104 relations: Absorbance, Active pixel sensor, Ampere, Anode, Astronomy, Avalanche breakdown, Avalanche photodiode, Band gap, Biasing, Bipolar junction transistor, Bit error rate, Calibration, Camera, Capacitance, Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), Cathode, Charge-coupled device, Compact disc, Consumer electronics, Coupling (electronics), CT scan, Dark current (physics), Depletion region, Diode, Electric current, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron, Electron hole, Electronics, Elementary charge, Energy harvesting, Galvanic isolation, Germanium, Hertz, Illuminance, Image sensor, Immunoassay, Impulse response, Indium gallium arsenide, Infrared, Integral, Interconnect bottleneck, Irradiance, John N. Shive, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Laser rangefinder, Lead(II) sulfide, LED circuit, Light, Light meter, ..., Light-emitting diode, List of semiconductor materials, Mercury cadmium telluride, Night vision device, Noise (electronics), Noise-equivalent power, Optical communication, Optical fiber, Optical fiber cable, Optical filter, Optical interconnect, Opto-isolator, Optoelectronics, Parallel optical interface, Passivity (engineering), P–n junction, Photoconductivity, Photocurrent, Photodetector, Photoelectric effect, Photomultiplier, Photon, Photovoltaic effect, PIN diode, Position sensor, Pulse oximetry, Quantum efficiency, Radiation hardening, RC time constant, Remote control, Response time (technology), Responsivity, Scintillator, Semiconductor, Semiconductor device, Sensitivity (electronics), Sensor, Shockley–Ramo theorem, Silicon, Slotted optical switch, Smoke detector, Solar cell, Solar power, Solaristor, Specific detectivity, Spectroscopy, Television set, Thunderbolt (interface), Transducer, Transimpedance amplifier, Ultraviolet, Watt, Wavelength, X-ray. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
An active-pixel sensor (APS) is an image sensor where each picture element ("pixel") has a photodetector and an active amplifier.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials.
An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
Biasing in electronics means establishing predetermined voltages or currents at various points of an electronic circuit for the purpose of establishing proper operating conditions in electronic components.
In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
The Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2) is a foundation located on the campus of the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) whose mission is to promote interdisciplinary research in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
In electronics and telecommunication, coupling is the desirable or undesirable transfer of energy from one medium, such as a metallic wire or an optical fiber, to another medium.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
In physics and in electronic engineering, dark current is the relatively small electric current that flows through photosensitive devices such as a photomultiplier tube, photodiode, or charge-coupled device even when no photons are entering the device; it consists of the charges generated in the detector when no outside radiation is entering the detector.
In semiconductor physics, the depletion region, also called depletion layer, depletion zone, junction region, space charge region or space charge layer, is an insulating region within a conductive, doped semiconductor material where the mobile charge carriers have been diffused away, or have been forced away by an electric field.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging or ambient power) is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.g., solar power, thermal energy, wind energy, salinity gradients, and kinetic energy, also known as ambient energy), captured, and stored for small, wireless autonomous devices, like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks.
Galvanic isolation is a principle of isolating functional sections of electrical systems to prevent current flow; no direct conduction path is permitted.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area.
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).
In signal processing, the impulse response, or impulse response function (IRF), of a dynamic system is its output when presented with a brief input signal, called an impulse.
Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) (alternatively gallium indium arsenide, GaInAs) is a ternary alloy (chemical compound) of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
The interconnect bottleneck refers to limits on integrated circuit (IC) performance due to connections between components instead of their internal speed.
In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.
John Northrup Shive (February 22, 1913 – June 1, 1984) was an American physicist and inventor.
Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.
A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.
Lead(II) sulfide (also spelled sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the formula PbS.
In electronics, an LED circuit or LED driver is an electrical circuit used to power a light-emitting diode (LED).
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Semiconductor materials are nominally small band gap insulators.
HgCdTe or mercury cadmium telluride (also cadmium mercury telluride, MCT, MerCad Telluride, MerCadTel, MerCaT or CMT) is an alloy of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and mercury telluride (HgTe) with a tunable bandgap spanning the shortwave infrared to the very long wave infrared regions.
A night vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD) and night vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness.
In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.
Noise-equivalent power (NEP) is a measure of the sensitivity of a photodetector or detector system.
Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
An optical fiber cable, also known as a fiber optic cable, is an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light.
An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings.
Optical interconnect is a means of communication by optical fiber cables.
In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.
A parallel optical interface is a form of fiber optic technology aimed primarily at communications and networking over relatively short distances (less than 300 meters), and at high bandwidths.
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, or gamma radiation.
Photocurrent is the electric current through a photosensitive device, such as a photodiode, as the result of exposure to radiant power.
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
The photovoltaic effect is the creation of voltage and electric current in a material upon exposure to light and is a physical and chemical property/phenomenon.
A PIN diode is a diode with a wide, undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region.
A position sensor is any device that permits position measurement.
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).
The term quantum efficiency (QE) may apply to incident photon to converted electron (IPCE) ratio, of a photosensitive device or it may refer to the TMR effect of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction.
Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.
The RC time constant, also called tau, the time constant (in seconds) of an RC circuit, is equal to the product of the circuit resistance (in ohms) and the circuit capacitance (in farads), i.e. It is the time required to charge the capacitor, through the resistor, from an initial charge voltage of zero to ≈63.2 percent of the value of an applied DC voltage, or to discharge the capacitor through the same resistor to ≈36.8 percent of its initial charge voltage.
In electronics, a remote control or clicker is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly.
In technology, response time is the time a system or functional unit takes to react to a given input.
Responsivity measures the input–output gain of a detector system.
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
The sensitivity of an electronic device, such as a communications system receiver, or detection device, such as a PIN diode, is the minimum magnitude of input signal required to produce a specified output signal having a specified signal-to-noise ratio, or other specified criteria.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
The Shockley–Ramo theorem allows one to easily calculate the instantaneous electric current induced by a charge moving in the vicinity of an electrode.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
The slotted optical switch, sometimes known as opto switch or optical switch but not to be confused with the optical component, is a device comprising a photoemitter (e.g. LED) and a photodetector (e.g. photodiode) mounted in a single package so that the photoemitter normally illuminates the photodetector, but an opaque object can be inserted in a slot between them so as to break the beam.
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
A solaristor (from SOLAR cell transISTOR) is a compact two terminal self-powered phototransistor.
Specific detectivity, or D*, for a photodetector is a figure of merit used to characterize performance, equal to the reciprocal of noise-equivalent power (NEP), normalized per square root of the sensor's area and frequency bandwidth (reciprocal of twice the integration time).
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.
Thunderbolt is the brand name of a hardware interface standard developed by Intel (in collaboration with Apple) that allows the connection of external peripherals to a computer.
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
In electronics, a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is a current-to-voltage converter, most often implemented using an operational amplifier.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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