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Phonograph record

Index Phonograph record

A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. [1]

343 relations: A Good Man Is Hard to Find and Other Stories, ABBA, Abbey Road, Acetate disc, Adele, Adolescence, Alabama Shakes, Alan Blumlein, Album, Alfred Cortot, Alt-J, Alternating current, An Awesome Wave, Analog signal, Angular velocity, Appointment in Samarra, Atom Heart Mother, Audio (magazine), Audio engineer, Audio Engineering Society, Audio Fidelity Records, Audio signal, Audiophile, Audiophile Records, Automatic gain control, Azimuth, Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, Babel (album), BBC, BBC Transcription Services, Beach House, Bearing (mechanical), Beatmatching, Bell Records, Berliner Gramophone, Bhutan, Billy Fury, Blackboard Jungle, Bloom (Beach House album), Blue Amberol Records, Blunderbuss (album), Bob Dylan, Bon Iver, Bon Iver (album), Boys & Girls (Alabama Shakes album), British English, British rock and roll, Brunswick Corporation, Cambridge University Press, Camden, New Jersey, ..., Capacitance Electronic Disc, Carbon black, Cardboard, Carmen, Carousel (musical), Cast recording, CBS, CBS Laboratories, CDJ, Cello, Celluloid, Cellulose acetate, Champagne Charlie (album), Charley Patton, Circle, Classical music, Coexist (album), Collectable, Collecting, Columbia Records, Commodore Records, Compact Cassette, Compact disc, Compact Disc Digital Audio, Companding, Comparison of analog and digital recording, Compatible Discrete 4, Constant linear velocity, CX (audio), Data storage, David Bowie, David Sarnoff, Dbx (noise reduction), Decca Records, Deutsche Grammophon, Diameter, Diaphragm (acoustics), Digital audio, Digital recording, Direct metal mastering, Direct-to-disc recording, Disc jockey, Distortion, Doris Day, Double bass, Drive-By Truckers, Dubbing (music), Durium, Dust, Dynagroove, Dynamic range, Eddie Condon, Edison Disc Record, El Camino (The Black Keys album), Eldridge R. Johnson, Electricity, Electroforming, Electronic dance music, ELP Japan, Elvis Presley, EMI, Emile Berliner, Enrico Caruso, Ernani, Extended play, Fidelity, File sharing, For Emma, Forever Ago, Ford Model T, Format war, Frank Sinatra, Frankie Laine, Franz Schubert, Frédéric Chopin, Frequency band, Gallagher and Shean, Gear train, Gennett Records, Genre, George Gershwin, Gilbert and Sullivan, Giuseppe Verdi, Go-Go Boots (album), Good Vibrations, Google Books, Governor (device), Gramophone Company, Graphophone, Great Depression, Heat, Hertz, High Fidelity (magazine), Highway Hi-Fi, Hillbilly, Hip hop music, Hit of the Week Records, HMV, Home cinema, India, Indie rock, International Electrotechnical Commission, Internet, J. D. Salinger, Jack White, Jacques Chailley, Jazz, Joe Carrasco, John O'Hara, John Philip Sousa, John Raitt, Johnnie Ray, Jukebox, King Oliver, Lacquer, Laser, Laser turntable, LaserDisc, Lathe, Lazaretto (album), Leather, Leon Redbone, Life (magazine), Lil Hardin Armstrong, Limestone, Lonerism, Lonnie Donegan, Louis Armstrong, LP record, Marketing, Mental Notes (Split Enz album), Mercury Records, Microphone, Miles Davis, Milt Gabler, Monaural, Motown, Multiplexing, Mumford & Sons, Music criticism, Music industry, Musical composition, Natural rubber, Negativland, Niche market, Nickel, Nielsen SoundScan, Nimbus Records, Nitrocellulose, Noel Pemberton Billing, Noise (electronics), Noise reduction, Nostalgia, Odeon Records, Ogg, Online music store, Opera, Orange (fruit), Orange peel (effect), Orlando R. Marsh, Oscar Hammerstein II, Osmium, Oxford University Press, Paperboard, Paul Whiteman, Pearl Jam, Peel (fruit), Perpendicular recording, Peter Carl Goldmark, Peter Copeland, Philippines, Philips, Phonautograph, Phonograph, Phonograph cylinder, Picture disc, Pink Floyd, Pitch (music), Polystyrene, Polyvinyl chloride, Pre-echo, Presbycusis, Prestige Records, Print-through, Pye Records, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Quadraphonic sound, Quality control, R. Crumb & His Cheap Suit Serenaders, Radio, Radio advertisement, Rafael Kubelík, Randy Newman, Randy Newman (album), RCA, RCA Records, RCA Red Seal Records, Real versus nominal value, Record changer, Record collecting, Record Store Day, Recording format, Recording Industry Association of America, Reel-to-reel audio tape recording, Reprise Records, Retronym, Revolutions per minute, Rhapsody in Blue, Rhino Entertainment, RIAA equalization, Richard Rodgers, Robert Crumb, Roll-off, Rolling Stone, Rosemary Clooney, Rotational speed, Sansui Electric, Sapphire, Scientific American, Scratching, Seeburg 1000, Seeburg Corporation, Serge Gainsbourg, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Shellac, Shrink wrap, Sigh No More (Mumford & Sons album), Silicon controlled rectifier, Single (music), Skip (audio playback), Slate, Slip-cueing, Soliloquy (song), Sound, Sound recording and reproduction, Spiral, Split Enz, Stereophonic sound, Stiff Records, Stroboscope, Stroh violin, Stylus, Super Audio CD, Super Trouper (album), Surround sound, Synchronous motor, Tame Impala, Tape recorder, Telegraphy, Telephone, Tempest (Bob Dylan album), The Beach Boys, The Beatles, The Black Keys, The Catcher in the Rye, The Mikado, The Monty Python Matching Tie and Handkerchief, The New Face of Vinyl: Youth's Digital Devolution, The New York Times, The Nutcracker, The Reverend Peyton's Big Damn Band, The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, The Sound of Fury (album), The Wall, The xx, Theora, Thomas Edison, Tin foil, Tony Bennett, Transient response, Tuba, Tuning fork, United States dollar, University of San Diego, Unusual types of gramophone records, V-Disc, Vacuum tube, Victor Orthophonic Victrola, Victor Talking Machine Company, Vinyl emulation software, Violin, Vitalogy, Vitaphone, Wanamaker's, Wax, Western Electric, Wired (magazine), Woofer, World War II, Wow (recording), 12-inch single, 21 (Adele album), 45 rpm adapter, 8-track tape. Expand index (293 more) »

