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Index Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. [1]

99 relations: -logy, Absolute neutralisation, Alan Prince, Allomorph, Allophone, Alternation (linguistics), American Sign Language, Ancient Greek, Antoni Dufriche-Desgenettes, Articulatory gestures, Articulatory phonology, Aspirated consonant, Autosegmental phonology, Bleeding order, Cambridge University Press, Charles Reiss, Cherology, Distinctive feature, E. F. K. Koerner, English phonology, Evolutionary phonology, Feature geometry, Feeding order, Ferdinand de Saussure, First language, Generative grammar, Government phonology, Gunnar Fant, Hindi, Historical linguistics, Intonation (linguistics), Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, John Goldsmith (linguist), John McCarthy (linguist), Jonathan Kaye (linguist), Laboratory phonology, Language, Langue and parole, Leonard Bloomfield, Lev Shcherba, Linguistic description, Linguistics, List of phonologists, Louis Havet, Mark Hale, Meaning (linguistics), Michael Kenstowicz, Mikołaj Kruszewski, Minimal pair, MIT Press, ..., Modality (semiotics), Mora (linguistics), Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Morphophonology, Morris Halle, Neogrammarian, Nikolai Trubetzkoy, Noam Chomsky, Optimality Theory, Parameter, Paul Smolensky, Pāṇini, Perception, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonological development, Phonological hierarchy, Phonological rule, Phonotactics, Prague linguistic circle, Principle, Prosody (linguistics), Psycholinguistics, Quebec French, Quechuan languages, Roman Jakobson, Sanskrit, Second-language phonology, Segment (linguistics), Semantics, Shiva Sutras, Sign language, Société de Linguistique de Paris, Sound, Speech perception, Stress (linguistics), Suprasegmentals, Syllable, Syntax, System, Thai language, The Sound Pattern of English, Theoretical linguistics, Transcription (linguistics), Underlying representation, Vocabulary, Wiley-Blackwell, Wolfgang U. Dressler. Expand index (49 more) »


-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).

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Absolute neutralisation

In phonology, absolute neutralization is a phenomenon in which a segment of the underlying representation of a morpheme is not realized in any of its phonetic representations (surface forms).

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Alan Prince

Alan Sanford Prince (born 1946) is a Board of Governers Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at Rutgers University-New Brunswick.

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In linguistics, an allomorph is a variant form of a morpheme, that is, when a unit of meaning varies in sound without changing the meaning.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alternation (linguistics)

In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.

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American Sign Language

American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Antoni Dufriche-Desgenettes

Antoni Dufriche-Desgenettes (26 February 1804, Paris – 19 December 1878, Saint-Mandé), baptized Antoine Marie Dufriche-Foulaines, was a French seafaring merchant, poet and amateur phonetician.

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Articulatory gestures

Articulatory gestures are the actions necessary to enunciate language.

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Articulatory phonology

Articulatory phonology is a linguistic theory originally proposed in 1986 by Catherine Browman of Haskins Laboratories and Louis M. Goldstein of Yale University and Haskins.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Autosegmental phonology

Autosegmental phonology is a framework of phonological analysis proposed by John Goldsmith in his PhD thesis in 1976 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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Bleeding order

Bleeding order is a term used in phonology to describe specific interactions of phonological rules.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Charles Reiss

Charles Reiss is an American linguistics professor teaching at Concordia University in Montreal.

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Cherology and chereme (from "hand") are synonyms of phonology and phoneme previously used in the study of sign languages.

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Distinctive feature

In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.

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E. F. K. Koerner

Ernst Frideryk Konrad Koerner (born 5 February 1939), usually cited as E. F. K. Koerner, is an author, researcher, professor of linguistics, and historian of linguistics.

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English phonology

Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.

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Evolutionary phonology

Evolutionary Phonology is an approach to phonology and historical linguistics, based on the idea that recurrent synchronic sound patterns, if not inherited from the mother tongue, are the result of recurrent sound changes, while rare patterns are the product of rare changes or a combination of independent changes.

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Feature geometry

Feature geometry is a phonological theory which represents distinctive features as a structured hierarchy rather than a matrix or a set.

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Feeding order

In phonology and historical linguistics, feeding order is a situation in which rule A creates new contexts in which rule B can apply; it would not have been possible for rule B to apply otherwise.

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Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Generative grammar

Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.

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Government phonology

Government phonology (GP) is a theoretical framework of linguistics, and more specifically of phonology.

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Gunnar Fant

Carl Gunnar Michael Fant (October 8, 1919 – June 6, 2009) was professor emeritus at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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Intonation (linguistics)

In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

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Jan Baudouin de Courtenay

Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) was a Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations.

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John Goldsmith (linguist)

John Anton Goldsmith is the Edward Carson Waller Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago, with appointments in linguistics and computer science.

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John McCarthy (linguist)

John McCarthy (born 1953 in Medford, Massachusetts) has been the Acting Provost (education) and Senior Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs at the University of Massachusetts Amherst since July 2017.

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Jonathan Kaye (linguist)

Jonathan Kaye (born 1942) studied linguistics at Columbia University under Uriel Weinreich and Robert Austelitz, earning his Ph.D. in 1970.

