34 relations: Bacteriorhodopsin, Bilin (biochemistry), Biological membrane, Biological pigment, Carotenoid, Chlorophyll, Chloroplast, Chromophore, Chromoprotein, Cone cell, Conformational isomerism, Cryptochrome, Flavin group, Light-dependent reactions, Melanopsin, Moiety (chemistry), Opsin, Photodissociation, Photopsin, Photoreceptor cell, Photoreceptor protein, Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic pigment, Photosystem, Phycobilin, Phytochrome, Redox, Retina, Retinal, Rhodopsin, Rod cell, Signal transduction, Thylakoid, Visual perception.
Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Halobacteria, a class of the Euryarchaeota.
Bilins, bilanes or bile pigments are biological pigments formed in many organisms as a metabolic product of certain porphyrins.
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
A chromophore is the part of a molecule responsible for its color.
A chromoprotein is a conjugated protein that contains a pigmented prosthetic group (or cofactor).
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light.
Flavin (from Latin flavus, "yellow") is the common name for a group of organic compounds based on pteridine, formed by the tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine.
In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A photosynthetic pigment (accessory pigment; chloroplast pigment; antenna pigment) is a pigment that is present in chloroplasts or photosynthetic bacteria and captures the light energy necessary for photosynthesis.
Photosystems are functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons.
Phycobilins (from Greek: φύκος (phykos) meaning "alga", and from Latin: bilis meaning "bile") are light-capturing bilins found in cyanobacteria and in the chloroplasts of red algae, glaucophytes and some cryptomonads (though not in green algae and plants).
Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.