A Good Man Is Hard to Find and Other Stories

A Good Man Is Hard to Find and Other Stories (published in England as The Artificial Nigger and Other Tales) is a collection of short stories by American author Flannery O'Connor.

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ABBA are a Swedish pop group, formed in Stockholm in 1972 by Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, and Anni-Frid Lyngstad.

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Abbey Road

Abbey Road is the eleventh studio album by English rock band the Beatles, released on 26 September 1969 by Apple Records.

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Acetate disc

An acetate disc is a type of phonograph (gramophone) record, a mechanical sound storage medium, widely used from the 1930s to the late 1950s for recording and broadcast purposes and still in limited use today.

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Adele Laurie Blue Adkins (born 5 May 1988) is an English singer and songwriter.

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AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.

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Alabama Shakes

Alabama Shakes is a blues rock band from USA formed in Athens, Alabama in 2009.

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Alan Blumlein

Alan Dower Blumlein (29 June 1903 – 7 June 1942) was an English electronics engineer, notable for his many inventions in telecommunications, sound recording, stereophonic sound, television and radar.

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An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item on CD, record, audio tape or another medium.

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Alfred Cortot

Alfred Denis Cortot (26 September 187715 June 1962) was a Franco-Swiss pianist and conductor who was one of the most renowned classical musicians of the 20th century.

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Alt-J (stylised as alt-J, or ∆) is an English indie rock band formed in 2007 in Leeds, by Joe Newman (guitar/lead vocals), Thom Sonny Green (drums), Gus Unger-Hamilton (keyboards/vocals) and Gwil Sainsbury (guitar/bass).

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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An Awesome Wave

An Awesome Wave is the debut album by English indie rock band alt-J, released on 25 May 2012 through Infectious.

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Analog signal

An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.

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Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

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Appointment in Samarra

Appointment In Samarra, published in 1934, is the first novel by American writer John O'Hara (1905–1970).

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Atom Heart Mother

Atom Heart Mother is the fifth studio album by the English progressive rock band Pink Floyd.

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Audio (magazine)

Audio magazine was a periodical published from 1947 to 2000, and was America's longest-running audio magazine.

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Audio engineer

An audio engineer (also sometimes recording engineer or a vocal engineer) helps to produce a recording or a performance, editing and adjusting sound tracks using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound.

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Audio Engineering Society

Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry.

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Audio Fidelity Records

Audio Fidelity Records, was a record company out of New York City, most active during the 1950s and 1960s.

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Audio signal

An audio signal is a representation of sound, typically as an electrical voltage for analog signals and a binary number for digital signals.

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An audiophile is a person who is enthusiastic about high-fidelity sound reproduction.

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Audiophile Records

Audiophile Records is a record company and label founded in 1947 by Ewing Dunbar Nunn to produce recordings of Dixieland jazz.

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Automatic gain control

Automatic gain control (AGC), also called automatic volume control (AVC), is a closed-loop feedback regulating circuit in an amplifier or chain of amplifiers, the purpose of which is to maintain a suitable signal amplitude at its output, despite variation of the signal amplitude at the input.

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An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.

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Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville

Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville (25 April 1817 – 26 April 1879) was a French printer and bookseller who lived in Paris.

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Babel (album)

Babel is the second studio album by British rock band Mumford & Sons.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC Transcription Services

The BBC Transcription Services started life in the mid-1930s as The London Transcription Service to license BBC Radio programmes to overseas broadcasters who were authorised to broadcast the programmes for a set period, usually 2 or 3 years.

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Beach House

Beach House is an American dream pop band from Baltimore, Maryland, formed in 2004.

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Bearing (mechanical)

A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.