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Laboratory phonology

Laboratory phonology is an approach to phonology that emphasizes the synergy between phonological theory and scientific experiments, including laboratory studies of human speech and experiments on the acquisition and productivity of phonological patterns.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Langue and parole

Langue (French, meaning "language") and parole (meaning "speaking") are linguistic terms distinguished by Ferdinand de Saussure in his Course in General Linguistics.

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Leonard Bloomfield

Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 – April 18, 1949) was an American linguist who led the development of structural linguistics in the United States during the 1930s and the 1940s.

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Lev Shcherba

Lev Shcherba (commonly Scherba) (Russian: Лев Влади́мирович Ще́рба, Belarusian: Леў Уладзіміравіч Шчэрба) (– December 26, 1944) was a Russian linguist and lexicographer specializing in phonetics and phonology.

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Linguistic description

In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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List of phonologists

The following is a list of some notable phonologists (scholars in the field of phonology).

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Louis Havet

Pierre Antoine Louis Havet (6 January 1849, Paris – 26 January 1925, Paris) was a French Latinist and Hellenist, an expert on classical Greek and Latin poetry.

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Mark Hale

Mark Hale is an American linguistics professor now teaching at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Meaning (linguistics)

In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.

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Michael Kenstowicz

Michael J. Kestowicz is an American linguist specializing in phonetics and phonology and professor of linguistics at MIT Department of Linguistics and Philosophy.

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Mikołaj Kruszewski

Mikołaj Habdank Kruszewski, (Russianized, Nikolay Vyacheslavovich Krushevsky, Никола́й Вячесла́вович Круше́вский) (December 18, 1851, Lutsk – November 12, 1887, Kazan) was a Polish linguist, most significant as the co-inventor of the concept of phonemes, and relative of Anya Lucia Kruszewski.

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Minimal pair

In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Modality (semiotics)

In semiotics, a modality is a particular way in which information is to be encoded for presentation to humans, i.e. to the type of sign and to the status of reality ascribed to or claimed by a sign, text, or genre.

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Mora (linguistics)

A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

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A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

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Morris Halle

Morris Halle (July 23, 1923 – April 2, 2018) was a Latvian-American linguist who was an Institute Professor, and later professor emeritus, of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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The Neogrammarians (also Young Grammarians; German: Junggrammatiker) were a German school of linguists, originally at the University of Leipzig, in the late 19th century who proposed the Neogrammarian hypothesis of the regularity of sound change.

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Nikolai Trubetzkoy

Prince Nikolai Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy (p; Moscow, April 16, 1890 – Vienna, June 25, 1938) was a Russian linguist and historian whose teachings formed a nucleus of the Prague School of structural linguistics.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Optimality Theory

In linguistics, Optimality Theory (frequently abbreviated OT; the term is normally capitalized by convention) is a linguistic model proposing that the observed forms of language arise from the optimal satisfaction of conflicting constraints.

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A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.

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Paul Smolensky

Paul Smolensky (born May 5, 1955) is a professor of Cognitive Science at the Johns Hopkins University.

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(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Phonological development

Sound is at the beginning of language learning.

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Phonological hierarchy

The phonological hierarchy describes a series of increasingly smaller regions of a phonological utterance, each nested within the next highest region.

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Phonological rule

A phonological rule is a formal way of expressing a systematic phonological or morphophonological process or diachronic sound change in language.

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Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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Prague linguistic circle

The Prague school or Prague linguistic circle was an influential group of linguists, philologists and literary critics in Prague.

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A principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.

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Quebec French

Québec French (français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.

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Quechuan languages

Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.

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Roman Jakobson

Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896Kucera, Henry. 1983. "Roman Jakobson." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 59(4): 871–883. – July 18,, compiled by Stephen Rudy 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Second-language phonology

The phonology of second languages is different from the phonology of first languages in various ways.

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Segment (linguistics)

In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".

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Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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Shiva Sutras

The Shiva Sutras (IAST) or are fourteen verses that organize the phonemes of Sanskrit as referred to in the of, the foundational text of Sanskrit grammar.

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Sign language

Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.

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Société de Linguistique de Paris

The Société de Linguistique de Paris (established 1864) is the editing body of the ''BSL'' (Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique) journal on linguistics, which contains the proceedings of the society's seven yearly discussion sessions.

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In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

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Speech perception

Speech perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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In linguistics, suprasegmentals are contrastive elements of speech that cannot be easily analyzed as distinct segments but rather belong to a syllable or word.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

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Thai language

Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.

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The Sound Pattern of English

The Sound Pattern of English (frequently referred to as SPE) is a 1968 work on phonology (a branch of linguistics) by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle.

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Theoretical linguistics

For|the journal|Theoretical Linguistics (journal) Multiple issues| one source|date.

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Transcription (linguistics)

Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.

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Underlying representation

In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.

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A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Wolfgang U. Dressler

Wolfgang U. Dressler (born 22 December 1939) is a polyglot Austrian professor of linguistics at the University of Vienna.

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Fonology, History of phonology, Phonematics, Phonemics, Phonologic, Phonological, Phonologically, Phonologies, Phonologist, Sound system of a language, Sound systems of languages, Spoken form.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonology

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