure of South Crofty tin mine in Cornwall in 1998.
Misurata (مصراته, Misurata, ⵎⵉⵙⵓⵔⴰⵜⴰ) is a city in the Misrata District in northwestern Libya, situated to the east of Tripoli and west of Benghazi on the Mediterranean coast near Cape Misurata.
Moab (Moabite: Māʾab;; Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Mu'aba, 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Ma'ba, 𒈠𒀪𒀊 Ma'ab; Egyptian 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 Mu'ibu) is the historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mosylon (Μοσυλλόν), also known as Mosullon, was an ancient Somali trading center on or near the site that later became the city of Bosaso.
Mot (𐤌𐤅𐤕 mōwet, מות māweṯ, موت mut) was the ancient Canaanite god of death and the Underworld.
Motya (Μοτύη, Μοτύα; Mozia, Mothia; Mozzia), was an ancient and powerful city on an island off the west coast of Sicily, between Drepanum (modern Trapani) and Lilybaeum (modern Marsala).
Mtarfa (L-Imtarfa) is a small town in the Northern Region of Malta, with a population of 2,572 people as of March 2014.
Murex is a genus of medium to large sized predatory tropical sea snails.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
The name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the " owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.
Over recorded history, there have been many names of the Levant, a large area in the Middle East, or its constituent parts.
The Epipaleolithic Natufian culture existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Necho II (sometimes Nekau, Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu; Greek: Νεχώς Β' or Νεχώ Β') of Egypt was a king of the 26th Dynasty (610–595 BC).
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze.
Nora (Nuras in the mediaeval Sardinian language) is an ancient Roman and pre-Roman town on a peninsula near Pula, near to Cagliari in Sardinia.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northwest Semitic is a division of the Semitic language family comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
The Nur Mountains (Nur Dağları, "Mountains of Holy Light"), formerly known as Alma-Dağ or the ancient Amanus (Ἁμανός), is a mountain range in the Hatay Province of south-central Turkey, which runs roughly parallel to the Gulf of İskenderun.
Oea was an ancient city in present-day Centre ville, à le Souq, Yafran Tripoli, Libya.
Olbia (Terranòa; Gallurese: Tarranòa) is a city and comune of 59,885 inhabitants (November 2016) in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northeastern Sardinia (Italy), in the Gallura sub-region.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Opone (Οπώνη) was an ancient Somali city situated in the Horn of Africa.
The Orientalizing (US) or Orientalising (UK) period was a cultural and art historical period of the Archaic phase of ancient Greek and Greek-inspired art.
Osiris (from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic) is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Philo of Byblos (Φίλων Βύβλιος, Phílōn Býblios; Philo Byblius; – 141), also known as Herennius Philon, was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical works in Greek.
Phoenice was a province of the Roman Empire encompassing the historical region of Phoenicia.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
Phoenicianism is a form of Lebanese nationalism, first adopted by Lebanese Christians, primarily Maronites, at the time of the creation of Greater Lebanon.
In Greek mythology, a phoenix (φοῖνιξ, phoînix) is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.
Pierre Zalloua (بيار زلّوعة) is a Lebanese biologist. His contributions to biology include numerous researches in genetic predisposition to diseases such as type 1 diabetes and β-thalassemia. He is most noted for taking part in the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Polis (or Polis Chrysochous; Πόλη Χρυσοχούς or Πόλις Χρυσοχούς; Poli) is a small town at the north-west end of the island of Cyprus, at the centre of Chrysochous Bay, and on the edge of the Akamas peninsula nature reserve.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
In Greek mythology, Pontus (Πόντος, Póntos, "Sea") was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, one of the Greek primordial deities.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Preparation for the Gospel (Εὐαγγελικὴ προπαρασκευή), commonly known by its Latin title Praeparatio evangelica, was a work of Christian apologetics written by Eusebius in the early part of the fourth century AD.
The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a Neolithic culture centered in upper Mesopotamia.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
Proto-Canaanite is the name given to.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Psalm 72 is the 72nd psalm from the Book of Psalms.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
The Punic language, also called Carthaginian or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red.
Pygmalion (also known as Pu'mayyaton) was king of Tyre from 831 to 785 BC and a son of King Mattan I (840-832 BC).