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Beatmatching or pitch cue is a disc jockey technique of pitch shifting or timestretching an upcoming track to match its tempo to that of the currently playing track, and to adjust them such that the beats (and, usually, the bars) are synchronised — i.e., the kicks and snares in two house records hit at the same time when both records are played simultaneously.

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Bell Records

Bell Records was an American record label founded in 1952 in New York City by Arthur Shimkin, the owner of the children's record label Golden Records, and initially a unit of Pocket Books, after the rights to the name were acquired from Benny Bell who used the Bell name to issue risque novelty records.

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Berliner Gramophone

Berliner Gramophone – its discs identified with an etched-in "E.

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Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.

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Billy Fury

Ronald Wycherley (17 April 1940 – 28 January 1983), better known by his stage name Billy Fury, was an English singer from the late 1950s to the mid 1960s, and remained an active songwriter until the 1980s.

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Blackboard Jungle

Blackboard Jungle is a 1955 social commentary film about teachers in an inter-racial inner-city school, based on the novel The Blackboard Jungle by Evan Hunter and adapted for the screen and directed by Richard Brooks. It is remembered for its innovative use of rock and roll in its soundtrack and for the unusual breakout role of a black cast member, future Oscar winner and star Sidney Poitier as a rebellious, yet musically talented student. In 2016, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

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Bloom (Beach House album)

Bloom is the fourth studio album by American dream pop duo Beach House.

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Blue Amberol Records

Blue Amberol Records was the trademark name for cylinder records manufactured by Thomas A. Edison, Inc. in the US from 1912 to 1929.

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Blunderbuss (album)

Blunderbuss is the debut solo album by Jack White, released on April 23, 2012 through White's own label Third Man Records in association with XL Recordings and Columbia Records.

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Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.

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Bon Iver

Bon Iver (Bone-Hiver) is an American indie folk band founded in 2006 by singer-songwriter Justin Vernon.

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Bon Iver (album)

Bon Iver (also referred to as Bon Iver, Bon Iver) is the second studio album from American indie folk band Bon Iver, released on June 17, 2011.

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Boys & Girls (Alabama Shakes album)

Boys & Girls is the debut studio album from American rock band Alabama Shakes.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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British rock and roll

British rock and roll, or sometimes British rock 'n' roll, is a style of popular music based on American rock and roll, which emerged in the late 1950s and was popular until the arrival of beat music in 1962.

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Brunswick Corporation

The Brunswick Corporation, formerly known as the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company, is an American corporation that has been active in developing, manufacturing and marketing a wide variety of products since 1845.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camden, New Jersey

Camden is a city in Camden County, New Jersey.

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Capacitance Electronic Disc

The Capacitance Electronic Disc (CED) is an analog video disc playback system developed by RCA, in which video and audio could be played back on a TV set using a special needle and high-density groove system similar to phonograph records.

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Carbon black

Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.

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Cardboard is a generic term for heavy-duty paper-based products having greater thickness and superior durability or other specific mechanical attributes to paper; such as foldability, rigidity and impact resistance.

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Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet.

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Carousel (musical)

Carousel is the second musical by the team of Richard Rodgers (music) and Oscar Hammerstein II (book and lyrics).

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Cast recording

A cast recording is a recording of a stage musical that is intended to document the songs as they were performed in the show and experienced by the audience.

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CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.

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CBS Laboratories

CBS Laboratories or CBS Labs (later known as the CBS Technology Center or CTC) was the technology research and development organization of CBS.

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A CDJ is a specialized digital music player for DJing.

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The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.

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Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents.

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Cellulose acetate

Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose.

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Champagne Charlie (album)

Champagne Charlie is the third studio album Leon Redbone, released in 1978.

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Charley Patton

Charley Patton (died April 28, 1934), also known as Charlie Patton, was an American Delta blues musician.

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A circle is a simple closed shape.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Coexist (album)

Coexist is the 2012 second studio album by English indie pop band the xx.

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A collectable (collectible or collector's item) is any object regarded as being of value or interest to a collector (not necessarily monetarily valuable or antique).

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The hobby of collecting includes seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining items that are of interest to an individual collector.

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Columbia Records

Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony.

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Commodore Records

Commodore Records was an American independent record label known for producing Dixieland jazz and swing.

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Compact Cassette

The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.

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Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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Compact Disc Digital Audio

Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA or CD-DA) is the standard format for audio compact discs.

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In telecommunication and signal processing companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of mitigating the detrimental effects of a channel with limited dynamic range.

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Comparison of analog and digital recording

Sound can be recorded and stored and played using either digital or analog techniques.

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Compatible Discrete 4

Compatible Discrete 4, also known as Quadradisc or CD-4 (not to be confused with compact disc) was as a discrete four-channel quadraphonic system for phonograph records.

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Constant linear velocity

In optical storage, constant linear velocity (CLV) is a qualifier for the rated speed of an optical disc drive, and may also be applied to the writing speed of recordable discs.

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CX (audio)

CX is a noise reduction system for recorded analog audio.

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Data storage

Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.

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David Bowie

David Robert Jones (8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer-songwriter and actor.

