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Photoelectric effect

Index Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material. [1]

142 relations: Addison-Wesley, Albert Einstein, Aleksandr Stoletov, Alkali metal, Alloy, Annalen der Physik, Annus Mirabilis papers, Anomalous photovoltaic effect, Applet, Arc lamp, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Atom, Atomic number, Auger effect, Augusto Righi, Band gap, Black-body radiation, Cadmium, Carbon, Cathode ray, Chemical element, Chemistry, Classical electromagnetism, Color, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Compton scattering, Copper, Dember effect, Dover Publications, Edmond Becquerel, Electric current, Electric field, Electric spark, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrolytic cell, Electron, Electron affinity, Electronics, Electronvolt, Electroscope, Electrostatic levitation, Energy, Extreme ultraviolet, Frequency, Gamma ray, Geissler tube, Heidelberg, Heinrich Hertz, Hertz, ..., Image dissector, Image intensifier, Infinite divisibility, Intensity (physics), Iron, J. J. Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, Java (programming language), Kinetic energy, Lead, Light, Lithium, Magnesium, Max Planck, McGraw-Hill Education, Membrane potential, Mercury (element), Microchannel plate detector, Molecule, Monochrome, Moon, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Physics, Oil drop experiment, Pair production, Path integral formulation, Philipp Lenard, Philo Farnsworth, Phonon, Phosphor, Photo–Dember effect, Photocathode, Photochemistry, Photoconductivity, Photocurrent, Photoelectrochemical cell, Photoemission spectroscopy, Photomagnetic effect, Photon, Photon energy, Photoresistor, Photovoltaic effect, Photovoltaics, Physical Review, Physics, Physics Letters, Planck constant, Planck's law, Planck–Einstein relation, Plasma oscillation, Platinum, Polarization (waves), Potassium, Probability, Quantum, Quantum chemistry, Quantum mechanics, Quartz, Radiation, Robert Andrews Millikan, Rubidium, Saunders, Secondary emission, Selection rule, Selenium, Semiconductor, Sodium, Solar cell, Spacecraft, Spark gap, Springer Science+Business Media, Static electricity, Stoletov's law, Surface states, Surveyor program, Synchrotron radiation, Taylor & Francis, Television, Thallium, Tight binding, Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics, Ultraviolet, University Physics, Video camera tube, Voltage, Wave, Wave–particle duality, Wilhelm Hallwachs, Willoughby Smith, Work function, X-ray, Zinc. Expand index (92 more) »


Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Aleksandr Stoletov

Alexander Grigorievich Stoletov (Алекса́ндр Григо́рьевич Столе́тов; 10 August 1839 – 27 May 1896) was a Russian physicist, founder of electrical engineering, and professor in Moscow University.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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Annus Mirabilis papers

The Annus mirabilis papers (from Latin annus mīrābilis, "extraordinary year") are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905.

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Anomalous photovoltaic effect

The anomalous photovoltaic effect (APE), also called (in certain cases) the bulk photovoltaic effect is a type of a photovoltaic effect which occurs in certain semiconductors and insulators.

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In computing, an applet is any small application that performs one specific task that runs within the scope of a dedicated widget engine or a larger program, often as a plug-in.

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Arc lamp

An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).

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Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology is a history of science by Isaac Asimov, written as the biographies of over 1500 scientists.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Auger effect

The Auger effect is a physical phenomenon in which the filling of an inner-shell vacancy of an atom is accompanied by the emission of an electron from the same atom.

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Augusto Righi

Augusto Righi (27 August 1850 – 8 June 1920) was an Italian physicist and a pioneer in the study of electromagnetism.

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Band gap

In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.

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Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Cathode ray

Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Classical electromagnetism

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

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Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.

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Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences

Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.

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Compton scattering

Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Dember effect

In physics, the Dember effect is when the electron current from a cathode (I_3) subjected to both illumination and a simultaneous electron bombardment is greater than the sum of the photoelectric current (I_1) and the secondary emission current (I_2).

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Edmond Becquerel

Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (24 March 1820 – 11 May 1891), known as Edmond Becquerel, was a French physicist who studied the solar spectrum, magnetism, electricity and optics.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electric spark

An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.

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Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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Electrolytic cell

An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that drives a non-spontaneous redox reaction through the application of electrical energy.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron affinity

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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An electroscope is an early scientific instrument that is used to detect the presence and magnitude of electric charge on a body.

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Electrostatic levitation

Electrostatic levitation is the process of using an electric field to levitate a charged object and counteract the effects of gravity.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Extreme ultraviolet

Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) or high-energy ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum spanning wavelengths from 124 nm down to 10 nm, and therefore (by the Planck–Einstein equation) having photons with energies from 10 eV up to 124 eV (corresponding to 124 nm to 10 nm respectively).

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Geissler tube

A Geissler tube is an early gas discharge tube used to demonstrate the principles of electrical glow discharge, similar to modern neon lighting.

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Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.

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Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Image dissector

An image dissector, also called a dissector tube, is a video camera tube in which photocathode emissions create an "electron image" which is then scanned to produce an electrical signal representing the visual image.

