166 relations: Activator (phosphor), Alpha particle, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Aluminium phosphate, Amber (color), Anthracene, Argon, Atomic nucleus, Band gap, Beacon, Beam-index tube, Beryllium, Bismuth, Bravais lattice, Cadmium, Cadmium sulfide, Caesium iodide, Calcium fluoride, Calcium phosphate, Calcium silicate, Calcium sulfide, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carrier generation and recombination, Cathode ray tube, Cathodoluminescence, Cerium, Chemical formula, Chemiluminescence, Cobalt, Cobalt(II) oxide, Color temperature, Contamination, Contrast (vision), Copper, Cosmetics, Crystal, Crystallographic defect, Deep-level trap, Diffusion, Diffusion barrier, Dislocation, Dopant, Doping (semiconductor), Electric field, Electroluminescence, Electroluminescent display, Electron hole, ..., Electron transfer, Electronic band structure, Energy gap, Ernest Rutherford, Europium, Exciton, F-center, Ferranti, Field-emission display, Fluorescence, Fluorescent lamp, Fluoride, Flying-spot scanner, Forbidden mechanism, Gadolinium, Gadolinium oxysulfide, Georges Destriau, Germanium dioxide, Glow stick, Halide, Halloween, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Incandescence, Indium gallium nitride, Iron(III) oxide, Journal of Luminescence, Kelvin, Large-screen television technology, Laser, Light, Light-emitting diode, Lithium fluoride, Luminescence, Luminophore, Magnesium, Magnesium fluoride, Magnesium oxide, Manganese, Metal-halide lamp, Metastability, Monochrome monitor, Neon sign, Neutron, Neutron detection, Neutron temperature, Nickel, Nitride, Optical phenomena, Oscilloscope, Oxide, Penetron, Phosphor banded stamp, Phosphor thermometry, Phosphorescence, Phosphorus, Photoluminescence, Photomultiplier, Plan position indicator, Plasma display, Plastic, Postage stamp, Pottery, Radar, Radioactive decay, Radium dials, Rare-earth element, Reactive oxygen species, Redox, Reducing agent, Scheelite, Scintillation (physics), Scintillator, Scotophor, Selenide, Sialon, Silicate, Silicon, Silver, Sodium iodide, Sol–gel process, Spinthariscope, Strobe light, Strontium aluminate, Strontium fluoride, Strontium sulfide, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfur oxide, Suspension (chemistry), Tagging (stamp), Television, Terbium, Thallium, Thin film, Transition metal, Tritium, Tritium radioluminescence, Ultramarine, Ultraviolet, Vacuum fluorescent display, Valence (chemistry), Valence and conduction bands, Watch, Wavelength, Willemite, World War II, X-ray, Yttrium, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Yttrium orthovanadate, Yttrium(III) oxide, Zinc, Zinc oxide, Zinc sulfate, Zinc sulfide. Expand index (116 more) » « Shrink index
In phosphors and scintillators, the activator is the element added as dopant to the crystal of the material to create desired type of nonhomogeneities.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Aluminium phosphate (AlPO4) is a chemical compound.
The color amber is a pure chroma color, located on the color wheel midway between the colors of gold and orange.
Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
A beacon is an intentionally conspicuous device designed to attract attention to a specific location.
The beam-index tube is a color television cathode ray tube (CRT) design, using phosphor stripes and active-feedback timing, rather than phosphor dots and a beam-shadowing mask as developed by RCA.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cadmium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdS.
Caesium iodide or cesium iodide (chemical formula CsI) is the ionic compound of caesium and iodine.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.
Calcium silicate is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and is sometimes formulated as 2CaO·SiO2.
Calcium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula CaS.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
Cathodoluminescence is an optical and electromagnetic phenomenon in which electrons impacting on a luminescent material such as a phosphor, cause the emission of photons which may have wavelengths in the visible spectrum.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Cobalt(II) oxide or cobalt monoxide is an inorganic compound that appears as olive-green to red crystals, or as a greyish or black powder.
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
Deep-level traps or deep-level defects are a generally undesirable type of electronic defect in semiconductors.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
A diffusion barrier is a thin layer (usually micrometres thick) of metal usually placed between two other metals.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field.
Electroluminescent Displays (ELDs) are a type of Flat panel display created by sandwiching a layer of electroluminescent material such as GaAs between two layers of conductors.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
In solid-state physics, an energy gap is an energy range in a solid where no electron states exist, i.e. an energy range where the density of states vanishes.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force.