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David Sarnoff

David Sarnoff (Даві́д Сарно́ў, Дави́д Сарно́в, February 27, 1891 – December 12, 1971) was an American businessman and pioneer of American radio and television.

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Dbx (noise reduction)

dbx is a family of noise reduction systems developed by the company of the same name.

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Decca Records

Decca Records is a British record label established in 1929 by Edward Lewis.

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Deutsche Grammophon

Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical music record label that was the precursor of corporation called PolyGram.

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In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.

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Diaphragm (acoustics)

In the field of acoustics, a diaphragm is a transducer intended to inter-convert mechanical vibrations to sounds, or vice versa.

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Digital audio

Digital audio is audio, or simply sound, signal that has been recorded as or converted into digital form, where the sound wave of the audio signal is encoded as numerical samples in continuous sequence, typically at CD audio quality which is 16 bit sample depth over 44.1 thousand samples per second.

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Digital recording

In digital recording, audio signals picked up by a microphone or other transducer or video signals picked up by a camera or similar device are converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes over time in air pressure for audio, and chroma and luminance values for video, then recorded to a storage device.

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Direct metal mastering

Direct metal mastering (DMM) is an analog audio disc mastering technique jointly developed by two German companies, Telefunken-Decca (Teldec) and Georg Neumann GmbH, toward the end of the 20th century after having seen the same technology used by RCA Princeton Labs for its SelectaVision videodiscs in the late-1970s.

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Direct-to-disc recording

Direct-to-disc recording refers to sound recording methods that bypass the use of magnetic tape recording and record audio directly onto analog disc masters.

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Disc jockey

A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.

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Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of something.

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Doris Day

Doris Day (born Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff; April 3, 1922) is an American actress, singer, and animal welfare activist.

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Double bass

The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.

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Drive-By Truckers

The Drive-By Truckers are an alternative country/Southern rock band based in Athens, Georgia, though two of five current members (Patterson Hood and Mike Cooley) are originally from The Shoals region of northern Alabama, and the band strongly identifies with Alabama.

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Dubbing (music)

In sound recording, dubbing is the transfer or copying of previously recorded audio material from one medium to another of the same or a different type.

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Durium is a highly durable synthetic resin developed in 1929.

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Dust are fine particles of matter.

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Dynagroove is a recording process introduced in 1963 by RCA Victor that, for the first time, used analog computers to modify the audio signal used to produce master discs for LPs.

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Dynamic range

Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.

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Eddie Condon

Albert Edwin Condon (November 16, 1905 – August 4, 1973) was an American jazz banjoist, guitarist, and bandleader.

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Edison Disc Record

The Edison Diamond Disc Record is a type of phonograph record marketed by Thomas A. Edison, Inc. on their Edison Record label from 1912 to 1929.

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El Camino (The Black Keys album)

El Camino is the seventh studio album by American rock duo the Black Keys.

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Eldridge R. Johnson

Eldridge Reeves Johnson (February 6, 1867 in Wilmington, Delaware – November 14, 1945 in Moorestown, New Jersey) was an American businessman and engineer who founded the Victor Talking Machine Company and built it into the leading American producer of phonographs and phonograph records and one of the leading phonograph companies in the world at the time.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electroforming is a metal forming process that forms parts through electrodeposition on a model, known in the industry as a mandrel.

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Electronic dance music

Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.

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ELP Japan

Edison Laser Player (ELP) Japan is a Japanese audio equipment company started by Sanju Chiba, who manufacture laser turntables.

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Elvis Presley

Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor.

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EMI Group Limited (originally an initialism for Electric and Musical Industries and also referred to as EMI Records Ltd.) was a British multinational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London.

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Emile Berliner

Emile Berliner (May 20, 1851 – August 3, 1929), originally Emil Berliner, was a German-born American inventor.

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Enrico Caruso

Enrico Caruso (25 February 1873 – 2 August 1921) was an Italian operatic tenor.

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Ernani is an operatic dramma lirico in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on the play Hernani by Victor Hugo.

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Extended play

An extended play record, often referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is usually unqualified as an album or LP.

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Fidelity is the quality of faithfulness or loyalty.

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File sharing

File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.

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For Emma, Forever Ago

For Emma, Forever Ago is the debut studio album by American indie folk band Bon Iver.

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Ford Model T

The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.

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Format war

A format war describes competition between mutually incompatible proprietary formats that compete for the same market, typically for data storage devices and recording formats for electronic media.

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Frank Sinatra

Francis Albert Sinatra (December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century.

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Frankie Laine

Frankie Laine (born Francesco Paolo LoVecchio; March 30, 1913 – February 6, 2007) was an Italian American singer, songwriter, and actor whose career spanned 75 years, from his first concerts in 1930 with a marathon dance company to his final performance of "That's My Desire" in 2005.

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Franz Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.

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Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.

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Frequency band

A frequency band is an interval in the frequency domain, delimited by a lower frequency and an upper frequency.

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Gallagher and Shean

Gallagher & Shean was a highly successful musical comedy double act on vaudeville and Broadway in the 1910s and 1920s, consisting of Edward Gallagher (1873 – March 28, 1929) and Al Shean (real name "Abraham Elieser Adolph Schönberg"; May 12, 1868 – August 12, 1949); Shean was the maternal uncle of the Marx Brothers.