Ralph Frederick Manheim (April 4, 1907 – September 26, 1992) was an American translator of German and French literature, as well as occasional works from Dutch, Polish and Hungarian.
Ras il-Wardija is a promontory in the limits of San Lawrenz, on the southwest coast of Gozo, Malta.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The religion of Carthage in North Africa was a direct continuation of the Phoenician variety of the polytheistic ancient Canaanite religion with significant local modifications.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Resheph (also Rešef, Reshef; Canaanite רשף; Eblaite Rašap, Egyptian ršpw) was a deity associated with plague (or a personification of plague) in ancient Canaanite religion.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of classical Greek affairs to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world (and beyond), occurred in the span of just 25 years, between 359 and 336 BC.
Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (2 September 1937 – 21 September 2017) was Emeritus Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University and the author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Sabratha, Sabratah or Siburata (صبراتة), in the Zawiya District, accessed 20 July 2009, in Arabic of Libya, was the westernmost of the ancient "three cities" of Roman Tripolis.
Salammbô (1862) is a historical novel by Gustave Flaubert.
Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.
Sarapion (Σαράπιον, also spelled Serapion), was an ancient port city in present-day Somalia.
Sarepta (near modern, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre, also known biblically as Zarephath.
Sargon II (Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾).; Aramaic סרגן; reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Sexi (Ex, Sex) was a Phoenician colony at the present-day site of Almuñécar on Spain's Costa Tropical (or "Tropical Coast").
Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašurēdu, "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent" Sulmanu being an asuredu or divinity) was king of Assyria (859–824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II.
Shed was a deity from ancient Egyptian religion.
The Sherden (Egyptian šrdn, š3rd3n3 or š3rdyn3, Ugaritic šrdnn(m) and trtn(m), possibly Akkadian še–er–ta–an–nu; also glossed “Shardana” or “Sherdanu”) are one of several groups of "Sea Peoples" who appear in fragmentary historical and iconographic records (Egyptian and Ugaritic) from the Eastern Mediterranean in the late second millennium BCE.
The Sicilian Wars, or Greco-Punic Wars, were a series of conflicts fought between Ancient Carthage and the Greek city-states led by Syracuse, Sicily, over control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean between 600–265 BC.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Siege of Motya took place either in 398 or 397 BC in western Sicily.
The Siege of Tyre was orchestrated by Alexander the Great in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Persians.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sin (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
Soluntum or Solus (Greek: Σολόεις, Thuc.; Σολοῦς, Diod.: Eth. Σολουντῖνος, Diod., but coins have Σολοντῖνος; Italian Solunto) was an ancient city of Sicily, one of the three chief Phoenician settlements in the island, situated on the north coast, about east of Panormus (modern Palermo), and immediately to the east of the bold promontory called Capo Zafferano.
Sousse or Soussa (سوسة, Berber: Susa) is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate.
A sphinx (Σφίγξ, Boeotian: Φίξ, plural sphinxes or sphinges) is a mythical creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Sulci or Sulki (in Greek Σολκοί, Steph. B., Ptol.; Σοῦλχοι, Strabo; Σύλκοι, Paus.), was one of the most considerable cities of ancient Sardinia, situated in the southwest corner of the island, on a small island, now called Isola di Sant'Antioco, which is, however, joined to the mainland by a narrow isthmus or neck of sand.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
The states that are called Neo-Hittite or, more recently, Syro-Hittite were Luwian-, Aramaic- and Phoenician-speaking political entities of the Iron Age in northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC.
Tabae was a city in Caria, although, according to Strabo it was located in a plain in Phrygia on the boundaries of Caria.
The Tabnit sarcophagus is the sarcophagus of the Phoenician king Tabnit of Sidon (c. 490 BCE), the father of King Eshmunazar II.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
Tanit was a Punic and Phoenician goddess, the chief deity of Carthage alongside her consort Baal-hamon.
Tārūt Island (جزيرة تاروت) is an island in the Persian Gulf belonging to the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, connected by two causeways to Qatif.
Tarshish (תַּרְשִׁישׁ) occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the sea from the Land of Israel and Phoenicia (Tarshish is currently the name of a village in Mount Lebanon District in Lebanon).
