140 relations: Abjad, Albanian alphabet, Algorithm, Allophone, Alphabet, Alphabetic principle, American English, Arabic alphabet, Armenian alphabet, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Australian English, Azerbaijani alphabet, Basque alphabet, Belarusian alphabet, Bengali language, Bijection, Bosnian language, Bulgarian language, Constructed language, Croatian language, Czech orthography, Day, Defective script, Dental and alveolar flaps, Diacritic, Dialect, Digraph (orthography), Elision, English language, English orthography, English-language spelling reform, Esperanto, Etymology, False etymology, Final-obstruent devoicing, Finnish orthography, French language, Georgian scripts, German orthography, Glottalization, Goatherd, Grapheme, Great Vowel Shift, Greek alphabet, Greek orthography, Gujarati language, Haitian Creole, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, ..., Hindi, Hiragana, Historical kana orthography, Hungarian orthography, International Phonetic Alphabet, Italian language, Italian orthography, Japanese language, Katakana, Kazakh alphabets, Korean language, Language, Languages of India, Latin alphabet, Latvian orthography, Linguistics, List of language regulators, Lithuanian language, Ljudevit Gaj, Loanword, Lojban, Macedonian alphabet, Maithili language, Malay alphabet, Maltese alphabet, Manx language, Marathi language, Modern Greek, Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Montenegrin language, Monza, Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Morphophonology, Multigraph (orthography), Nasal vowel, Orthographic depth, Orthographic transcription, Orthography, Phonation, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonetic transcription, Phonological change, Phonology, Pitch-accent language, Polish alphabet, Polish orthography, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Pronunciation respelling, Punjabi language, Received Pronunciation, Rendaku, Romanian alphabet, Romansh language, Russian language, Russian orthography, Sandhi, Sanskrit, Schwa, Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Silent e, Silent letter, Somali alphabets, Sound change, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spelling, Spelling pronunciation, Spelling reform, Standard language, Swahili language, Syllabary, Tenuis consonant, Th (digraph), Trigraph (orthography), Turkey, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Ukrainian alphabet, Vowel reduction in Russian, Vuk Karadžić, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, X, Yotsugana. Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
According to the alphabetic principle, letters and combinations of letters are the symbols used to represent the speech sounds of a language based on systematic and predictable relationships between written letters, symbols, and spoken words.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
The Azerbaijani alphabet (Azərbaycan əlifbası) of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of Old Church Slavonic.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).
A defective script is a writing system that does not represent all the phonemic distinctions of a language.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
For centuries, there has been a movement to reform the spelling of English.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
A goatherd or goatherder is a person who herds goats as a vocational activity.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The orthography of the Greek language ultimately has its roots in the adoption of the Greek alphabet in the 9th century BC.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
The, or, refers to the in general use until orthographic reforms after World War II; the current orthography was adopted by Cabinet order in 1946.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
Three alphabets are used to write the Kazakh language: the Cyrillic, Latin and Arabic script.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latvian orthography, historically, has used a system based upon German phonetic principles and the Latgalian dialect was written using Polish orthographic principles.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Ljudevit Gaj (born Ludwig Gay;According to Djuro Šurmin: Hrvatski preporod, vol I-II, Zagreb, 1903), 8 August 1809 – 20 April 1872) was a Croatian linguist, politician, journalist and writer. He was one of the central figures of the pan-Slavist Illyrian Movement.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lojban (pronounced) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language, succeeding the Loglan project.
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
The modern Malay alphabet or Indonesian alphabet (Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore: Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", Indonesia: "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet (Mongolian: Монгол Кирилл үсэг, Mongol Kirill üseg or Кирилл цагаан толгой, Kirill tsagaan tolgoi) is the writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of Mongolia.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
Monza (Mùnscia; Modoetia) is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about north-northeast of Milan.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
A multigraph (or pleongraph) is a sequence of letters that behaves as a unit and is not the sum of its parts, such as English or French.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In linguistics, the orthographic depth of an alphabetic orthography indicates the degree to which a written language deviates from simple one-to-one letter–phoneme correspondence.
Orthographic transcription is a transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
A pronunciation respelling is a regular phonetic respelling of a word that does have a standard spelling, so as to indicate the pronunciation.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
is a phenomenon in Japanese morphophonology that governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Schwa deletion, or schwa syncope, is a phenomenon that sometimes occurs in Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Gujarati, Maithili and several other Indo-Aryan languages with schwas that are implicit in their written scripts.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
In English orthography, many words feature a silent, most commonly at the end of a word or morpheme.
In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.
A number of writing systems have been used over the years to transcribe the Somali language.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
Th is a digraph in the Latin script.
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
Vowel reduction in Russian differs in the standard language and dialects, which differ from one another.
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић; 7 November 1787 – 7 February 1864) was a Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
are a set of four specific kana, じ, ぢ, ず, づ (in the Nihon-shiki romanization system: zi, di, zu, du), used in the Japanese writing system.
Alphaphonemic pronunciation, Karaoke writing, Monograph (orthography), Morpho-phonemic orthography, Morphophonemic orthography, Phonemic alphabet, Phonemic orthographies, Phonemic principle, Phonemic spelling, Phonemic writing, Phonetic idiom, Phonetic language, Phonetic orthography, Phonetic spelling, Phonetic writing, Regular spelling, Shallow orthographies, Shallow orthography, Unigraph, Unigraph (orthography).