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Gear train

A gear train is a mechanical system formed by mounting gears on a frame so the teeth of the gears engage.

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Gennett Records

Gennett (pronounced with a soft G) was an American record company and label in Richmond, Indiana, which flourished in the 1920s.

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Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.

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George Gershwin

George Jacob Gershwin (September 26, 1898 July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist.

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Gilbert and Sullivan

Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) and to the works they jointly created.

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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

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Go-Go Boots (album)

Go-Go Boots is the ninth studio album by American rock band Drive-By Truckers, first released February 14, 2011, on Play It Again Sam Records.

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Good Vibrations

"Good Vibrations" is a song composed by Brian Wilson with words by Mike Love for the American rock band the Beach Boys, of which both were members.

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Google Books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.

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Governor (device)

A governor, or speed limiter or controller, is a device used to measure and regulate the speed of a machine, such as an engine.

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Gramophone Company

The Gramophone Company, based in the United Kingdom and founded on behalf of Emil Berliner, was one of the early recording companies, the parent organisation for the His Master's Voice (HMV) label, and the European affiliate of the American Victor Talking Machine Company.

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The Graphophone was the name and trademark of an improved version of the phonograph.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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High Fidelity (magazine)

High Fidelity was an American magazine that was published from April 1951 until July 1989 and was a source of information about high fidelity audio equipment, video equipment, audio recordings, and other aspects of the musical world, such as music history, biographies, and anecdotal stories by or about noted performers.

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Highway Hi-Fi

Highway Hi-Fi was a system of proprietary players and seven-inch phonograph records with standard LP center holes designed for use in automobiles.

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"Hillbilly" is a term (often derogatory) for people who dwell in rural, mountainous areas in the United States, primarily in Appalachia and the Ozarks.

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Hip hop music

Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.

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Hit of the Week Records

Hit of the Week was an American record label founded in 1930 that sold low-priced records made of Durium instead of the usual shellac.

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HMV Retail Ltd. is an entertainment retailing company (registered in England) operating in the United Kingdom.

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Home cinema

Home cinema, also called home theater or home theatre, refers to home entertainment audio-visual systems that seek to reproduce a movie theater experience and mood using consumer electronics-grade video and audio equipment that is set up in a room or backyard of a private home.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indie rock

Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1970s.

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International Electrotechnical Commission

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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J. D. Salinger

Jerome David "J.

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Jack White

John Anthony White (né Gillis; born July 9, 1975) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, record producer and actor.

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Jacques Chailley

Jacques Chailley (24 March 1910 in Paris – 21 January 1999 in Montpellier) was a 20th-century French musicologist and composer.

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Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Joe Carrasco

Joe King Carrasco (born Joseph Charles Teutsch) is a Tex-Mex "new wave" guitarist, vocalist and songwriter currently based in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.

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John O'Hara

John Henry O'Hara (January 31, 1905 – April 11, 1970) was an American writer who earned his early literary reputation for short stories and later became a best-selling novelist before the age of 30 with Appointment in Samarra and Butterfield 8.

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John Philip Sousa

John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known primarily for American military and patriotic marches.

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John Raitt

John Emmet Raitt (January 29, 1917 – February 20, 2005) was an American actor and singer best known for his performances in musical theater.

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Johnnie Ray

John Alvin Ray (January 10, 1927 – February 24, 1990) was an American singer, songwriter, and pianist.

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A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that will play a patron's selection from self-contained media.

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King Oliver

Joseph Nathan Oliver (December 19, 1885 – April 10, 1938) better known as King Oliver or Joe Oliver, was an American jazz cornet player and bandleader.

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The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Laser turntable

A laser turntable (or optical turntable) is a phonograph that plays standard LP records (and other gramophone records) using laser beams as the pickup instead of using a stylus as in conventional turntables.

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LaserDisc (abbreviated as LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in the United States in 1978.

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A lathe is a tool that rotates the workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about that axis.

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Lazaretto (album)

Lazaretto is the second studio album by Jack White.

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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.

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Leon Redbone

Leon Redbone (born August 26, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, actor and voice actor specializing in jazz, blues, and Tin Pan Alley classics.

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Life (magazine)

Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.

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Lil Hardin Armstrong

Lil Hardin Armstrong (February 3, 1898 – August 27, 1971) was a jazz pianist, composer, arranger, singer, and bandleader.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Lonerism is the second studio album by the Australian rock band Tame Impala, released on 5 October 2012 by Modular Recordings.

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Lonnie Donegan

Anthony James Donegan (29 April 1931 – 3 November 2002), known as Lonnie Donegan, was a British skiffle singer, songwriter and musician, referred to as the "King of Skiffle", who influenced 1960s British pop musicians.

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Louis Armstrong

Louis Daniel Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo, Satch, and Pops, was an American trumpeter, composer, singer and occasional actor who was one of the most influential figures in jazz.

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LP record

The LP (from "long playing" or "long play") is an analog sound storage medium, a vinyl record format characterized by a speed of rpm, a 12- or 10-inch (30 or 25 cm) diameter, and use of the "microgroove" groove specification.

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Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.