Tartessos (Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus, was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.
Tas-Silġ is a rounded hilltop overlooking Marsaxlokk Bay, Malta, close to the city of Żejtun.
Tavira is a Portuguese town and municipality, capital of the Costa do Acantilado, situated in the east of the Algarve on the south coast of Portugal.
Tell Kazel is an oval-shaped tell that measures by at its base, narrowing to by at its top.
In Greek mythology, Tenes or Tennes (Τέννης) was the eponymous hero of the island of Tenedos.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
A thalassocracy (from Classical Greek θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "power", giving Koine Greek θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "sea power") is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea (such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities) or a seaborne empire.
Thapsus or Thapsos (less commonly, Tapsus) (Θάψος) was an ancient city in what is modern-day Tunisia.
Tharros (also spelled Tharras, Archaic Greek: Θάρρας, Hellenistic Greek, Tarras or Tarrae, Τάρραι) was an ancient city and former bishopric on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy.
The Collected Works of C. G. Jung is a book series containing the first collected edition, in English translation, of the major writings of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung.
The Hebrew Goddess is a 1967 book by Jewish historian and anthropologist Raphael Patai, in which the author argues that historically, the Jewish religion had elements of polytheism, especially the worship of goddesses and a cult of the mother goddess.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist.
The theory of Phoenician discovery of the Americas suggests that the earliest Old World contact with the Americas was not with Columbus or Norse settlers, but with the Phoenicians (or, alternatively, other Semitic peoples) in the first millennium BC.
Thubactis was a city founded by the Phoenicians about 3,000 years ago some 210 km east of the Libyan city of Tripoli.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
Timgad (called Thamugas or Thamugadi in old Berber) was a Roman-Berber city in the Aurès Mountains of Algeria.
Tipaza (formerly Tefessedt, Chenoua-Berber: Bazar, ⴱⴰⵣⴰⵔ, تيپازة) is the Berber-speaking city and capital of the Tipaza Province, Algeria.
In the Hebrew Bible, Tophet or Topheth (תוֹפֶת; Ταφεθ; Topheth) was a location in Jerusalem in the Gehinnom where worshipers influenced by the ancient Canaanite religion engaged in the human sacrifice of children to the gods Moloch and Baal by burning them alive.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tylos was the name used by the Greeks to refer to Bahrain, as the centre of pearl trading, when Nearchus came to discover it serving under Alexander the Great.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
Ugaritic is an extinct Northwest Semitic language discovered by French archaeologists in 1929.
The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly called the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum that is part of the University of Pennsylvania.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
Utica is an ancient city located between Carthage in the south and Hippo Diarrhytus (now Bizerte) in the north, near the outflow of the Medjerda River into the Mediterranean.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.
Volubilis (Walili, وليلي) is a partly excavated Berber and Roman city in Morocco situated near the city of Meknes, and commonly considered as the ancient capital of the kingdom of Mauretania.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
A weather god is a deity in mythology associated with weather phenomena such as thunder, lightning, rain and wind.
William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846 – 31 March 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.
Yam (also Yamm) is the god of the sea in the Canaanite pantheon.
Zebulun (also Zebulon, Zabulon or Zaboules; זְבֻלוּן or or, Tiberian Hebrew, Standard Hebrew /) was, according to the Books of Genesis and Numbers,Genesis 46:14 the sixth and last son of Jacob and Leah, and the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Zebulun.
Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.
In climatology, the 8.2-kiloyear event was a sudden decrease in global temperatures that occurred approximately 8,200 years before the present, or c. 6,200 BC, and which lasted for the next two to four centuries.
Fenicia, Foenicia, Foreign relations of Phoenicia, Fīnīqīyah, Genetic studies on Phoenicans, Genetic studies on Phoenicians, Kinahna, Phenice, Phenicia, Phocae, Phoenecian, Phoenecians, Phoenician Chronology, Phoenician art, Phoenician chronology, Phoenician civilization, Phoenician gene, Phoenician people, Phoenicians, Phoenicê, Phoinikia, Phoiníkē, Phonecia, Phonecian, Phonicia, Phonicians, Phœnicia, Phœnicians.