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Index Photolithography

Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. [1]

93 relations: Alvéole Lab, Anisotropy, Argon fluoride laser, ASML Holding, Bis(trimethylsilyl)amine, Bitumen of Judea, Britney Spears' Guide to Semiconductor Physics, Chemical engineering, Chemical milling, Chemical-mechanical planarization, Chemistry of photolithography, Chromium, CMOS, Common Era, Computational lithography, Contamination, Cymer, Depth of focus, Diazonaphthoquinone, Diffraction-limited system, Dip-pen nanolithography, Electron-beam lithography, Etching, Excimer laser, Extreme ultraviolet lithography, Free-electron laser, Fused quartz, Gas, Gas-discharge lamp, Geometry, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Hydrogen peroxide, Immersion lithography, Industrial robot, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, Ion beam lithography, Ion implantation, Krypton difluoride, Light, Liquid, Lithography, Magnetolithography, Maskless lithography, Mercury (element), Microelectromechanical systems, Microfabrication, Moore's law, MOSFET, Multiple patterning, ..., N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, Nanochannel glass materials, Nanoimprint lithography, Nanometre, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nicéphore Niépce, Noble gas, Numerical aperture, Oxygen, Photographic developer, Photography, Photomask, Photoresist, Photosensitivity, Plasma (physics), Plasma ashing, Plasma etching, Printed circuit board, Printed electronics, Proximity fuze, RCA clean, Refractive index, Resist, Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor fabrication plant, Silicon dioxide, Sodium, Sodium hydroxide, Soft lithography, Spectral line, Spin coating, Standing wave, Stereolithography, Substrate (electronics), Tetramethylammonium hydroxide, Ultraviolet, United States Army Research Laboratory, Very-large-scale integration, Wafer (electronics), Wave interference, Wavelength, X-ray lithography, Xenon. Expand index (43 more) »

Alvéole Lab

Alvéole is a French company based in Paris and founded in 2010 by Quattrocento, a business accelerator company in the life science field, in collaboration with researchers from the French National Center for Scientific Research with expertise in bioengineering and cell imaging.

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Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

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Argon fluoride laser

The argon fluoride laser (ArF laser) is a particular type of excimer laser, which is sometimes (more correctly) called an exciplex laser.

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ASML Holding

ASML is a Dutch company and currently the largest supplier in the world of photolithography systems for the semiconductor industry.

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Bis(trimethylsilyl)amine (also known as hexamethyldisilazane, or HMDS) is an organosilicon compound with the molecular formula 2NH.

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Bitumen of Judea

Bitumen of Judea, or Syrian asphalt, is a naturally occurring asphalt that has been put to many uses since ancient times.

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Britney Spears' Guide to Semiconductor Physics

The Britney Spears' Guide to Semiconductor Physics is an informative but tongue-in-cheek website designed to be instructive in semiconductor physics.

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Chemical engineering

Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.

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Chemical milling

Chemical milling or industrial etching is the subtractive manufacturing process of using baths of temperature-regulated etching chemicals to remove material to create an object with the desired shape.

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Chemical-mechanical planarization

Chemical mechanical polishing/planarization is a process of smoothing surfaces with the combination of chemical and mechanical forces.

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Chemistry of photolithography

Photolithography is a process in removing select portions of thin films used in microfabrication.

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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Computational lithography

Computational lithography (also known as computational scaling) is the set of mathematical and algorithmic approaches designed to improve the resolution attainable through photolithography.

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Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

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Cymer, LLC., an ASML Holding company, is an American company headquartered in San Diego, California. Cymer is the largest supplier of deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources used by chipmakers to pattern advanced semiconductor chips or integrated circuits. Cymer is currently developing next-generation laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources. As of October 2012, it was announced that Cymer would be acquired by Dutch semiconductor equipment manufacturer ASML. The acquisition closed in May 2013.

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Depth of focus

Depth of focus is a lens optics concept that measures the tolerance of placement of the image plane (the film plane in a camera) in relation to the lens.

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Diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) is a diazo derivative of naphthoquinone.

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Diffraction-limited system

The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.

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Dip-pen nanolithography

Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) is a scanning probe lithography technique where an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is used to create patterns directly on a range of substances with a variety of inks.

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Electron-beam lithography

Electron-beam lithography (often abbreviated as e-beam lithography) is the practice of scanning a focused beam of electrons to draw custom shapes on a surface covered with an electron-sensitive film called a resist (exposing).

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Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.

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Excimer laser

An excimer laser, sometimes more correctly called an exciplex laser, is a form of ultraviolet laser which is commonly used in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor based integrated circuits or "chips", eye surgery, and micromachining.