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Mental Notes (Split Enz album)

Mental Notes is the 1975 debut album by New Zealand art rock band Split Enz.

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Mercury Records

Mercury Records is an American-based record label owned by Universal Music Group.

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A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.

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Miles Davis

Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926September 28, 1991) was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, and composer.

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Milt Gabler

Milton "Milt" Gabler (May 20, 1911 – July 20, 2001) was an American record producer, responsible for many innovations in the recording industry of the 20th century.

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Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction (often shortened to mono) is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position.

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Motown is an American record company.

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In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

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Mumford & Sons

Mumford & Sons are a British band formed in 2007.

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Music criticism

The Oxford Companion to Music defines music criticism as 'the intellectual activity of formulating judgements on the value and degree of excellence of individual works of music, or whole groups or genres'.

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Music industry

The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators.

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Musical composition

Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.

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Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.

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Negativland is an American experimental music band which originated in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1970s.

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Niche market

A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nielsen SoundScan

Nielsen SoundScan is an information and sales tracking system created by Mike Fine and Mike Shalett.

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Nimbus Records

Nimbus Records is a British record company based at Wyastone Leys, Ganarew, Herefordshire, England, from Monmouth and from Ross-on-Wye.

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Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.

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Noel Pemberton Billing

Noel Pemberton Billing (31 January 1881 – 11 November 1948), sometimes known as Noel Pemberton-Billing, was an English aviator, inventor, publisher, and Member of Parliament.

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Noise (electronics)

In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.

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Noise reduction

Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal.

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Nostalgia is a sentimentality for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations.

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Odeon Records

Odeon Records was a record label founded in 1903 by Max Straus and Heinrich Zuntz of the International Talking Machine Company in Berlin, Germany.

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Online music store

An online music store is an online business which sells audio files over the Internet, usually sound recordings of music songs or classical pieces, in which the user pays on a per-song or subscription basis.

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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.

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Orange (fruit)

The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.

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Orange peel (effect)

Orange peel is a certain kind of finish that may develop on painted and cast surfaces, even screen protectors.

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Orlando R. Marsh

Orlando R. Marsh (August 6, 1881 – September 7, 1938) was an electrical engineer raised in Wilmette, Illinois.

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Oscar Hammerstein II

Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II (July 12, 1895 – August 23, 1960) was an American librettist, theatrical producer, and (usually uncredited) theatre director of musicals for almost forty years.

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Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paperboard is a thick paper-based material.

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Paul Whiteman

Paul Samuel Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was an American bandleader, composer, orchestral director, and violinist.

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Pearl Jam

Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1990.

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Peel (fruit)

Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which can be peeled off.

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Perpendicular recording

Perpendicular recording (or perpendicular magnetic recording, PMR) is a technology for data recording on hard disks.

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Peter Carl Goldmark

Peter Carl Goldmark (Goldmark Péter Károly) (December 2, 1906 – December 7, 1977) was a Hungarian-American engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing microgroove 33-1/3 rpm phonograph disc, the standard for incorporating multiple or lengthy recorded works on a single disc for two generations.

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Peter Copeland

Peter Michael Copeland (17 July 1942 – 30 July 2006) was an English sound archivist.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording sound.

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The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.

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Phonograph cylinder

Phonograph cylinders are the earliest commercial medium for recording and reproducing sound.

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Picture disc

Picture discs are gramophone (phonograph) records that show images on their playing surface, rather than being of plain black or colored vinyl.

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Pink Floyd

Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965.

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Pitch (music)

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.

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Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

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Pre-echo, sometimes called a forward echo, (not to be confused with reverse echo) is a digital audio compression artifact where a sound is heard before it occurs (hence the name).

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Presbycusis (also spelled presbyacusis, from Greek presbys "old" + akousis "hearing"), or age-related hearing loss, is the cumulative effect of aging on hearing.

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Prestige Records

Prestige Records is a jazz record company and label founded in 1949 by Bob Weinstock in New York City.

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Print-through (sometimes referred to as bleed-through) is a generally undesirable effect that arises in the use of magnetic tape for storing analogue information, in particular music.

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Pye Records

Pye Records was a British record label.

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.

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Quadraphonic sound

Quadraphonic (or Quadrophonic and sometimes Quadrasonic) sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another.

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Quality control

Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.

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R. Crumb & His Cheap Suit Serenaders


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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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Radio advertisement

In the United States, commercial radio stations make most of their revenue by selling airtime to be used for running radio advertisements.

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Rafael Kubelík

Rafael Jeroným Kubelík (29 June 191411 August 1996) was a Czech-born conductor and composer.

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Randy Newman

Randall Stuart Newman (born November 28, 1943) is an American singer-songwriter, arranger, composer, and pianist who is known for his distinctive voice, mordant (and often satirical) pop songs, and for film scores.

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Randy Newman (album)

Randy Newman is the eponymous debut studio album by American singer-songwriter Randy Newman, released in 1968 by Reprise Records.

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The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.

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RCA Records

RCA Records (formerly legally traded as the RCA Records Label) is an American record label owned by Sony Music, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America.

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RCA Red Seal Records

RCA Red Seal is a classical music record label founded in 1902 by Eldridge R. Johnson and currently owned by Sony Music.

