144 relations: !Kung language, Absolute neutralisation, Abstraction, Acoustic phonetics, Allomorph, Allophone, Alphabet, Alphabetic principle, Alternation (linguistics), American Sign Language, Ancient Greek, Antoni Dufriche-Desgenettes, Arabic, Articulatory phonetics, ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Australian Aboriginal sign languages, Bantu languages, Bijection, Bracket, British Sign Language, Cantonese, Cherology, Chinese particles, Chroneme, Complementary distribution, Consonant, Daniel Jones (phonetician), Dental and alveolar flaps, Dialect, Diaphoneme, Digraph (orthography), Diphone, Distinctive feature, Edward Sapir, Emic and etic, Emic unit, English language, English phonology, Equivalence class, Expression (sign language), Ferdinand de Saussure, Flapping, Free variation, French language, Gallaudet University Press, Generative grammar, Geoff Lindsey, German language, Grapheme, ..., Hamburg Notation System, Handshape, Hawaiian language, Hupa language, Icelandic language, Inflection, Initial-stress-derived noun, International Phonetic Alphabet, Interrogative word, Intonation (linguistics), Italian language, Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, Kam–Sui languages, Kenneth Lee Pike, Kirshenbaum, Korean language, Kru languages, Leonard Bloomfield, Linguistics, Loanword, Location (sign language), Mandarin Chinese, Many-to-many, Māori language, Mentalism (psychology), Mikołaj Kruszewski, Minimal pair, Mohawk language, Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Morphophonology, Morris Halle, Mouthing, Movement (sign language), Nasal consonant, Ngwe language, Nikolai Trubetzkoy, Noam Chomsky, North American English, Orientation (sign language), Orthography, Peter Ladefoged, Phonation, Phone (phonetics), Phonemic orthography, Phonetics, Phonological change, Phonology, Phonotactics, Pirahã language, Prague linguistic circle, Puinave language, Quileute language, Rhoticity in English, Roman Jakobson, Romanian language, Rotokas language, Samoan language, Segment (linguistics), Sign language, SignWriting, Slash (punctuation), Speech organ, Sphoṭa, Stokoe notation, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Structural linguistics, Structuralism, Suprasegmentals, Swahili language, Syllable, Taa language, Tagalog language, Tauade language, Thai language, Tlingit language, Tone (linguistics), Triphone, Ubykh language, Ubykh phonology, Underlying representation, Underspecification, Upper Arrernte language, Viseme, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel reduction, Vowel reduction in Russian, William Stokoe, Wobé language, X-SAMPA, Yuen Ren Chao, Zellig Harris. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
!Kung (!Xuun), also known as Ju, is a dialect continuum (language complex) spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola by the ǃKung people.
In phonology, absolute neutralization is a phenomenon in which a segment of the underlying representation of a morpheme is not realized in any of its phonetic representations (surface forms).
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Acoustic phonetics is a subfield of phonetics, which deals with acoustic aspects of speech sounds.
In linguistics, an allomorph is a variant form of a morpheme, that is, when a unit of meaning varies in sound without changing the meaning.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
According to the alphabetic principle, letters and combinations of letters are the symbols used to represent the speech sounds of a language based on systematic and predictable relationships between written letters, symbols, and spoken words.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antoni Dufriche-Desgenettes (26 February 1804, Paris – 19 December 1878, Saint-Mandé), baptized Antoine Marie Dufriche-Foulaines, was a French seafaring merchant, poet and amateur phonetician.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Many Australian Aboriginal cultures have or traditionally had a manually coded language, a signed counterpart of their oral language.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.
British Sign Language (BSL) is a sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language of some deaf people in the UK; there are 125,000 deaf adults in the UK who use BSL plus an estimated 20,000 children.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Cherology and chereme (from "hand") are synonyms of phonology and phoneme previously used in the study of sign languages.
Both Classical Chinese and modern Chinese contain a number of grammatical particles.
In linguistics, a chroneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words by duration only of a vowel or consonant.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Daniel Jones (12 September 1881 – 4 December 1967) was a London-born British phonetician who studied under Paul Passy, professor of phonetics at the École des Hautes Études at the Sorbonne (University of Paris).
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A diaphoneme is an abstract phonological unit that identifies a correspondence between related sounds of two or more varieties of a language or language cluster.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
In phonetics, a diphone is an adjacent pair of phones.
In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer).
In linguistics and related fields, an emic unit is a type of abstract object.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation) defined on them, then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes.
In sign languages, expressions are the distinctive body postures and facial expressions that accompany signing, and which are necessary to properly form words.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).
Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gallaudet University Press (GUPress) is a publisher that focuses on issues relating to deafness and sign language.
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.
Geoff Lindsey is a British writer and director who has written episodes for television series including the BBC soap opera EastEnders and The Bill.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Hamburg Sign Language Notation System, or HamNoSys,is a direct correspondence between symbols and sound transcription system for all sign languages not only ASL, comparable to the IPA for oral languages.
In sign languages, handshape, or dez, refers to the distinctive configurations that the hands take as they are used to form words.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Hupa (native name: Na:tinixwe Mixine:whe, lit. "language of the Hoopa Valley people") is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken along the lower course of the Trinity River in Northwestern California by the Hupa (Na:tinixwe) and, before European contact, by the Chilula and Whilkut peoples, to the west.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Initial-stress derivation is a phonological process in English that moves stress to the first syllable of verbs when they are used as nouns or adjectives.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) was a Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations.