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Image intensifier

An image intensifier or image intensifier tube is a vacuum tube device for increasing the intensity of available light in an optical system to allow use under low-light conditions, such as at night, to facilitate visual imaging of low-light processes, such as fluorescence of materials in X-rays or gamma rays (X-ray image intensifier), or for conversion of non-visible light sources, such as near-infrared or short wave infrared to visible.

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Infinite divisibility

Infinite divisibility arises in different ways in philosophy, physics, economics, order theory (a branch of mathematics), and probability theory (also a branch of mathematics).

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Intensity (physics)

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.

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James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Microchannel plate detector

A micro-channel plate (MCP) is a planar component used for detection of single particles (electrons, ions and neutrons) and low intensity impinging radiation (ultraviolet radiation and X-rays).

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Oil drop experiment

The oil drop experiment was performed by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher in 1909 to measure the elementary electric charge (the charge of the electron).

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Pair production

Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.

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Path integral formulation

The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a description of quantum theory that generalizes the action principle of classical mechanics.

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Philipp Lenard

Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (7 June 1862 – 20 May 1947) was a German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties.

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Philo Farnsworth

Philo Taylor Farnsworth (August 19, 1906 – March 11, 1971) was an American inventor and television pioneer.

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In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.

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A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

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Photo–Dember effect

In semiconductor physics, the photo–Dember effect (named after its discoverer Harry Dember) is the formation of a charge dipole in the vicinity of a semiconductor surface after ultra-fast photo-generation of charge carriers.

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A photocathode is a negatively charged electrode in a light detection device such as a photomultiplier or phototube that is coated with a photosensitive compound.

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Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.

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Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, or gamma radiation.

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Photocurrent is the electric current through a photosensitive device, such as a photodiode, as the result of exposure to radiant power.

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Photoelectrochemical cell

Photoelectrochemical cells or PECs are solar cells that produce electrical energy or hydrogen in a process similar to the electrolysis of water.

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Photoemission spectroscopy

Photoemission spectroscopy (PES), also known as photoelectron spectroscopy, refers to energy measurement of electrons emitted from solids, gases or liquids by the photoelectric effect, in order to determine the binding energies of electrons in a substance.

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Photomagnetic effect

The magnetic effect is a theoretical quantum mechanical effect discovered by the researchers Samuel L. Oliveira and Stephen C. Rand at University of Michigan 2007–2011.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Photon energy

Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.

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A photoresistor (or light-dependent resistor, LDR, or photo-conductive cell) is a light-controlled variable resistor.

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Photovoltaic effect

The photovoltaic effect is the creation of voltage and electric current in a material upon exposure to light and is a physical and chemical property/phenomenon.

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Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

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Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physics Letters

Physics Letters was a scientific journal published from 1962 to 1966, when it split in two series now published by Elsevier.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Planck's law

Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.

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Planck–Einstein relation

The Planck–Einstein relationFrench & Taylor (1978), pp.

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Plasma oscillation

Plasma oscillations, also known as Langmuir waves (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals in the ultraviolet region.

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Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

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Quantum chemistry

Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Robert Andrews Millikan

Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

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Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

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Saunders is a surname of English and Scottish patronymic origin derived from Sander, a mediaeval form of Alexander.

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Secondary emission

Secondary emission in physics is a phenomenon where primary incident particles of sufficient energy, when hitting a surface or passing through some material, induce the emission of secondary particles.

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Selection rule

In physics and chemistry, a selection rule, or transition rule, formally constrains the possible transitions of a system from one quantum state to another.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Solar cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Spark gap

A spark gap consists of an arrangement of two conducting electrodes separated by a gap usually filled with a gas such as air, designed to allow an electric spark to pass between the conductors.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Static electricity

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.

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Stoletov's law

Stoletov's law (or the first law of photoeffect) for photoelectric effect establishes the direct proportionality between the intensity of electromagnetic radiation acting on a metallic surface and the photocurrent induced by this radiation.

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Surface states

Surface states are electronic states found at the surface of materials.

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Surveyor program

The Surveyor program was a NASA program that, from June 1966 through January 1968, sent seven robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon.

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Synchrotron radiation

Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

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Tight binding

In solid-state physics, the tight-binding model (or TB model) is an approach to the calculation of electronic band structure using an approximate set of wave functions based upon superposition of wave functions for isolated atoms located at each atomic site.

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Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics

A timeline of atomic and subatomic physics.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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University Physics

University Physics is the name of a two-volume physics textbook written by Hugh Young and Roger Freedman.

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Video camera tube

The video camera tube was a type of cathode ray tube used to capture the television image prior to the introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in the 1980s.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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Wilhelm Hallwachs

Wilhelm Ludwig Franz Hallwachs (9 July 1859 – 20 June 1922) was a German physicist.

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Willoughby Smith

Willoughby Smith (6 April 1828, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk – 17 July 1891, Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English electrical engineer who discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium.

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Work function

In solid-state physics, the work setting (sometimes spelled workfunction) is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoelectric_effect

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