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Extreme ultraviolet lithography

Extreme ultraviolet lithography (also known as EUV or EUVL) is a next-generation lithography technology using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength, currently expected to be 13.5 nm.

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Free-electron laser

A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.

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Fused quartz

Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas-discharge lamp

Gas-discharge lamps are a family of artificial light sources that generate light by sending an electric discharge through an ionized gas, a plasma.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Harry Diamond Laboratories

The Harry Diamond Laboratories (HDL) was a research facility of the Ordnance Development Division of the National Bureau of Standards and later the US Army, most notable for its work on proximity fuzes in World War II.

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Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.

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Immersion lithography

Immersion lithography is a photolithography resolution enhancement technique for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs) that replaces the usual air gap between the final lens and the wafer surface with a liquid medium that has a refractive index greater than one.

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Industrial robot

An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Ion beam lithography

Ion-beam lithography is the practice of scanning a focused beam of ions in a patterned fashion across a surface in order to create very small structures such as integrated circuits or other nanostructures.

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Ion implantation

Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.

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Krypton difluoride

Krypton difluoride, KrF2 is a chemical compound of krypton and fluorine.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.

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Magnetolithography (ML) is a method for pattern surfaces.

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Maskless lithography

In maskless lithography, the radiation that is used to expose a photosensitive emulsion (or photoresist) is not projected from, or transmitted through, a photomask.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Microelectromechanical systems

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.

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Microfabrication is the process of fabricating miniature structures of micrometre scales and smaller.

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Moore's law

Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.

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MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.

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Multiple patterning

Multiple patterning (or multi-patterning) is a class of technologies for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs), developed for photolithography to enhance the feature density.

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N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is an organic compound consisting of a 5-membered lactam.

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Nanochannel glass materials

Nanochannel glass materials are an experimental mask technology that is an alternate method for fabricating nanostructures, although optical lithography is the predominant patterning technique.

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Nanoimprint lithography

Nanoimprint lithography is a method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Nicéphore Niépce

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833) was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.

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Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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Numerical aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Photographic developer

In the processing of photographic films, plates or papers, the photographic developer (or just developer) is one or more chemicals that convert the latent image to a visible image.

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Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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A photomask is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern.

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A photoresist is a light-sensitive material used in several processes, such as photolithography and photoengraving, to form a patterned coating on a surface.

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Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Plasma ashing

In semiconductor manufacturing plasma ashing is the process of removing the photoresist (light sensitive coating) from an etched wafer.

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Plasma etching

Plasma etching is a form of plasma processing used to fabricate integrated circuits.

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Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

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Printed electronics

Printed electronics is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates.

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Proximity fuze

A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.

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RCA clean

The RCA clean is a standard set of wafer cleaning steps which need to be performed before high-temperature processing steps (oxidation, diffusion, CVD) of silicon wafers in semiconductor manufacturing.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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A resist, used in many areas of manufacturing and art, is something that is added to parts of an object to create a pattern by protecting these parts from being affected by a subsequent stage in the process.

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Semiconductor device fabrication

Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.

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Semiconductor fabrication plant

In the microelectronics industry a semiconductor fabrication plant (commonly called a fab; sometimes foundry) is a factory where devices such as integrated circuits are manufactured.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Soft lithography

In technology, soft lithography is a family of techniques for fabricating or replicating structures using "elastomeric stamps, molds, and conformable photomasks".

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spin coating

Spin coating is a procedure used to deposit uniform thin films to flat substrates.

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Standing wave

In physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space.

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Stereolithography (SLA or SL; also known as stereolithography apparatus, optical fabrication, photo-solidification, or resin printing) is a form of 3D printing technology used for creating models, prototypes, patterns, and production of parts in a layer by layer fashion using photopolymerization, a process by which light causes chains of molecules to link, forming polymers.

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Substrate (electronics)

A substrate (also called a wafer) is a solid (usually planar) substance onto which a layer of another substance is applied, and to which that second substance adheres.

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Tetramethylammonium hydroxide

Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH or TMAOH) is a quaternary ammonium salt with the molecular formula N(CH3)4+ OH−.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United States Army Research Laboratory

The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is the U.S. Army's corporate research laboratory.

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Very-large-scale integration

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.

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Wafer (electronics)

A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.

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Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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X-ray lithography

X-ray lithography, is a process used in electronic industry to selectively remove parts of a thin film.

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Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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Optical Lithography, Optical lithography, Photo etching, Photo-lithography, Photoetching, Photolithograph, Photolithographic, Photolitography, Projection Optical Lithography.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photolithography

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