84 relations: Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipocyte, Allosteric regulation, Amino acid, Antibody, Arginine, Aspartic acid, Biochemistry, Biological thermodynamics, Biology, BioRxiv, Catabolism, Cell signaling, Chemistry, Chloroplast, Conformational change, Dephosphorylation, Electron-transfer dissociation, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Epidermal growth factor, Ester, Eukaryote, Förster resonance energy transfer, Gibbs free energy, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Glycolysis, GSK-3, Histidine, Lipid, List of sugars, Liver, Lysine, Mass spectrometry, MEDLINE, Microscale thermophoresis, Mitochondrion, Moiety conservation, MTOR, Na+/K+-ATPase, NADPH oxidase, Organic acid anhydride, Osmoregulation, Oxidative phosphorylation, P53, Phagocyte, Phosida, Phosphatase, ..., Phosphoamino acid analysis, Phosphodiester bond, Phosphoprotein, Phosphoproteomics, Phosphoramidate, Phosphoryl group, Photophosphorylation, Post-translational modification, Prokaryote, Proteasome, Protein, Protein domain, Protein dynamics, Protein kinase, Protein kinase B, Protein phosphorylation, Protein–protein interaction, Proteome, Proteomics, Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, Receptor (biochemistry), RegPhos, Retina, Serine, Signal transduction, Skeletal muscle, Substrate-level phosphorylation, Sugar, Tandem mass spectrometry, Threonine, Two-component regulatory system, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Tyrosine, Ubiquitin. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biological thermodynamics is the quantitative study of the energy transductions that occur in or between living organisms, structures, and cells and of the nature and function of the chemical processes underlying these transductions.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
bioRxiv (pronounced "bio-archive") is an open access preprint repository for the biological sciences co-founded by John Inglis and Richard Sever in November 2013.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
Dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO43−) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis.
Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is a method of fragmenting multiply-charged gaseous macromolecules in a mass spectrometer between the stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores).
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine and threonine amino acid residues.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
This is a list of sugars and sugar products.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information.
Microscale thermophoresis (MST) is a technology for the interaction analysis of biomolecules.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Moiety conservation is the conservation of a subgroup in a chemical species, which is cyclically transferred from one molecule to another.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin and FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1), is a kinase that in humans is encoded by the MTOR gene.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
The NADPH oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) is a membrane-bound enzyme complex that faces the extracellular space.
An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
The '''PHO'''sphorylation SIte DAtabase PHOSIDA integrates thousands of high-confidence in vivo phosphosites identified in various species on the basis of mass spectrometry technology.
A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.
Phosphoamino acid analysis, or PAA, is an experimental technique used in molecular biology to determine which amino acid or acids are phosphorylated in a protein.
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.
A phosphoprotein is a protein that is posttranslationally modified by the attachment of either a single phosphate group, or a complex molecule such as 5'-phospho-DNA, through a phosphate group.
Phosphoproteomics is a branch of proteomics that identifies, catalogs, and characterizes proteins containing a phosphate group as a post-translational modification.
Phosphoramidates (sometimes also called amidophosphates) are a class of phosphorus compounds structurally related to phosphates (or organophosphates) via the substitution of an OR for a NR2.
A phosphoryl group is the chemical entity PO32−.
In the process of photosynthesis, the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP using the energy of sunlight is called photophosphorylation.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.
Proteins are generally thought to adopt unique structures determined by their amino acid sequences, as outlined by Anfinsen's dogma.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.
Protein phosphorylation is a post-translational modification of proteins in which an amino acid residue is phosphorylated by a protein kinase by the addition of a covalently bound phosphate group.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src or simply c-Src, is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
KinasePhos is a database describing some phosphorylation networks associated with the information of subcellular localization.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Substrate-level phosphorylation is a metabolic reaction that results in the formation of ATP or GTP by the direct transfer of a phosphoryl (PO3) group to ADP or GDP from another phosphorylated compound.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Tandem mass spectrometry, also known as MS/MS or MS2, involves multiple steps of mass spectrometry selection, with some form of fragmentation occurring in between the stages.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In the field of molecular biology, a two-component regulatory system serves as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, abbreviated as 2-DE or 2-D electrophoresis, is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to analyze proteins.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.