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Phonological history of English consonant clusters

Index Phonological history of English consonant clusters

The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters. [1]

137 relations: -ing, Acis and Galatea (Handel), Affricate consonant, African-American Vernacular English, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, American English, American National Standards Institute, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Australian English phonology, Bernard Matthews, Bilabial nasal, Birmingham, Brummie, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Caribbean English, Cockney, Comparative, Comparison (grammar), Consonant cluster, County Cork, Creole language, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Diphthong, Doric dialect (Scotland), East Anglia, Elision, English language in England, English phonology, English plurals, English possessive, English verbs, English-language vowel changes before historic /l/, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/, Epenthesis, Estuary English, Field sports, Finns, Flapping, Fort Worth, Texas, Fricative consonant, General American, Generative grammar, Gentry, George Frideric Handel, Germanic languages, Gerund, Glottal stop, ..., Glottalization, Gnu High, Golden Horseshoe, Gotcha, Gullah language, H-dropping, Hard and soft C, Hebrew alphabet, Hiberno-English, Homophone, Hypercorrection, Jamaican English, John C. Wells, John Gay, Jonathan Swift, Kenis, Kenny Wheeler, Labialization, Lewis, Liquid consonant, Liverpool, London, Louis (given name), Luke (name), Manchester, Metathesis (linguistics), Middle English, Minimal pair, Morpheme, Nasal consonant, New England English, New York City, New Zealand English, Newfoundland English, Norfolk dialect, Old English, Orthography, Otto Jespersen, Palatal approximant, Palatalization (sound change), Participle, Philadelphia, Philippine English, Phonological change, Phonological history of English, Phonological history of English consonants, Phonological history of English high back vowels, Phonological history of English high front vowels, Phonology, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Received Pronunciation, Roundedness, Scotland, Scots language, Scottish English, Scouse, Semivowel, Sheffield, Shibboleth, Singapore, Social stigma, Socioeconomics, South African English, Southern American English, Spelling pronunciation, Stoke-on-Trent, Stop consonant, Stress and vowel reduction in English, Suffix, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, The Fens, The Gnu, The Wife of Bath's Tale, Ulster, Ulster Scots dialects, Underlying representation, United States, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Vince, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless palatal fricative, Walter de Gruyter, Welsh English, Wiktionary, Yodh. Expand index (87 more) »

-ing

-ing is a suffix used to make one of the inflected forms of English verbs.

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Acis and Galatea (Handel)

Acis and Galatea (HWV 49) is a musical work by George Frideric Handel with an English text by John Gay.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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African-American Vernacular English

African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), or colloquially Ebonics (a controversial term), is the variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of English natively spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.

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Allophone

In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Australian English phonology

Australian English (AuE) is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians.

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Bernard Matthews

Bernard Trevor Matthews CVO CBE QSM (24 January 1930 – 25 November 2010) was the founder of Bernard Matthews Farms, a company that is best known for producing turkey meat products.

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Bilabial nasal

The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages.

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Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Brummie

Brummie or Brummy is the English dialect of Birmingham, England.

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Cambridge

Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Caribbean English

Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean and Liberia, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana and Suriname on the coast of South America.

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Cockney

The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.

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Comparative

In linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, or degree.

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Comparison (grammar)

Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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County Cork

County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is a county in Ireland.

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Creole language

A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals

The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Doric dialect (Scotland)

Doric, the popular name for Mid Northern Scots or Northeast Scots, refers to the Scots language as spoken in the northeast of Scotland.

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East Anglia

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.

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Elision

In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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English language in England

The English language spoken and written in England encompasses a diverse range of accents and dialects.

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English phonology

Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.

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English plurals

English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.

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English possessive

In English, possessive words or phrases exist for nouns and most pronouns, as well as some noun phrases.

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English verbs

Verbs constitute one of the main word classes in the English language.

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English-language vowel changes before historic /l/

In the history of English phonology, there have been many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers.

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English-language vowel changes before historic /r/

In English, many vowel shifts only affect vowels followed by in rhotic dialects, or vowels that were historically followed by an that has since been elided in non-rhotic dialects.

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Epenthesis

In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).

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Estuary English

Estuary English is an English dialect or accent associated with South East England, especially the area along the River Thames and its estuary, centering around London.

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Field sports

The field sports are outdoor sports, especially hunting, shooting and fishing.

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Finns

Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.

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Flapping

Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).

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Fort Worth, Texas

Fort Worth is the 15th-largest city in the United States and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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General American

General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.

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Generative grammar

Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.

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Gentry

The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.

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George Frideric Handel

George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Gerund

A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Glottalization

Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.

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Gnu High

Gnu High is an LP by Canadian trumpeter Kenny Wheeler featuring Keith Jarrett, Dave Holland and Jack DeJohnette recorded in 1975 and released on the ECM label in 1976.

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Golden Horseshoe

The Golden Horseshoe is a secondary region of Southern Ontario, Canada which lies at the western end of Lake Ontario, with outer boundaries stretching south from Lake Erie and north to Lake Scugog.

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Gotcha

Gotcha (colloquial for "got you") or I gotcha may refer to.

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Gullah language

Gullah, also called Sea Island Creole English and Geechee, is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called "Geechees" within the community), an African-American population living in coastal regions of the American states of South Carolina, Georgia and northeast Florida (including urban Charleston and Savannah).

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H-dropping

H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound",.

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Hard and soft C

In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.