An F-center, Farbe center or color center (from the original German Farbzentrum; Farbe means color, and zentrum center) is a type of crystallographic defect in which an anionic vacancy in a crystal is filled by one or more unpaired electrons.
Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993.
A field-emission display (FED) is a flat panel display technology that uses large-area field electron emission sources to provide electrons that strike colored phosphor to produce a color image.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
A flying-spot scanner (FSS) uses a scanning source of a spot of light, such as a high-resolution, high-light-output, low-persistence cathode ray tube (CRT), to scan an image.
In spectroscopy, a forbidden mechanism (forbidden transition or forbidden line) is a spectral line associated with absorption or emission of light by atomic nuclei, atoms, or molecules which undergo a transition that is not allowed by a particular selection rule but is allowed if the approximation associated with that rule is not made.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S), also called gadolinium sulfoxylate, GOS or Gadox, is an inorganic compound, a mixed oxide-sulfide of gadolinium.
Georges Destriau (1 August 1903 - 20 January 1960) was a French Physicist and early observer of electroluminescence.
Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2.
A glow stick is a self-contained, short-term light-source.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of All Hallows' Evening), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in a number of countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows' Day.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.
Indium gallium nitride (InGaN, x1−x) is a semiconductor material made of a mix of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN).
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Journal of Luminescence (ISSN 0953-4075) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published monthly.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Large-screen television technology developed rapidly in the late 1990s and 2000s.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Lithium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiF.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
A luminophore is an atom or functional group in a chemical compound that is responsible for its luminescent properties.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula MgF2.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
A monochrome monitor is a type of CRT computer monitor which was very common in the early days of computing, from the 1960s through the 1980s, before color monitors became popular.
In the signage industry, neon signs are electric signs lighted by long luminous gas-discharge tubes that contain rarefied neon or other gases.
Neutron detection is the effective detection of neutrons entering a well-positioned detector.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Optical phenomena are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter.
An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
The penetron, short for penetration tube, is a type of limited-color television used in some military applications.
Phosphor bands were introduced on British stamps from 1959 as a replacement for the previous graphite lined stamps as an aid in the mechanical sorting of mail.
Phosphor thermometry is an optical method for surface temperature measurement.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photoluminescence (abbreviated as PL) is light emission from any form of matter after the absorption of photons (electromagnetic radiation).
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The plan position indicator (PPI), is the most common type of radar display.
A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radium dials are watch, clock and other instrument dials painted with radioluminescent paint containing radium-226.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4.
Scintillation is a flash of light produced in a transparent material by the passage of a particle (an electron, an alpha particle, an ion, or a high-energy photon).
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
A scotophor is a material showing reversible darkening and bleaching when subjected to certain types of radiation.
A selenide is a chemical compound containing a selenium anion with oxidation number of −2 (Se2&minus), much as sulfur does in a sulfide.
SiAlON ceramics are a specialist class of high-temperature refractory materials, with high strength at ambient and high temperatures, good thermal shock resistance and exceptional resistance to wetting or corrosion by molten non-ferrous metals, compared to other refractory materials such as, for example, alumina.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine.
In materials science, the sol–gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules.
A spinthariscope is a device for observing individual nuclear disintegrations caused by the interaction of ionizing radiation with a phosphor (see radioluminescence) or scintillator.
A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light.
Strontium aluminate (SRA, SrAl, 24) is a solid odorless, nonflammable, pale yellow, monoclinic crystalline powder, heavier than water.
Strontium fluoride, SrF2, also called strontium difluoride and strontium(II) fluoride, is a fluoride of strontium.
Strontium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula SrS.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur oxide refers to many types of sulfur and oxygen containing compounds such as SO, SO2, SO3, S7O2, S6O2, S2O2, etc.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Tagging of postage stamps means that the stamps are printed on luminescent paper or with luminescent ink to facilitate automated mail processing.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light.
Ultramarine is a deep blue color and a pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a display device used commonly on consumer electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Willemite is a zinc silicate mineral (Zn2SiO4) and a minor ore of zinc.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.
Yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4) is a transparent crystal.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound and dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat zinc deficiency and to prevent the condition in those at high risk. Side effects of excess supplementation may include abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and tiredness. It has the formula ZnSO4 as well as any of three hydrates. It was historically known as "white vitriol". All of the various forms are colourless solids. The heptahydrate form is commonly encountered.
Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.