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Real versus nominal value

The distinction between real value and nominal value occurs in many fields.

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Record changer

A record changer or autochanger is a device that plays multiple phonograph records in sequence without user intervention.

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Record collecting

Record collecting is the hobby of collecting sound recordings, usually of music and/or the "spoken word" (i.e. recordings of drama, poetry, historical speeches, significant news broadcasts, speech dialect samplings, etc.), but, in some cases (although mostly on a smaller scale), even of other recorded sounds (e.g. bird calls and/or other sounds of nature; railroad and other mechanized vehicle sounds; urban, rural, forest, and other "soundscapes"; various "sound effects"; etc.). Although the typical focus is on vinyl records, all formats of recorded music can be collected.

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Record Store Day

Record Store Day is an annual event inaugurated in 2007 and held on one Saturday every April to "celebrate the culture of the independently owned record store".

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Recording format

A recording format is a format for encoding data for storage on a storage medium.

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Recording Industry Association of America

The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States.

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Reel-to-reel audio tape recording

Reel-to/open-reel audio tape recording is the form of magnetic tape audio recording in which the recording medium is held on a reel, rather than being securely contained within a cassette.

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Reprise Records

Reprise Records is an American record label founded in 1960 by Frank Sinatra.

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A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form or version from a more recent one.

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Revolutions per minute

Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is the number of turns in one minute.

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Rhapsody in Blue

Rhapsody in Blue is a 1924 musical composition by American composer George Gershwin for solo piano and jazz band, which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects.

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Rhino Entertainment

Rhino Entertainment Company is an American specialty record label and production company founded in 1978.

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RIAA equalization

RIAA equalization is a specification for the recording and playback of phonograph records, established by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

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Richard Rodgers

Richard Charles Rodgers (June 28, 1902 – December 30, 1979) was an American composer of music, with over 900 songs and 43 Broadway musicals, leaving a legacy as one of the most significant composers of 20th century American music.

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Robert Crumb

Robert Dennis Crumb (born August 30, 1943) is an American cartoonist and musician who often signs his work R. Crumb.

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Roll-off is the steepness of a transmission function with frequency, particularly in electrical network analysis, and most especially in connection with filter circuits in the transition between a passband and a stopband.

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Rolling Stone

Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.

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Rosemary Clooney

Rosemary Clooney (May 23, 1928 – June 29, 2002) was an American singer and actress.

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Rotational speed

Rotational speed (or speed of revolution) of an object rotating around an axis is the number of turns of the object divided by time, specified as revolutions per minute (rpm), cycles per second (cps), radians per second (rad/s), etc..

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Sansui Electric

is a Japanese manufacturer of audio and video equipment.

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Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Scratching, sometimes referred to as scrubbing, is a DJ and turntablist technique of moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable to produce percussive or rhythmic sounds.

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Seeburg 1000

The Seeburg 1000 Background Music System is a phonograph designed and built by the Seeburg Corporation to play background music from special 16 RPM vinyl records in offices, restaurants, retail businesses, factories and similar locations.

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Seeburg Corporation

Seeburg was an American design and manufacturing company of automated musical equipment, such as orchestrions, jukeboxes, and vending equipment.

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Serge Gainsbourg

Serge Gainsbourg (born Lucien Ginsburg;; 2 April 1928 – 2 March 1991) was a French singer, songwriter, pianist, film composer, poet, painter, screenwriter, writer, actor, and director.

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Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band


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Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.

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Shrink wrap

Shrink wrap, also shrink film, is a material made up of polymer plastic film.

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Sigh No More (Mumford & Sons album)

Sigh No More is the debut studio album by London-based rock quartet Mumford & Sons.

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Silicon controlled rectifier

A silicon controlled rectifier or semiconductor-controlled rectifier is a four-layer solid-state current-controlling device.

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Single (music)

In music, a single, record single or music single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record.

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Skip (audio playback)

A skip occurs when a phonograph (gramophone), cassette tape or Compact Disc player malfunctions or is disturbed so as to play incorrectly, causing a break in sound or a jump to another part of the recording.

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Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.

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Slip-cueing is a turntable-based DJ technique which consists of holding a record still while the platter rotates underneath the slipmat and releasing it at the right moment.

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Soliloquy (song)

"Soliloquy" is a 1945 song composed by Richard Rodgers, with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, written for their 1945 musical Carousel, where it was introduced by John Raitt.

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In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

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Sound recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.

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In mathematics, a spiral is a curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point.

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Split Enz

Split Enz was a rock band from New Zealand that was popular during the late 1970s and early 1980s.

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Stereophonic sound

Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective.

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Stiff Records

Stiff Records is a British independent record label formed in London, England, by Dave Robinson and Jake Riviera (real name Andrew Jakeman).

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A stroboscope also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary.

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Stroh violin

The Stroh violin or Stroviol is a type of stringed musical instrument that is mechanically amplified by a metal resonator and horn attached to its body.

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A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery.

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Super Audio CD

Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical disc for audio storage, introduced in 1999.

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Super Trouper (album)

Super Trouper is the seventh studio album by the Swedish pop group ABBA, first released in 1980.