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Hebrew alphabet

The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.

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Hiberno-English

Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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Homophone

A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.

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Hypercorrection

In linguistics or usage, hypercorrection is a non-standard usage that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of grammar or a usage prescription.

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Jamaican English

Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English spoken in Jamaica.

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John C. Wells

John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.

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John Gay

John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club.

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Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

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Kenis

Kenis (كنيس, also Romanized as Kenīs; also known as Kenīs Darreh and Kīnes) is a village in Panjak-e Rastaq Rural District, Kojur District, Nowshahr County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

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Kenny Wheeler

Kenneth Vincent John Wheeler, OC (14 January 1930 – 18 September 2014) was a Canadian composer and trumpet and flugelhorn player, based in the U.K. from the 1950s onwards.

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Labialization

Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.

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Lewis

Lewis (Leòdhas,, also Isle of Lewis) is the northern part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island of the Western Isles or Outer Hebrides archipelago in Scotland.

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Liquid consonant

In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.

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Liverpool

Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis (given name)

Louis is the French form of the Old Frankish given name Chlodowig (Modern German: Ludwig) and one of two English forms, the other being Lewis.

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Luke (name)

Luke is a male given name, and less commonly, a surname.

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Manchester

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Metathesis (linguistics)

Metathesis (from Greek, from "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Minimal pair

In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.

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Morpheme

A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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New England English

New England English collectively refers to the various distinct dialects and varieties of American English originating in the New England area.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New Zealand English

New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.

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Newfoundland English

Newfoundland English is a name for several accents and dialects of Atlantic Canadian English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Norfolk dialect

The Norfolk dialect, also known as Broad Norfolk, is a dialect spoken by those living in the county of Norfolk in England.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Orthography

An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Otto Jespersen

Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.

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Palatal approximant

The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.

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Palatalization (sound change)

In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.

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Participle

A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philippine English

Philippine English is any variety of English (similar and related to English) native to the Philippines, including those used by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos.

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Phonological change

In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.

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Phonological history of English

The phonological history of English describes the changing phonology of the English language over time, starting from its roots in proto-Germanic to diverse changes in different dialects of modern English.

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Phonological history of English consonants

This article describes those aspects of the phonological history of the English language which concern consonants.

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Phonological history of English high back vowels

Most dialects of modern English have two high back vowels: the near-close near-back rounded vowel found in words like foot, and the close back rounded vowel (realized as central in many dialects) found in words like goose.

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Phonological history of English high front vowels

The high and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩

The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.

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Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.

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Roundedness

In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).

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Scottish English

Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.

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Scouse

Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.

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Semivowel

In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.

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Sheffield

Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.

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Shibboleth

A shibboleth is any custom or tradition, particularly a speech pattern, that distinguishes one group of people (an ingroup) from others (outgroups).

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Social stigma

Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.

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Socioeconomics

Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.

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South African English

South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.

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Southern American English

Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.

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Spelling pronunciation

A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.

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Stoke-on-Trent

Stoke-on-Trent (often abbreviated to Stoke) is a city and unitary authority area in Staffordshire, England, with an area of.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress and vowel reduction in English

Stress is a prominent feature of the English language, both at the level of the word (lexical stress) and at the level of the phrase or sentence (prosodic stress).

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Syllabic consonant

A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.

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Syllable

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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The Fens

The Fens, also known as the, are a coastal plain in eastern England.

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The Gnu

"The Gnu" (sometimes known as "A Gnu", "I'm a Gnu" or "The Gnu Song") is a humorous song about a talking gnu by Flanders and Swann.

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The Wife of Bath's Tale

The Wife of Bath's Tale (the Tale of the Wyf of Bathe) is among the best-known of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.

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Ulster

Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Scots dialects

Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.

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Underlying representation

In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Velar nasal

The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Vince

Vince may refer to.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiceless palatal fricative

The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Walter de Gruyter

Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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Welsh English

Welsh English refers to the dialects of English spoken by Welsh people.

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Wiktionary

Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.

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Yodh

Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).

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Redirects here:

-mb, Consonant cluster reduction, Consonant cluster reductions, Consonant-cluster reduction, Do–dew merger, English consonant cluster reductions, English consonant clusters, English consonant-cluster reductions, Final consonant cluster reduction, Final consonant-cluster reduction, Final-consonant-cluster reduction, G dropping, G-dropping, H-cluster reductions, Hew cluster reduction, Hew-cluster reduction, Him-hymn merger, Hj-reduction, Hl-reduction, Hn-reduction, Hole-whole merger, Hole–whole merger, Hr-reduction, Hue cluster reduction, Hue-cluster reduction, Initial-cluster reductions, NG coalescence, NG-coalescence, Ng coalescence, Ng-coalescence, Nome-gnome merger, Nome–gnome merger, Not-knot merger, Not–knot merger, Prince-prints merger, Prince–prints merger, Rap-wrap merger, Rap–wrap merger, Reduction of /hl/, Reduction of /hn/, Reduction of /hr/, S-cluster metathesis, S-cluster reduction, Scream-stream merger, Scream–stream merger, Sent-cent merger, Singer-finger split, Singer–finger split, Str-cluster backing, Wh-cluster reductions, Yew-hew merger, Yew–hew merger, Yod coalescence, Yod coallescence, Yod dropping, Yod rhotacization, Yod-coalescence, Yod-coallescence, Yod-dropping, Yod-rhotacization.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonological_history_of_English_consonant_clusters

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