The Kam–Sui languages are a branch of the Kra–Dai languages spoken by the Kam–Sui peoples.
Kenneth Lee Pike (June 9, 1912 – December 31, 2000) was an American linguist and anthropologist.
Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA or erkIPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The Kru languages belong to the Niger–Congo language family and are spoken by the Kru people from the southeast of Liberia to the east of Ivory Coast.
Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 – April 18, 1949) was an American linguist who led the development of structural linguistics in the United States during the 1930s and the 1940s.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
In sign languages, location, or tab, refers to specific places that the hands occupy as they are used to form words.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The many-to-many communication paradigm is one of three major Internet computing paradigms, characterized by multiple users contributing and receiving information, with the information elements often interlinked across different websites.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
In psychology, mentalism is an umbrella term that refers to those branches of study that concentrate on perception and thought processes: for example, mental imagery, consciousness and cognition, as in cognitive psychology.
Mikołaj Habdank Kruszewski, (Russianized, Nikolay Vyacheslavovich Krushevsky, Никола́й Вячесла́вович Круше́вский) (December 18, 1851, Lutsk – November 12, 1887, Kazan) was a Polish linguist, most significant as the co-inventor of the concept of phonemes, and relative of Anya Lucia Kruszewski.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Mohawk (Kanien’kéha, " of the Flint Place") is a threatened Iroquoian language currently spoken by around 3,500 people of the Mohawk nation, located primarily in Canada (southern Ontario and Quebec) and to a lesser extent in the United States (western and northern New York).
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
Morris Halle (July 23, 1923 – April 2, 2018) was a Latvian-American linguist who was an Institute Professor, and later professor emeritus, of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In sign language, mouthing is the production of visual syllables with the mouth while signing.
In sign languages, movement, or sig, refers to the distinctive hand actions that form words.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Ngwe (Ŋwe, Nweh) is a Grassfields language spoken in Cameroon.
Prince Nikolai Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy (p; Moscow, April 16, 1890 – Vienna, June 25, 1938) was a Russian linguist and historian whose teachings formed a nucleus of the Prague School of structural linguistics.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.
In sign languages, orientation is the distinctive relative degree of rotation of the hand when signing.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist and phonetician who travelled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
Pirahã (also spelled Pirahá, Pirahán), or Múra-Pirahã, is the indigenous language of the isolated Pirahã of Amazonas, Brazil.
The Prague school or Prague linguistic circle was an influential group of linguists, philologists and literary critics in Prague.
Puinave, Waipunavi (Guaipunabi) or Wanse (Wãnsöhöt), is a poorly attested and generally unclassified language of South America.
Quileute, also known as Quillayute, was the last Chimakuan language, spoken until the end of the 20th century by Quileute and Makah elders on the western coast of the Olympic peninsula south of Cape Flattery at La Push and the lower Hoh River in Washington State, United States.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896Kucera, Henry. 1983. "Roman Jakobson." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 59(4): 871–883. – July 18,, compiled by Stephen Rudy 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rotokas is a North Bougainville language spoken by about 4,320 people on the island of Bougainville, an island located to the east of New Guinea which is part of Papua New Guinea.
Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.
In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Sutton SignWriting, or simply, SignWriting, is a system of writing sign languages.
The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark.
Speech organs or articulators, produce the sounds of language.
(Devanagari स्फोट, the Sanskrit for "bursting, opening", "spurt") is an important concept in the Indian grammatical tradition of Vyakarana, relating to the problem of speech production, how the mind orders linguistic units into coherent discourse and meaning.
Stokoe notation is the first phonemic script used for sign languages.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
In linguistics, suprasegmentals are contrastive elements of speech that cannot be easily analyzed as distinct segments but rather belong to a syllable or word.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Taa, also known as ǃXóõ (ǃKhong, ǃXoon – pronounced), is a Tuu language notable for its large number of phonemes, perhaps the largest in the world.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tauade is a Papuan language of New Guinea.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Tlingit language (Lingít) is spoken by the Tlingit people of Southeast Alaska and Western Canada.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
In linguistics, a triphone is a sequence of three phonemes.
Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
Ubykh, an extinct Northwest Caucasian language, has the largest consonant inventory of all documented languages that do not use clicks, and also has the most disproportional ratio of phonemic consonants to vowels.
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.
In theoretical linguistics, underspecification is a phenomenon in which certain features are omitted in underlying representations.
Arrernte or Aranda or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.
A viseme is any of several speech sounds that look the same, for example when lip reading (Fisher 1968).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
Vowel reduction in Russian differs in the standard language and dialects, which differ from one another.
William C. Stokoe, Jr. (July 21, 1919 in New Hampshire – April 4, 2000 in Chevy Chase, Maryland), a long-time professor at Gallaudet University, was an American linguist.
Wobé (Ouobe) is a Kru language spoken in Ivory Coast.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.
Yuen Ren Chao (3 November 1892 – 25 February 1982) was a Chinese-American linguist, educator, scholar, poet, and composer, who contributed to the modern study of Chinese phonology and grammar.
Zellig Sabbettai Harris (October 23, 1909 – May 22, 1992) was a very influential American linguist, mathematical syntactician, and methodologist of science.