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Surround sound

Surround sound is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels).

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Synchronous motor

A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor in which, at steady state, the rotation of the shaft is synchronized with the frequency of the supply current; the rotation period is exactly equal to an integral number of AC cycles.

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Tame Impala

Tame Impala is a psychedelic rock band conceived by Australian multi-instrumentalist Kevin Parker.

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Tape recorder

An audio tape recorder, tape deck, or tape machine is an audio storage device that records and plays back sounds, including articulated voices, usually using magnetic tape, either wound on a reel or in a cassette, for storage.

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Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Tempest (Bob Dylan album)

Tempest is the 35th studio album by American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, released on September 10, 2012 by Columbia Records.

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The Beach Boys

The Beach Boys are an American rock band formed in Hawthorne, California, in 1961.

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The Beatles

The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.

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The Black Keys

The Black Keys are an American rock band formed in Akron, Ohio, in 2001.

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The Catcher in the Rye

The Catcher in the Rye is a story by J. D. Salinger, first published in serial form in 1945-6 and as a novel in 1951.

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The Mikado

The Mikado; or, The Town of Titipu is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations.

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The Monty Python Matching Tie and Handkerchief

The Monty Python Matching Tie and Handkerchief is the fourth album by the comedy group Monty Python, released in 1973.

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The New Face of Vinyl: Youth's Digital Devolution

The New Face of Vinyl: Youth's Digital Devolution is a 2011 photo documentary project that explores the vinyl revival, a newfound interest in vinyl records by youth.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Nutcracker

The Nutcracker (Щелкунчик, Балет-феерия / Shchelkunchik, Balet-feyeriya; Casse-Noisette, ballet-féerie) is a two-act ballet, originally choreographed by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov with a score by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (op. 71).

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The Reverend Peyton's Big Damn Band

The Reverend Peyton's Big Damn Band is a three-piece American country blues band from Brown County, Indiana, living in a rural area north of Nashville, Ind., and south of Bean Blossom.

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The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars

The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (often shortened to Ziggy Stardust) is the fifth studio album by English musician David Bowie, released on 16 June 1972 in the United Kingdom.

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The Sound of Fury (album)

The Sound of Fury was the first album released by Billy Fury in 1960.

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The Wall

The Wall is the eleventh studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd.

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The xx

The xx are an English indie pop band from Wandsworth, London, formed in 2005.

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Theora is a free lossy video compression format.

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Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.

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Tin foil

Tin foil, also spelled tinfoil, is a thin foil made of tin.

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Tony Bennett

Anthony Dominick Benedetto (born August 3, 1926), known professionally as Tony Bennett, is an American singer of traditional pop standards, big band, show tunes, and jazz.

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Transient response

In electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, a transient response is the response of a system to a change from an equilibrium or a steady state.

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The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family.

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Tuning fork

A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually steel).

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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University of San Diego

The University of San Diego (USD) is a private Roman Catholic research university in San Diego, California, United States.

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Unusual types of gramophone records

The overwhelming majority of records manufactured have been of certain sizes (7, 10, or 12 inches), playback speeds (33, 45, or 78 RPM), and appearance (round black discs).

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V-Disc ("V" for Victory) was a record label that was formed in 1943 to provide records for U.S. military personnel.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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Victor Orthophonic Victrola

The Victor Orthophonic Victrola, first demonstrated publicly in 1925, was the first consumer phonograph designed specifically to play electrically recorded phonograph records.

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Victor Talking Machine Company

The Victor Talking Machine Company was an American record company and phonograph manufacturer headquartered in Camden, New Jersey.

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Vinyl emulation software

Vinyl emulation software allows the user to physically manipulate the playback of digital audio files on a computer using the turntables as an interface, thus preserving the hands-on control and feel of DJing with vinyl.

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The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.

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Vitalogy is the third studio album by the American rock band Pearl Jam, released on November 22, 1994, through Epic Records.

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Vitaphone was a sound film system used for feature films and nearly 1,000 short subjects made by Warner Bros. and its sister studio First National from 1926 to 1931.

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John Wanamaker Department Store was the first department store in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and one of the first department stores in the United States.

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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.

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Western Electric

Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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A woofer or bass speaker is a technical term for loudspeaker driver designed to produce low frequency sounds, typically from 40 Hz up to 500 Hz.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wow (recording)

Wow is a relatively slow form of flutter (pitch variation) that can affect gramophone records and tape recorders.

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12-inch single

The 12-inch single (often simply called 12″) is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to typical LPs.

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21 (Adele album)

21 is the second studio album by English singer-songwriter Adele.

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45 rpm adapter

A 45 rpm adapter (also 45 rpm record insert, 45 rpm spindle adapter, or 7 inch adapter, the common size of 45 RPM records) is a small plastic or metal insert that goes in the middle of a 45-rpm record so it can be played on the LP or 78 rpm size spindle of a turntable.

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8-track tape

The 8-track tape (formally Stereo 8; commonly known as the eight-track cartridge, eight-track tape, or simply eight-track) is a magnetic tape sound-recording technology that was popular in the United States from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s, when the Compact Cassette format took over.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonograph_record

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